Ptolemaeus of Commagene
Ptolemaeus (Armenian: Պտողեմեոս; Greek: Πτολεμαῖος) was a man of Armenian descent who lived between the 3rd century BC and 2nd century BC, and became the first King of Commagene. He was of Orontid Armenian descent, being related to the king of Sophene Arsames I. His father was King Orontes IV of Armenia, son of Arsames I.
Ptolemy was the last Satrap (Governor) of the state of Commagene, a province in the Seleucid Empire. He served under the Syrian Greek Kings Antiochus III the Great, Seleucus IV Philopator, Antiochus IV Epiphanes and Antiochus V Eupator.
Ptolemy served as a Satrap of Commagene between 201–163 BC. When the Seleucid Empire began to disintegrate in 163 BC, Ptolemy decided to revolt and make Commagene an independent kingdom. Ptolemy also declared Samosata, which was the capital of Commagene, under Seleucid rule as the capital of the new kingdom.
Ptolemy was in fact a relative to the King Mithridates I of Parthia and related to the Parthian King dynasty. According to fragments of inscribed reliefs found at Mount Nemrut, archaeologists have discovered that Ptolemy was a descendant of Persian King Darius I of Persia. Ptolemy died in 130 BC and his wife is unknown. His son and successor was Sames II Theosebes Dikaios.
- Chahin, Mark (2001). The Kingdom of Armenia. Routlege. pp. 190–191. ISBN 0-7007-1452-9.