Serbs of Croatia

Serbs of Croatia
Srbi u Hrvatskoj
Срби у Хрватској

Total population
~ 369,000
Regions with significant populations
 Croatia 186,633 (2011)[1]
 Serbia and
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
(and some other countries):

Serbo-Croatian (Croatian and Serbian)
Serbian Orthodox Church

The Serbs of Croatia (Serbian: Срби у Хрватској / Srbi u Hrvatskoj) or Croatian Serbs (Serbian: Хрватски Срби / Hrvatski Srbi) constitute the largest national minority in Croatia. There has been a substantial Serb population in Croatia since the Middle Ages, although the population has been declining.


Traditional elements of identity are the Orthodox faith, Cyrillic script and military history, while modern elements are language and literature, civic, social and political values, concern for ethnic status and national organisation, and celebration of the Liberation of Yugoslavia.[3]

According to the 2011 census there were 186,633 ethnic Serbs living in Croatia, 4.4% of the total population. Their number was reduced by more than two thirds in the aftermath of the 1991–95 War in Croatia as the 1991 pre-war census had reported 581,663 Serbs living in Croatia, 12.2% of the total population.


Middle Ages

According to De Administrando Imperio (960s), the Serbs settled in parts of modern-day Croatia during the rule of Heraclius (610–626) and soon formed a Serbian state which stretched across parts of modern-day Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia. The lands of Pagania, Zachumlia and Travunia (which encompassed Dalmatia, roughly south of modern Split) were inhabited by Serbs.[4] According to the Royal Frankish Annals (821–822), Duke of Pannonia Ljudevit Posavski fled, during the Frankish invasion, from his seat in Sisak to the Serbs in western Bosnia, who controlled a great part of Dalmatia ("Sorabos, quae natio magnam Dalmatiae partem obtinere dicitur").[5][6] The event would have taken place during the rule of either Radoslav or his son, Prosigoj.[7] In the 880s, the Serb Prince Mutimir exiled his two brothers due to treachery, but kept his nephew Petar at the court. Petar later fled to the Croatian principality.[8] When Mutimir's son Pribislav had ruled for a year, Petar returned and defeated him, making him flee with his brothers Bran and Stefan to Croatia.[8] In 894 Bran returned but was defeated and blinded.[9] Pavle, the son of Bran, later returned and defeated Pavle with Bulgarian aid.[9]

Krka monastery, one of the oldest Serbian Orthodox monastery in Croatia

King Mihailo I (1050–1081) built the St. Michael's Church in Ston, which has a fresco depicting him.[10]

Beloš Vukanović, a member of the Serb Vukanović dynasty, was given the title of Ban of Croatia by the Kingdom of Hungary and ruled 1142-1158 and briefly in 1163.[11]

In 1222, the King of Serbia Stefan Prvovenčani gifted Mljet, Babino Polje, the Saint Vid church on Korčula, Janin and Popova Luka and churches of St. Stephen and St. George, to a Benedictine monastery on Mljet.[12]

The first Serbian Orthodox monastery in Croatia, Krupa, was built in 1317 by Stephen Uroš II Milutin of Serbia, other medieval monuments include Krka (before 1345) and Dragović (late 14th century). Many monasteries and churches were damaged in the War in Croatia.[13] In 1333 the Republic of Ragusa bought the Pelješac peninsula and the coast land between Ston and Dubrovnik from Serbian King Stefan Dušan, the Ragusans promised freedom of religion to the Orthodox Serbs.[14]

Members of the Orlović Serb clan settled in Lika and Senj in 1432, they later joined the Uskoks.[15] On 22 November 1447, the Hungarian King Ladislaus V wrote a letter which mentioned "Rascians, who live in our cities of Medvedgrad, Rakovac, both Kalinik and in Koprivnica".[16]

Ottoman conquest and Habsburg Empire

Map of demographic distribution of main religious confessions in Croatia, Dalmatia, Bosnia, Serbia and Montenegro in 1901:   Catholic
  Mixed Catholic and Orthodox
  Mixed Catholic and Protestant

As many former inhabitants of the Austrian-Ottoman borderland fled northwards or were captured by the Ottoman invaders, they left unpopulated areas.[17] The Austrian Empire encouraged people from the Ottoman Empire to settle as free peasant soldiers, establishing the Military Frontiers (Militärgrenze) in 1522 (hence they were known as Grenzers, Krajišnici).[18] They were mostly, not only of Orthodox faith, Serbs and Vlachs.[17] The militarized frontier would serve as a buffer against Ottoman incursions.[18] The Military frontiers had territory of modern Croatia, Serbia, Romania and Hungary. The colonists were granted small tracts of land, exempted from some obligations, and were to retain a share of all war booty.[18] The Grenzers elected their own captains (vojvode) and magistrates (knezovi). All Orthodox settlers were promised freedom of worship.[17][19] By 1538, the Croatian and Slavonian Military Frontier were established.[18] Serbs acted as the cordon sanitaire against Turkish incursions from the Ottoman Empire.[20] The Military frontiers are virtually identical to the present Serbian settlements (war-time Republic of Serbian Krajina).[21]

According to Croatian writer Branimir Anzulovic, native Vlachs of Croatia adopted the Croatian language prior to the Ottoman conquest, but still identified themselves as Vlachs,[22] and the places with Vlach majority enjoyed privileges under the Statuta Valachorum.[22] Catholic Vlachs were assimilated into Croats, while the Orthodox, under the Serbian Orthodox Church, identified with Serbs.[22][23][24] Anzulovic claims that the serbianized Vlachs became the bulk of the Serbian population in Croatia.[22] According to David Kideckeln, majority of the population of the Croatian Military Frontier were Orthodox Vlachs, originating from Southern and Central Balkans, who, under assimilation, spoke South Slavic language.[25]

Left: Matija Ban, poet and dramatist, member of Serb-Catholic movement in Dubrovnik
Right: Josip Runjanin, composer of Croatian national anthem

In 1593, Provveditore Generale Cristoforo Valier, mentions three nations constituting the Uskoks; "natives of Senj, Croatians, and Morlachs from the Turkish parts".[26] Many of the Uskoks, who fought a guerrilla war with the Ottoman Empire were Serbs (Orthodox Christians), who fled from Ottoman Turkish rule and settled in White Carniola and Zumberak.[27][28][29][30] A letter of Emperor Ferdinand, sent on November 6, 1538, to Croatian ban Petar Keglević, in which he wrote "Captains and dukes of the Rasians, or the Serbs, or the Vlachs, who are commonly called the Serbs".[31] Tihomir Đorđević points to the already known fact that the name 'Vlach' didn't only refer to genuine Vlachs or Serbs but also to cattle breeders in general.[31]

In the Venetian documents from late 16th and 17th century, was used name "Morlachs" (another term of Vlachs, first mentioned in the 14th century) for immigrants from conquested territory previously of Croatian and Bosnian kingdoms by Ottoman Empire. They were of both Orthodox and Catholic faith, settled in inland of the coastal cities of Dalmatia, and enterted the military service of both Venice and Ottoman Empire.[32]

The Military Border was returned in 1881 to the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. In 1918, it became part of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, which immediately joined the Kingdom of Serbia to form the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

World War II

Following the Invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941 Axis powers occupied the entire territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. On the territory of the present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia a puppet state called the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) was created, led by the Ustaše, a fascist Croatian movement.

The Ustaše government saw Serbs as "disrupting element" and immediately embarked on program of ethnic clensing and genocide. They went on to create concentration camps in which Serbs, Jews, Gypsies, anti-fascist Croats and Bosniaks perished in large numbers, the most notorious of which was the Jasenovac concentration camp. According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum between 320,000 and 340,000 Serbs were killed by the Ustaše or their allies during WWII.

Serbs are expelled by Ustaše as part of Serbian Genocide

The main paramilitary force Serbs of Croatia were involved with were the Yugoslav Partisans which was particularly strong in regions of Lika, Kordun and Banija, they were connected with Partisans in Bosanska Krajina, they were the main recruiting ground for the Yugoslav Partisans besides Serbia and Montenegro due to the genocide and ethnic cleansing Independent State of Croatia was conducting against civilian Serb population. Because of this some of the main operations, battles and free territories were in the areas populated by Serbs in Bosnian Kraina and adjacent areas. In Dalmatia main resistance movement were the Chetniks. In March 1942 the Chetniks formed the Dinara Division, led by Orthodox priest Momčilo Đujić. This unit had a program to defend Serb population from the Ustaše led genocide, with arms and political activity. During the war, this division was involved in ethnic cleansing of this area.[33] Chetniks in Croatia collaborated with fascist Italy to achieve their goals of protecting Serb civilians from genocide, in return they guaranteed Italians safety and defended them from the Partisans.[33] Estimation of the priest Momčilo Đujić was that they saved as many as 500 000 Serbs in Dalmatia, Lika and Bosanska Krajina.

Socialist Yugoslavia

During the Second World War, at the Second and Third sessions of the National Anti-Fascist Council of the Peoples Liberation of Croatia (ZAVNOH) held in October 1943 and May 1944 respectively, the equality of the Serbian and Croatian nations, as constituent nations of the federal unit of Croatia, was recognized in every aspect.[34] Later, in 1963, the Croatian Constitution did not mention the Serbs in Croatia as constituent nation of SR Croatia, but with the Constitutional amendments of 1971 this was now explicitly done in order to guarantee the rights of the Serbs in Croatia. This formulation implied that Croatia was not the national state of the Croats, but stated that Croatia was the land of Croats and Serbs.[35] Then, on 22 December 1990, HDZ government of Franjo Tuđman promulgated a new Croatian constitution that changed the wording with regard to Serbs of Croatia. In the first paragraph of the Article 12, Croatian was specified as the official language and alphabet, and dual-language road signs were torn down even in Serb majority areas.[36] Furthermore, a number of Serbs were removed from the bureaucracies and the police and replaced by ethnic Croats.[36] Many Serbs in government lost their jobs, and HDZ made themselves target of Serbian propaganda by having party members attempting to rehabilitate the WWII Croatian fascist movement Ustaše, or by saying that the numbers of people killed in Jasenovac concentration camp were inflated.[37] The party representing the interests of Serbs in Croatia, the Serbian Democratic Party (SDS), which rejected the new constitution,[36] began building its own national governmental entity in order to preserve rights that Serbs saw as being stripped away and to enhance the sovereignty of the Croatian Serbs.[38]

War in Croatia

Territorial extent of Republic of Serbian Krajina, proclaimed unilaterally in 1991 and disestablished in 1995

Amid political changes during the breakup of Yugoslavia and following the Croatian Democratic Union's victory in the 1990 general election, the Croatian Parliament ratified a new constitution in December 1990 where Serbs were listed with other nations and minorities.[39][40][41][42][43] On a practical level, it became obvious that jobs, property rights, and even residence status depended on having Croatian citizenship, which was not an automatic right for non-Croats.[44]

The percentage of those declaring themselves as Serbs, according to the 1991 census, was 12.2% (78.1% of the population declared itself to be Croat). Although today Serbs are able to return to Croatia, in reality a majority of Serbs who left during organized evacuation[45] (citing:[46][47][48] see section "Literature")[49] in 1995 choose to remain citizens of other countries in which they gained citizenship. Consequently, today Serbs constitute 4% of Croatian population, down from the prewar population of 12%.

Before the Croatian War of Independence, part of the Croatian Serbs rebelled ("balvan revolucija") and led a military campaign against the Croatian state, creating an unrecognized state called Republic of Serbian Krajina in hopes of achieving independence, international recognition, and complete self-governance from the government of Croatia. The rebellion was incited from Serbia. As the popularity of the unification of Serbian people into a Greater Serbia with Serbia proper increased, the rebellion against the Croatian rule also increased. While some Serb politicians from Croatia sought a peaceful solution, others organized Serb parties in the Croatian government-controlled areas, like Milan Đukić; some of them (Veljko Džakula) unsuccessfully tried to organize the parties in the rebelled areas, but their work was prevented by Serb warmongers.[50]

The Republic of Krajina had de facto control over one third of Croatian territory during its existence between 1991 and 1995 but failed to gain international recognition.

The war ended with a military success in Operation Storm in 1995 and subsequent peaceful reintegration of the remaining renegade territory in eastern Slavonia in 1998 as a result of the signed Erdut Agreement from 1995. Local Serbs are, on the ground that Agreement, established the Serb National Council and gained the right to establish the Joint Council of Municipalities.

Left: Destroyed Serbian house in Croatia
Right: Croatian soldier destroying sign of Saint Sava street

In February 2015, during the Croatia–Serbia genocide case, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) dismissed the Serbian lawsuit claim that Operation Storm constituted genocide,[51] ruling that Croatia did not have the specific intent to exterminate the country's Serb minority, though it reaffirmed that serious crimes against Serb civilians had taken place.[51][52] The judgment stated that it is not disputed that a substantial part of the Serb population fled that region as a direct consequence of the military actions. The Croatian authorities were aware that the operation would provoke a mass exodus; they even to some extent predicated their military planning on such an exodus, which they considered not only probable, but desirable.[53] Fleeing civilians and people remaining in United Nations protected areas were subject to various forms of harassment, including military assaults and acts by Croatian civilians. On 8 August, a refugee column was shelled.[54]

Although it was very difficult to determine the number of properties destroyed during and after Operation Storm since a large number of houses sustained some degree of damage since the beginning of the war, Human Rights Watch (HRW) estimated that more than 5,000 houses were destroyed in the area during and after the battle.[55] Out of the 122 Serbian Orthodox churches in the area, one was destroyed and 17 were damaged. HRW also reported that the vast majority of the abuses were committed by Croatian forces. These abuses, which continued on a large scale even months after Operation Storm, included summary executions of elderly and infirm Serbs who remained behind and the wholesale burning and destruction of Serbian villages and property. In the months following the August offensive, at least 150 Serb civilians were summarily executed and another 110 persons forcibly disappeared.[56] One example of such crimes was the Varivode massacre, where nine elderly Serb villagers were killed by the Croatian Army.[57]

At the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia at The Hague, Milan Babić was indicted, pleaded guilty and was convicted for "persecutions on political, racial and religious grounds, a crime against humanity".[58][59] Babić stated during his trial that "during the events, and in particular at the beginning of his political career, he was strongly influenced and misled by Serbian propaganda".[60]

A small minoriry of pre-war Serb population have returned to Croatia. Today, the majority of the pre-war Serb population from Croatia settled in Serbia and Republika Srpska.[61]

Modern Croatia

Nikola Tesla Memorial Center in Smiljan

Tension and violence between Serbs and Croats has reduced since 2000 and has remained low to this day, however, significant problems remain.[62] The participation of the largest Serb party SDSS in the Croatian Government of Ivo Sanader eased tensions to an extent, but the refugee situation is still politically sensitive. The main issue is high-level official and social discrimination against the Serbs.[63]

At the height levels of the government, new laws are continuously being introduced in order to combat this discrimination, thus, demonstrating an effort on the part of government.[62] For example, lengthy and in some cases unfair proceedings,[62] particularly in lower level courts, remain a major problem for Serbian returnees pursuing their rights in court.[62] In addition, Serbs continue to be discriminated against in access to employment and in realizing other economic and social rights.[64] Also some cases of violence and harassment against Croatian Serbs continue to be reported.[62]

House in Dalj where Milutin Milanković was born

The property laws allegedly favor Bosnian Croats refugees who took residence in houses that were left unoccupied and unguarded by Serbs after Operation Storm.[62] Amnesty International's 2005 report considers one of the greatest obstacles to the return of thousands of Croatian Serbs has been the failure of the Croatian authorities to provide adequate housing solutions to Croatian Serbs who were stripped of their occupancy rights, including where possible by reinstating occupancy rights to those who had been affected by their discriminatory termination.[62]

The European Court of Human Rights decided against Croatian Serb Kristina Blečić, stripped her of occupancy rights after leaving her house in 1991 in Zadar.[65] In 2009, the UN Human Rights Committee found a wartime termination of occupancy rights of a Serbian family to violate ICCPR.[66] In 2010, the European Committee on Social Rights found the treatment of Serbs in Croatia in respect of housing to be discriminatory and too slow, thus in violation of Croatia's obligations under the European Social Charter.[67]

In 2015 Amnesty International report that Croatian Serbs continued to face discrimination in public sector employment and the restitution of tenancy rights to social housing vacated during the war.[68]


According to the 2011 census there were 186,633 ethnic Serbs living in Croatia, 4.4% of the total population. Their number was reduced by more than two thirds in the aftermath of the 1991–95 War in Croatia as the 1991 pre-war census had reported 581,663 Serbs living in Croatia, 12.2% of the total population.

Serbs in Croatia, 1991[69]
Serbs in Croatia, 2011
Municipalities in Croatia where Serbian language is in official use
Year Serbs %
1900[70] 548,302 17.35%
1910[70] 564,214 16.60%
1921[70] 584,058 16.94%
1931[70] 636,518 16.81%
1948[71] 543,795 14.47%
1953[72] 588,411 15.01%
1961[73] 624,956 15.02%
1971[70] 626,789 14.16%
1981[70] 531,502 11.55%
1991[70] 581,663 12.16%
2001 201,631 4.54%
2011 186,633 4.36%


Counties with significant Serb minority (10% or more):[74]

County Serbs %
Vukovar-Srijem County 27,824 15.50%
Lika-Senj County 6,949 13.65%
Sisak-Moslavina County 21,002 12.18%
Šibenik-Knin County 11,518 10.53%
Karlovac County 13,408 10.40%


Cities with significant Serb minority (10% or more):


Municipalities with significant Serb population (10% or more):


See also: Serbian culture

Serbs in Croatia have cultural traditions ranging from kolo dances and singing, which are kept alive today by performances by various folklore groups. Notable traditions include gusle, Ojkanje singing, Čuvari Hristovog groba.


Serbs of Croatia are Serbian Orthodox. There are many Orthodox monasteries across Croatia, built since the 14th century. Most notable and historically significant are the Krka monastery, Krupa monastery, Dragović monastery, Lepavina Monastery and Gomirje monastery. Many Orthodox churches were demolished during World War II and Yugoslav war, while some were rebuilt by the EU funding, Croatian government and Serbian diaspora donations.[75]

In the 1560s a Serbian Orthodox bishop was installed in the Metropolitanate of Požega, seated in the monastery of Remeta.[76] In the 17th century, the Eparchy of Marča was founded at Marča, in the Croatian frontier.[76] These were part of the Serbian Orthodox Patriarchate of Peć, which was reestablished in 1557, and lasted under Ottoman governance until 1766.[76] Other bishoprics were founded, although their approval by the Habsburgs hinged on the belief that they would facilitate the union of these Orthodox Christians with the Catholic Church, and in fact, many, including some Orthodox bishops, did unify with Rome.[76]

Serbs in the Croatian Military Frontier were out of the jurisdiction of the Serbian Patriarchate of Peć and in 1611, and after demands from the community, the Pope established the Eparchy of Marča (Vratanija) with seat at the Serbian-built Marča Monastery, with a Byzantine vicar instated as bishop sub-ordinate to the Roman Catholic bishop of Zagreb - working to bring Serbian Orthodox Christians into communion with Rome, which caused struggle of power between the Catholics and the Serbs over the region.[29][30]

In 1695 Orthodox Eparchy of Lika-Krbava and Zrinopolje was established by metropolitan Atanasije Ljubojević and certified by Emperor Josef I in 1707. In 1735 the Serbian Orthodox protested in the Marča Monastery and became part of the Serbian Orthodox Church until 1753 when the Pope restored the Roman Catholic clergy. On June 17, 1777 the Eparchy of Križevci was permanently established by Pope Pius VI with its Episcopal see at Križevci, near Zagreb, thus forming the Croatian Greek Catholic Church which would after World War I include other people; the Rusyns and ethnic Ukrainians of Yugoslavia.[29][30]

Jovan, the Metropolitan of Zagreb and Ljubljana, stated that c. 30,000 Serbs had converted to Catholicism since the Operation Oluja (1995).[77] In the 2011 census, regarding religious affiliation, c. 40,000 declared as "Serbs of the Orthodox faith", while 160,000 declared as "Orthodox".[77]


Serbian language is officially used in 23 cities and municipalities in Croatia.[78]

Left: Bilingual street sign in Croatian and Serbian in Dalj
Right: Graffiti during anti-Cyrillic protests

In April 2015 United Nations Human Rights Committee has urged Croatia to ensure the right of minorities to use their language and alphabet.[79] Committee report stated that particularly concerns the use of Serbian Cyrillic in the town of Vukovar and municipalities concerned.[79] Serbian Foreign Minister Ivica Dačić said that his country welcomes the UN Human Rights Committee's report.[80]

Although 2011 census puts Serbs as the largest national minority in Croatia with 4.4% of the total population, the number of people who had declared Serbian language as their native is 52.879 (1.23% of the total population).[81]


Serbs are officially recognized as an autochthonous national minority, and as such, they elect three representatives to the Croatian Parliament.[82]

The major Serb party in Croatia is the Independent Democratic Serb Party (SDSS). In the elections of 2007 and 2011, the SDSS has won all 3 Serbian seats in the parliament. In the Cabinet of Ivo Sanader II, the party was part of the ruling coalition led by the conservative Croatian Democratic Union, and SDSS member Slobodan Uzelac held the post of Deputy Prime Minister.

There are also ethnic Serb politicians who are members of mainstream political parties, such as the centre-left Social Democratic Party's MPs and Milanović cabinet members Željko Jovanović, Branko Grčić and Milanka Opačić.

Community in Serbia

Some 350,000 Serbs were resettled in Serbia during and after the Croatian War, of which the larger part took Serbian citizenship.[83] In 2002, there were 284,334 Serbs from Croatia living in Serbia (without Kosovo). The majority lived in Vojvodina (127,884), then in Central and South Serbia (114,434). The largest part of the community stated that they wanted integration (60,6%), while only 4,3% wanted to return, while there were 27,4% who were undecided.[84] In 2013, ca. 45,000 from Croatia still had refugee status in Serbia.[83][85]

Notable people


Arsen Dedić, singer-songwriter and poet


Nikola Tesla, inventor


Siniša Mihajlović, football player and manager
Peja Stojaković, basketball player


Svetozar Boroević, Austrian field marshal

See also


  1. "3. Stanovništvo prema narodnosti, popisi 1971. – 2011.". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012. Retrieved 2013-02-11.
  2. "Croatia: Operation "Storm" - still no justice ten years on". Amnesty International.
  3. "Srbi u Hrvatskoj zabrinuti da će nestati".
  4. Fine (1994), 53
  5. Serbian Studies. 2–3. North American Society for Serbian Studies. 1982. p. 29.
  6. Eginhard (1711). Eginhartus de vita et gestis Caroli Magni. ex Officina Guilielmi Vande Water. p. 192.
  7. Sima M. Cirkovic (15 April 2008). The Serbs. Wiley. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-4051-4291-5.
  8. 1 2 The early medieval Balkans, p. 141
  9. 1 2 The early medieval Balkans, p. 150
  10. Pavle Ivić (1995). The history of Serbian culture. Porthill Publishers. p. 101.
  11. Dr. M. Wertner, "Ungarns Palatine und Bane im Zeit-alter der Arpaden" (Ungarische Revue, 14, 1894, 129—177)
  12. Diplomatički zbornik kraljevine Hrvatske, Dalmacije i Slavonije. 3. Zavod za povijesne znanosti JAZU. 1905. p. 480. Stephanus rex Serviae monasterio St. Mariae in insula Mljet donat pagos quosdam [...] 1222, kralj srpski Stefan Prvovjenčani dava benediktinskome manastiru na Mljetu cio Mljet i Babino Polje, i na Korčuli crkvu sv. Vida, pa Janinu s Popovom Lukom i crkve sv. Stjepana i sv. Gjurgja, a u Stonu crkvu sv. [...]
  13. Mitja Velikonja (5 February 2003). Religious Separation and Political Intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Texas A&M University Press. p. 261. ISBN 978-1-58544-226-3.
  14. Fine (1994), p. 286
  15. Јован Ердељановић (1930). О Пореклу Буњеваца.
  16. "Rascianos in castris nostris Medwe, Rakonok, utriusque Kemlek et Caproncza constitutis"
  17. 1 2 3 Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945: occupation and collaboration. Board of Trustees of Leland Stanford Junior University. p. 390. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4.
  18. 1 2 3 4 Ramet, p. 82
  19. Sabrina P. Ramet, "Whose democracy?: nationalism, religion, and the doctrine of collective rights in post-1989 Eastern Europe", Rowman & Littlefield, 1997, ISBN 0-8476-8324-9, p. 83
  20. William Safran, The secular and the sacred: nation, religion, and politics, p. 169
  21. Nicholas J. Miller, 1998, Between Nation and State: Serbian Politics in Croatia Before the First World War, p. 10
  22. 1 2 3 4 Anzulovic, Branimir (1999). Heavenly Serbia: from myth to genocide. C. Hurst & Co. p. 43. ISBN 1-85065-342-9.
  23. Banac, Ivo (1984). The national question in Yugoslavia: origins, history, politics. Cornell University Press. p. 43. ISBN 0-8014-1675-2.
  24. Bues, Almut (2005). Zones of fracture in modern Europe: the Baltic countries, the Balkans, and Notrhen Italy. Harassowitz Verlag. p. 101. ISBN 3-447-05119-1.
  25. Halpern, Joel M.; Kideckel, David A. (2000). Neighbors at War. Pennsylvania State University. p. 127. ISBN 0-271-01978-6.
  26. Fine (2006), p. 218
  27. Europe:A History by Norman Davies (1996), p. 561.
  28. Goffman (2002), p. 190.
  29. 1 2 3
  30. 1 2 3[]
  31. 1 2 Gavrilović, Danijela, "Elements of Ethnic Identification of the Serbs" from FACTA UNIVERSITATIS - Series Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology and History (10/2003), pp. 717-730
  32. Croatian Encyclopaedia (2011). "Morlaci" (in Croatian).
  33. 1 2 Tomasevich 1975, p. 171.
  34. Yugoslavia Through Documents: From Its Creation to Its Dissolution edited by Snežana Trifunovska, page 477, it says: "at the Second and Third sessions of the National Anti-Fascist Council of the Peoples Liberation of Croatia (ZAVNOH),...,the equality of the Serbian and the Croatian nations, as constituent nations of the federal unit of Croatia, were recognized in every respect."
  35. Historical Dictionary of Croatia by Robert Stallaerts, page 53, regarding the 1971 constitutional amendments says: "It stated that Croatia was the state of Croats and Serbs."
  36. 1 2 3 Living Together After Ethnic Killing: Exploring the Chaim Kaufman Argument by Roy Licklider and Mia Bloom, page 158, says: Previously, a constituent nation in the Republic of Croatia, ..."
  37. Croatia by Piers Letcher, page 20, it says: "The HDZ also put Crotias 600,000 Serbs on the defensive by changing their status from "constituent nation" in Croatia, to "national minority" and many Serbs in government lost their jobs."
  38. Words Over War: Mediation and Arbitration to Prevent Deadly Conflict by Melanie Greenberg, John H. Barton and Margaret E. McGuinness, at page 83, says: "The new Croatian constitution ... renounced the hitherto protected status of ethnic Serbs as a separate constituent nation embedded in the old constitution,... In response, the SDS in Krajina begin building its own national governamental entity in order to preserve the rights that had been stripped away and to enhance the sovereignty of Croatian Serbs.
  39. (Croatian) Dunja Bonacci Skenderović i Mario Jareb: Hrvatski nacionalni simboli između stereotipa i istine, Časopis za suvremenu povijest, y. 36, br. 2, p. 731.-760., 2004
  40. Yugoslavia Through Documents: From Its Creation to Its Dissolution edited by Snežana Trifunovska, page 477
  41. Integration and Stabilization: A Monetary View by George Macesich, page 24
  42. The Quality of Government by Bo Rothstein, page 89
  43. Soft Borders by Julie Mostov, page 67
  44. David Bruce Macdonald (13 February 2003). Balkan Holocausts?: Serbian and Croatian Victim Centred Propaganda and the War in Yugoslavia. Manchester University Press. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-84779-570-0. His 1990 Constitution, for example, conspicuously omitted Serbs as a constituent nation within the new country. [...] On practical level, it became obvious that jobs, property rights, and even residence status depended on having Croatian citizenship, whiich was not an automatic right for non-Croats
  45. Barić, Nikica: Srpska pobuna u Hrvatskoj 1990.-1995., Golden marketing. Tehnička knjiga, Zagreb, 2005
  46. Drago Kovačević, "Kavez - Krajina u dogovorenom ratu", Beograd 2003., p. 93.-94
  47. Milisav Sekulić, "Knin je pao u Beogradu", Bad Vilbel 2001., p. 171.-246., p. 179
  48. Marko Vrcelj, "Rat za Srpsku Krajinu 1991-95", Beograd 2002., p. 212.-222.
  49. 13 mei 2007. "RSK Evacuation Practise one month before Operation Storm". Retrieved 2010-02-07.
  50. (Croatian) Croatian Iuridic Portal Đakula prvi svjedočio protiv Martića
  51. 1 2 BBC News 3 February 2015
  52. ICJ 3 February 2015, pp. 4, 141, 142
  53. ICJ 3 February 2015, p. 131
  54. ICJ 3 February 2015, pp. 4, 132, 133
  55. HRW 1996, p. 19
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