Japanese holdout

Japanese holdouts (残留日本兵 Zanryū nipponhei, "remaining Japanese soldiers") or stragglers were Japanese soldiers in the Pacific Theatre who, after the August 1945 surrender of Japan ending World War II, either adamantly doubted the veracity of the formal surrender due to dogmatic militaristic principles, or simply were not aware of it because communications had been cut off by Allied advances including the United States island hopping campaign.

Some continued to fight the enemy forces, and later local police, for years after the war was over. Some Japanese holdouts volunteered during the First Indochina War and Indonesian War of Independence, to free Asian colonies from Western control despite these having once been colonial ambitions of Imperial Japan during World War II.

Intelligence officer Hiroo Onoda, who was relieved of duty by his former commanding officer on Lubang Island in the Philippines in March 1974, and Teruo Nakamura, who was stationed on Morotai Island in Indonesia and surrendered in December 1974, were the last confirmed holdouts, though rumors persisted of others. In addition, Shigeyuki Hashimoto and Kiyoaki Tanaka held out until 1990 by fighting with the Malayan Communist Party.



Second lieutenant Sakae Ōba in 1937




Lieutenant Hiroo Onoda in 1944



Since the 1990s a number of holdouts have been allegedly spotted. However no proof of their existence has been found and some investigators believe these may be stories invented by local residents to attract Japanese tourists.[27]

In popular culture

See also


  1. This Day in history
  2. ベトナム独立戦争参加日本人の事跡に基づく日越のあり方に関する研究 (PDF). 井川 一久 (in Japanese). Tokyo foundation. October 2005. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
  3. 日越関係発展の方途を探る研究 ヴェトナム独立戦争参加日本人―その実態と日越両国にとっての歴史的意味― (PDF). 井川 一久 (in Japanese). Tokyo foundation. May 2006. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
  4. "Lt Ei Yamaguchi, Surrendered – April 1947", Profiles of Known Japanese Holdouts, Wanpela
  5. "Hirohito Photo with MP's Induces Japs to Give Up". Albuquerque Journal. May 12, 1948. p. 6.
  6. "Japanese Surrender After Four Year Hiding". Pacific Stars and Stripes. Jan 10, 1949. p. 5.
  7. "Profiles of Known Japanese Holdouts". Wanpela. Retrieved 2012-06-05. |contribution= ignored (help)
  8. "ベトナム独立戦争参加日本人の事跡に基づく日越のあり方に関する研究" (PDF). 井川 一久. Tokyo foundation. October 2005. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
  9. "日越関係発展の方途を探る研究 ヴェトナム独立戦争参加日本人―その実態と日越両国にとっての歴史的意味―" (PDF). 井川 一久. Tokyo foundation. May 2006. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
  10. "Pacific War Finally Ends for 19 Die-Hard Japanese". Pacific Stars and Stripes. Jun 27, 1951. p. 1.
  11. 1 2 3 4 "Final Straggler: the Japanese soldier who outlasted Hiroo Onoda". A Blast from the Past. September 15, 2015. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
  12. "Three Jap Stragglers Hold Out on Tiny Isle", The Lima (O.) News, p. 5, April 8, 1952
  13. 1 2 "Onoda Home; 'It Was 30 Years on Duty'", Pacific Stars and Stripes, p. 7, March 14, 1974
  14. https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=u1EmAAAAIBAJ&sjid=L_8FAAAAIBAJ&dq=indian-trail-inn&pg=1826%2C3265324
  15. "Japanese Soldier Finds War's Over", Oakland Tribune, p. 1, May 21, 1960
  16. "Straggler Reports to Emperor", Pacific Stars and Stripes, p. 1, June 8, 1960
  17. Kristof, Nicholas D (September 26, 1997), "Shoichi Yokoi, 82, Is Dead; Japan Soldier Hid 27 Years", The New York Times
  18. "The Last PCS for Lieutenant Onoda", Pacific Stars and Stripes, p. 6, March 13, 1974
  19. "The Last Last Soldier?", Time, January 13, 1975
  20. Asahi Shimbun, January 18, 1980
  21. "Still fighting, 35 years after V-J day" (PDF), Finger Lakes Times, Fulton History, p. 1, April 10, 1980
  22. "Soldier's hut found in Philippines", Milwaukee Sentinel, Google News, p. 3, April 5, 1980
  23. 宮沢, 功 (1957). "連載 サラリーマン男のロマン ミンドロ島戦友捜索奮戦記". 実業之日本. Jitsugyo no Nihon Sha. 83 (6): 102–105.
  24. "第094回国会 社会労働委員会 第7号 昭和五十六年四月十四日(火曜日)" (in Japanese). Kokkai.ndl.go.jp. Retrieved 2014-01-18.
  25. "Japan uneasy with wartime loyalty raised by two returning guerrillas". The Daytona Beach News-Journal. Associated Press. January 13, 1990. Retrieved August 15, 2016 via Google News Archives.
  26. Yates, Ronald E. (January 15, 1990). "WWII Die-hards Receive Cool Greeting In Japan". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 15, 2016.
  27. No Surrender Japanese Holdouts
  28. Travers, Ben (Published on 8 January 2015). 'Archer' Season 6 Episode 1 'The Holdout' Reboots the Reboot with Mixed Success. Indiewire. Retrieved 2015-01-15.
  29. General Information on Season 6, Episode 1 of 'Archer', Including Airdate TV Guide. Retrieved on 15 January 2015

External links

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