Orders of magnitude (speed)

To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various speed levels between approximately 2.2×10−18 m/s and 3.0×108 m/s. Values in bold are exact.

List of orders of magnitude for speed

List of orders of magnitude for speed
Factor (m/s) Value (m/s) Value (km/h) Value (mph) Value (c) Item
10−18 2.2×10−187.8×10−184.9×10−18 Expansion rate between 2 points in free space 1 m apart under Hubble's law.
10−13 1×10−133×10−132×10−13 Rate of erosion of Bedrock.[1]
10−11 9.8×10−113.5×10−102.2×10−10 Rate of global sea level rise in 1993–2003 (3.1 mm/yr).[2]
10−10 3×10−10 to 3×10−91×10−9 to 1×10−87×10−10 to 7×10−9 Typical relative speed of continental drift.
10−9 1.3×10−94.68×10−92.9×10−9 Average rate of the Moon receding from the Earth (approx. 38 mm/yr).
4.8×10−91.7×10−81.1×10−8 Human hair growth (average rate—note that there is a great range of variation).
10−6 1.52×10−65.4×10−63.4×10−6 Speed of a cellular vesicle propelled by a motor protein.[3]
10−5 1×1054×1053×105 Speed of the tip of an hour hand on a clock.
1.4×10−55.0×10−53.1×10−5 Growth rate of bamboo, the fastest-growing woody plant, over 24 hours.[4]
10−4 4.0×10−41.4×10−38.9×10−4 Speed of Jakobshavn Isbræ, one of the fastest glaciers, in 2003.[5]
6×10−42.2×10−31.3×10−3 Typical speed of Thiovulum majus, the fastest-swimming bacterium.[6]
10−3 0.002750.009900.00615 World record speed of the fastest snail in the Congham, UK.[7]
10−2 0.04760.1710.106 Compact cassette tape speed.[8]
0.0800.290.18 The top speed of a sloth.
10−1 0.277810.6214 1 km/hour.
0.447041.6093441 1 mph.
0.51441.8521.151 1 knot (nautical mile per hour)
100 1.24.322.68 Typical scanning speed of an audio compact disc; the speed of signals (action potentials) traveling along axons in the human cortex.
1–1.53.6–5.42.2–3.4 Average walking speed—below a speed of about 2 m/s, it is more efficient to walk than to run, but above that speed, it is more efficient to run.
2.398.535.35 World record time 50m freestyle swim
5.7220.4212.80 World record time marathon
6–720–2512–15 Comfortable bicycling speed.
101 10.43837.57823.35 Average speed of Jamaican athlete Usain Bolt while setting the 100m world record in Berlin on 16 August 2009.
12.4244.7227.78 Top speed reached by Bolt during the same race.
8–1430–5018–31 Typical residential speed limit; top speed of a running cat or dog.
145031 Typical speed of road-race cyclist.
176037 Typical speed of thoroughbred racehorse or racing greyhound.
5–2518–9011–56 Speed of propagation for unmyelinated sensory neurons.
3011070 Typical speed of car (freeway); cheetah—fastest of all terrestrial animals; sailfish—fastest fish; speed of go-fast boat.
37.16133.7883.13 Land speed record for a human powered vehicle.[9]
4014090 Typical peak speed of a local service train (or intercity on lower standard tracks).
54195122 Maximum speed a human can attain during a face-down free-fall.
67240149 The top speed of the world's fastest roller coaster, Formula Rossa.
90320200 Typical speed of a modern high-speed train (e.g. latest generation of production TGV); a diving peregrine falcon—fastest bird; 320 km/h or 200 mph is a parameter sometimes used in defining a supercar.[10]
91328204 Fastest recorded ball (a golf ball) in sports.[11]
102 103370230 Speed of super torpedo VA-111 Shkval.
103.5372.6231.5 Maximum speed recorded by a Formula One car. Set by Juan Pablo Montoya during the 2005 Italian Grand Prix at Monza in a McLaren MP4-20.
105.5379.8236 Maximum speed of a Ferrari F50 GT1.
113408254 Fastest non-tornadic wind gust recorded on Earth - at Barrow Island, Australia on 1996-04-10 during Severe Tropical Cyclone Olivia.[12]
119.742431.072267.86 Maximum speed of the Bugatti Veyron Super Sport (currently the fastest production car in the world).
120432270 Speed of propagation for mammalian motor neurons.
130468290 Wind speed of a powerful tornado.
150.6539337 Top speed of an internal-combustion-powered NHRA Top Fuel Dragster.
157575351 Top speed of experimental test TGV train in 2007.
161580360 Top speed of JR-Maglev in 2003.
250900560 Typical cruising speed of a modern jet airliner, e.g. an Airbus A380.
3141,130702 Top speed of any World War II-era aircraft, the Me 163B V18 set on July 6, 1944.
3201,200720 The speed of a typical .22 LR bullet.
340.31,225761 Speed of sound in standard atmosphere (15 °C and 1 atm).
344.661,240.77770.98 Max speed reached by the jet-propelled car ThrustSSC in 1997—Land speed record.[13]
3731,342.8833.9 Highest speed recorded during a free fall set by Felix Baumgartner.
4281,540.8957 Max speed of Bell X-1.
4641,6701,040 Speed of Earth's rotation at the equator.
6032,170.81,350 Speed of the Concorde airliner.
9753,5102,180 Muzzle velocity of M16 rifle.
9813,5322,194 SR-71 Blackbird, the fastest aircraft driven by a mechanical jet engine.
103 1,4005,0403,100 Speed of the Space Shuttle when the solid rocket boosters separate.
1,500 5,4003,400 Speed of sound in water or in soft tissue.[14]
1,7896,4434,002 Speed of BrahMos II hypersonic cruise missile
2,0007,2004,500 Estimated speed of a thermal neutron.
2,0197,268.44,516 Speed of the North American X-15 rocket plane.
2,3758,5505,345 Escape velocity from Moon.
2,7009,6006,000 Speed of wind on exoplanet HD 189733 b.[15]
2,88510,3856,453 Top speed of the fastest rocket sled.[16]
3,37312,1447,546 Speed of the X-43 rocket/scramjet plane.
4,50016,00010,000 A typical value for the specific impulse of current rockets.
7,70027,70017,200 Speed of International Space Station and typical speed of other satellites such as the Space Shuttle in low Earth orbit.
7,77728,00017,400 Speed of propagation of the explosion in a detonating cord.
104 11,10739,985.224,846 0.00004cSpeed of Apollo 10 – high speed record for human-crewed vehicle.
11,20040,32025,100 0.00004cEscape velocity from Earth.
16,10057,90036,000 0.00005cFastest projectile velocity (1994).[17]
16,21058,35636,261 0.00005cEscape speed from Earth by NASA New Horizons spacecraft—Fastest escape velocity.
17,00061,00038,000 0.00006cThe approximate speed of the Voyager 1 probe relative to the sun, when it exited the Solar System.[18]
29,800107,28066,700 0.00010cSpeed of the Earth in orbit around the Sun.
47,800172,100106,900 0.00016cAtmospheric entry speed of the Galileo atmospheric probe—Fastest controlled atmospheric entry for a man-made object.
70,220252,800157,100 0.00023cSpeed of the Helios 2 solar probe.
73,762265,542165,000 0.00023cEstimated top speed of the Juno spacecraft before insertion into Jupiter's orbit —Fastest man-made object.[19]
105 140,000540,000313,170 0.00047cApproaching velocity of Messier 98 to our galaxy.
200,000700,000450,000 0.00070cOrbital speed of the solar system in the Milky Way galaxy.
308,5711,080,000694,288 0.001cApproaching velocity of Andromeda Galaxy to our galaxy.
440,0001,600,000980,000 0.0015cTypical speed of the stepped leader of lightning (cf. return stroke below).[20]
450,0001,600,0001,000,000 0.0015cTypical speed of a particle of the solar wind, relative to the Sun.
552,0001,990,0001,230,000 0.0018cSpeed of the Milky Way, relative to the cosmic microwave background.
617,7002,224,0001,382,000 0.0021cEscape velocity from the surface of the Sun.
106 1,000,0003,600,0002,200,000 0.0030cTypical speed of a Moreton wave across the surface of the Sun.
1,610,0005,800,0003,600,000 0.0054cSpeed of hypervelocity star PSR B2224+65, which currently seems to be leaving the Milky Way.
5,000,00018,000,00011,000,000 0.017cEstimated minimum speed of star S2 at its closest approach to Sagittarius A*.[21]
107 14,000,00050,000,00031,000,000 0.047cTypical speed of a fast neutron.
30,000,000100,000,00070,000,000 0.1cTypical speed of an electron in a cathode ray tube.
108 100,000,000360,000,000220,000,000 0.3cThe escape velocity of a neutron star.
100,000,000360,000,000220,000,000 0.3cTypical speed of the return stroke of lightning (cf. stepped leader above).[22]
124,000,000447,000,000277,000,000 0.4cSpeed of light in a diamond (Refractive index 2.417).
200,000,000720,000,000440,000,000 0.7cSpeed of a signal in an optical fiber.
299,792,4561,079,252,840670,615,282 0.999cSpeed of the 7 TeV protons in the Large Hadron Collider at full power.[23]
299,792,458 − 1.5×10−151,079,252,848.8 − 5.4×10−15670,616,629.4 1 − 4.9×10−24cSpeed of the Oh-My-God particle ultra-high-energy cosmic ray.[24]
299,792,4581,079,252,848.8670,616,629.4 1cSpeed of light or other electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum or massless particles. Also, Planck speed.

See also


  1. Blewett, Richard, ed. (2012). "Chapter 2: Australia in time and space". Shaping a nation. Geoscience Australia and ANU E-Press. pp. 57–58. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  2. Bindoff, NL; et al. "Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level" (PDF). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
  3. Hill, David; Holzwarth, George; Bonin, Keith (2002). "Velocity and Drag Forces on motor-protein-driven Vesicles in Cells". American Physical Society, the 69th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern. abstract. #EA.002. Bibcode:2002APS..SES.EA002H.
  4. Farrelly, David (1984). The Book of Bamboo. Sierra Club Books. ISBN 0-87156-825-X.
  5. Joughin I.; Abdalati W.; Fahnestock M. (2004). "Large fluctuations in speed on Greenland's Jakobshavn Isbrae glacier". Nature. 432 (7017): 608–610. Bibcode:2004Natur.432..608J. doi:10.1038/nature03130. PMID 15577906.
  6. Tom Fenchel (1994). "Motility and chemosensory behaviour of the sulphur bacterium Thiovulum majus". Microbiology. Microbiology (11): 3109–3116. doi:10.1099/13500872-140-11-3109. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
  7. "snailracing.net".
  8. TDK cassette spec sheet Retrieved on 27 March 2007
  9. "Dutch cyclist claims new world speed record in Nevada". BBC News. 18 September 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
  10. "FSN Sport Science - Episode 7 - Myths - Jason Zuback". Sport Science. YouTube. Retrieved 2009-07-27.
  11. "World record wind gust". World Meteorological Association. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
  12. "ThrustSSC".
  13. clinicalimagingscience.org - Photoacoustic Imaging: Opening New Frontiers in Medical Imaging
  14. Discovery Space: Top 10 Extrasolar Planets
  15. 846 TS Hypersonic Upgrade Program
  16. MALCOLM W. BROWNE (March 22, 1994). "Fastest Gun on Earth: Goals Go Beyond Planet". The New York Times. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
  17. Elert, Glenn. "Speed of the Voyager Space Probes".
  18. Mike Wall (July 4, 2016). "By Jove! NASA Probe Arrives at Jupiter After 5-Year Trek". Space.com. Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  19. Thomson, E. M., M. A. Uman, and W. H. Beasley (1985), Speed and current for lightning stepped leaders near ground as determined from electric field records, J. Geophys. Res., 90(D5), 8136–8142, doi:10.1029/JD090iD05p08136.
  20. information@eso.org. "Surfing a Black Hole - Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours".
  21. V. P. Idone, R. E. Orville, D. M. Mach, and W. D. Rust (1987), The propagation speed of a positive lightning return stroke, Geophys. Res. Letters, vol 14 issue 11, 1150–1153, doi:10.1029/GL014i011p01150.
  22. "LHC beams". CERN.
  23. J. Walker (January 4, 1994). "The Oh-My-God Particle". Fourmilab.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/27/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.