Orders of magnitude (temperature)

Temperature in °C compared to the thermodynamic scale in electron volts, which are also used as a unit of temperature.

List of orders of magnitude for temperature

00 KAbsolute zero: free bodies are still, no interaction within or without a thermodynamic system
10−6 yKParticular speeds bound paths to exceed size and lifetime of the universe
(see least-energy in orders of magnitude (energy))
1 aKMacroscopic teleportation of matter
Hawking temperature of Supermassive black holes
1 fKAtomic waves coherent over centimeters
atomic particles decoherent over centimeters
1 pK100 pK, lowest temperature ever produced, during the nuclear magnetic ordering at Helsinki University of Technology's Low Temperature Lab[1]
450 pK, lowest temperature sodium Bose–Einstein condensate gas ever achieved in the laboratory, at MIT[2]
1 nK50 nK, Fermi temperature of potassium-40
critical temperature of alkali Bose–Einstein condensates
1 μKNuclear demagnetization
Doppler-cooled refrigerants in laser cooling and magneto-optical traps
1 mKRadio excitations
1.7 mK, temperature record for helium-3/helium-4 dilution refrigeration, and the lowest temperature which may be sustained for arbitrarily long time with known techniques.
2.5 mK, Fermi melting point of helium-3
60 mK adiabatic demagnetization of paramagnetic molecules
300 mK in evaporative cooling of helium-3
700 mK, helium-3/helium-4 mixtures begin phase separation
950 mK, melting point of helium
microwave excitations
1 K1 K at the Boomerang Nebula, the coldest natural environment known
1.5 K, melting point of overbound helium
2.19 K, lambda point of overbound superfluid helium
2.725 K, cosmic microwave background
4.1 K, superconductivity point of mercury
4.22 K, boiling point of bound helium
5.19 K, critical temperature of helium
7.2 K, superconductivity point of lead
9.3 K, superconductivity point of niobium
10110 KFermi melting point of valence electrons for superconductivity
14.01 K, melting point of bound hydrogen
20.28 K, boiling point of bound hydrogen
33 K, critical temperature of hydrogen
44 K mean on Pluto
53 K mean of Neptune
63 K, melting point of bound nitrogen
68 K mean of Uranus
77.35 K, boiling point of bound nitrogen
90.19 K, boiling point of bound oxygen
92 K, superconductivity point of YBaCuoxide (YBCO)
102100 KInfrared excitations
134 K, highest-temperature superconductor at ambient pressure, mercury barium calcium copper oxide
165 K, glass point of supercooled water
184.0 K (–89.2 °C), coldest air recorded on Earth
192 K, Debye temperature of ice
273.15 K (0 °C), melting point of bound water
273.16 K (0.01 °C), temperature of triple point of water (defining constant)
~293 K, room temperature
373.15 K (100 °C), boiling point of bound water at sea level
647 K, critical point of superheated water
737.5 K, mean on Venus

See detailed list below

1 kKVisible light excitations
500–2200 K on brown dwarfs (photosphere)
1043 K Curie temperature of iron (point at which iron transitions from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic behavior and loses any permanent magnetism)
1170 K at wood fire
1300 K in lava flows, open flames
1500 K in basalt lava flows
~1670 K at blue candle flame
1811 K, melting point of iron (lower for steel)
1830 K in Bunsen burner flame
1900 K at the Space Shuttle orbiter hull in 8 km/s dive
2022 K, boiling point of lead
2230 K, Debye temperature of carbon
2320 K at open hydrogen flame
2150–2450 K at open hydrocarbon flame
2900 K, color temperature of halogen lamps, blackbody radiation maximum at 1000 nm
3683 K, melting point of tungsten
3925 K, sublimation point of carbon
4160 K, melting point of hafnium carbide
4800 K, 10 MPa, triple point of carbon[3]
5000 K, 12 GPa melting point of diamond[4]
5100 K in cyanogen-dioxygen flame
5516 K at dicyanoacetylene (carbon subnitride)-ozone flame
5650 K at Earth's Inner Core Boundary
5780 K on surface of the Sun
5933 K, boiling point of tungsten
6000 K, mean of the Universe 300,000 years after the Big Bang
7445 K, 850 GPa;[5] 8750 K, 520 GPa;[6] 5400 K, 220 GPa,[7] critical point of diamond/solid III
7735 K, a monatomic ideal gas has one electron volt of kinetic energy
ultraviolet excitations
8000 K, routinely sustainable temperature in an analytical inductively coupled plasma
8801 K, 10.56 GPa[8] 7020.5 K, 797 MPa,[9] critical point of carbon
anionic sparks
10410 kK10 kK on Sirius A
10–15 kK in mononitrogen recombination
15.5 kK, critical point of tungsten
25 kK, mean of the Universe 10,000 years after the Big Bang
26 kK on white dwarf Sirius B
28 kK in record cationic lightning over Earth
4–8–40–160 kK on white dwarfs
30–400 kK on a planetary nebula's asymptotic giant helium star
37 kK in protonelectron reactions
38 kK on Eta Carinae
50 kK at protostar (core)
53 kK on Wolf–Rayet star R136a1
54.5 kK on ON2 III(f*) star LH64-16[10]
>200 kK on Butterfly Nebula
~300 kK at 17 meters from Little Boy's detonation
Fermi boiling point of valence electrons
X-ray excitations
1 MK0.8 MK in solar wind
γ-ray excitations
1 MK inside old neutron stars, brown dwarfs, and at gravital deuterium fusion range
1–3–10 MK above Sun (corona)
2.4 MK at T Tauri stars and gravital lithium-6 fusion range
2.5 MK at red dwarfs and gravital protium fusion range
10 MK at orange dwarfs and gravital helium-3 fusion range
15.6 MK at Sun's core
10–30–100 MK in stellar flares
20 MK in novæ
23 MK, beryllium-7 fusion range
60 MK above Eta Carinae
85 MK (15 keV) in a magnetic confinement fusion plasma
200 MK at helium star and gravital helium-4 fusion range
230 MK, gravital carbon-12 fusion range
460 MK, gravital neon fusiondisproportionation range
5–530 MK in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor's plasma
750 MK, gravital oxygen fusion range
1 GK1 GK, everything 100 seconds after the Big Bang
1.3–1.7 GK, gravital silicon fusion range
3 GK in electronpositron reactions
10 GK in supernovae
10 GK, everything 1 second after the Big Bang
700 GK in quasars' accretion discs
740 GK, Hagedorn temperature or Fermi melting point of pions
1 TK0.1–1 TK at new neutron star
0.5–1.2 TK, Fermi melting point of hadrons into quark–gluon plasma
3–5 TK in protonantiproton reactions
3.6 TK, temperature at which matter doubles in mass (compared to its mass at 0 K) due to relativistic effects
5.5 TK, highest man-made temperature in thermal equilibrium as of 2015 (quark–gluon plasma from ALICE)[11]
10 TK, 100 microseconds after the Big Bang
45–67 TK at collapsar of a gamma-ray burst
300–900 TK at protonnickel conversions in the Tevatron's Main Injector
1 PK0.3–2.2 PK at protonantiproton collisions

2.8 PK within an electroweak star

1 EK2–13 EK at heavy nuclear conversions in the Large Hadron Collider
1 ZKDark matter at active galactic nuclei
1 YK0.5–7 YK at ultra-high-energy cosmic ray collisions
103 YKElectrocoloral excitations
everything 10−35 seconds after the Big Bang
106 YKHagedorn temperature of strings
108 YK142 million YK, Planck temperature of Planck particles and geons or kugelblitzes
everything 5×10−44 seconds after the Big Bang
109 YKTheory of everything excitations
Extradimensional gauge freedom
Landau poles
∞ KInitial singularity

Detailed list for 100 K to 1000 K

Most ordinary human activity takes place at temperatures of this order of magnitude. Circumstances where water naturally occurs in liquid form are shown in light grey.

Kelvin Degrees
100 K−173.15 °C−279.67 °F
125 K−148 °C−234 °FSuperconductivity point of TlBaCuoxide
138 K−135 °C−211 °FSuperconductivity point of HgTlBaCaCuoxide
143.15 K−130 °C−202 °FMean on Saturn
153.15 K−120 °C−184 °FMean on Jupiter
179.9 K−93.2 °C−135.8 °FColdest luminance temperature recorded on Earth (measured remotely by satellite), in Antarctica at 81.8° S, 59.3° E on 2010-08-10[12]
182 K−91 °C−132 °FUnconfirmed air temperature at Stántsiya Vostók, Antarctica in 1997[13][14]
183.7 K−89.5 °C−129.1 °FFreezing/Melting point of isopropyl alcohol[15]
183.9 K−89.2 °C−128.6 °FColdest officially recorded air temperature on Earth, at Stántsiya Vostók, Antarctica on 1983-07-21 01:45 UTC (see Vostok Station)
194.6 K−78.5 °C−109.3 °FSublimation point of carbon dioxide (dry ice)
202 K−71 °C−96 °FUnofficial air temperature in the Rocky Mountains near Fort Nelson, British Columbia, Canada on the night of January 6–7, 1982[14]
203.8 K−69.4 °C−92.9 °FUnofficial air temperature in Greenland on 1991-12-22 at 72°18' N, 40°28' W[14]
205.5 K−67.7 °C−89.9 °FColdest officially recorded air temperature in the Northern Hemisphere, at Oymyakon, Siberia, Soviet Union on 1933-02-06[14]
210 K−63 °C−81 °FColdest officially recorded air temperature in North America, at Snag, Yukon, Canada on 1947-02-03[14][16]
210 K−63 °C−80 °FMean on Mars
214.9 K–58.3 °C–72.9 °FColdest annual mean temperature on Earth, at Dome Argus, Antarctica[17]
223.15 K-50 °C-58 °FMean on Earth during Snowball Earth[18] around 650 million years ago
224.8 K−48.4 °C−55.0 °FColdest temperature that water can remain a liquid (see supercooling)
225 K−48 °C−55 °FFreezing/Melting point of cottonseed oil[19]
233.15 K−40 °C−40 °FIntersecting point of the Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales
Skin may freeze almost instantly at or below this temperature[20]
234.3 K−38.83 °C−37.89 °FFreezing/melting point of mercury
240.4 K−32.8 °C−27.0 °FColdest air temperature recorded in South America, at Sarmiento, Argentina on 1907-06-01[16]
249 K–24 °C–11 °FFreezing/melting point of flax seed oil[19]
249.3 K–23.9 °C–11.0 °FColdest air temperature recorded in Africa, at Ifrane, Morocco on 1935-02-11[16]
250 K–23 °C–9 °FColdest air temperature recorded in Australia, at Charlotte Pass, New South Wales, Australia on 1994-06-29[16]
255 K−18 °C−0.4 °FRecommended for keeping food frozen
255.37 K–17.78 °C0 °FColdest brine-ice solution found by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
255 K–18 °C0 °FFreezing/Melting point of almond oil[19]
256 K–17 °C1 °FFreezing/Melting point of sunflower oil[19]
256 K–17 °C2 °FFreezing/Melting point of safflower oil[19]
257 K–16 °C3 °FFreezing/Melting point of soybean oil[19]
262 K−11 °C12 °FFreezing/Melting point of corn oil[19]
263.15 K–10 °C14 °FFreezing/Melting point of canola oil[19]
Freezing/melting point of grape seed oil[19]
265 K–8 °C18 °FWhite frost can form below this temperature (see frost)
Freezing/melting point of hemp seed oil[19]
265.8 K-7.2 °C 19 °FFreezing/Melting point of bromine
267 K–6 °C21 °FFreezing/Melting point of olive oil[19]
Freezing/melting point of sesame oil[19]
272 K−1.1 °C30 °FChilly sea
273.15 K0.00 °C32.00 °FFreezing/Melting point of water (at STP)
276 K3 °C37 °FFreezing/Melting point of peanut oil[21]
277.13 K3.98 °C39.16 °FWater is at maximum density[22]
278 K5 °C41 °FRecommended for keeping food cool
286.9 K12.7 °C54.9 °FColdest body temperature of a human that survived accidental hypothermia (a 2-year-old boy in Racławice, Poland, on November 30, 2014)[23][24]
287 K14 °C57 °FMean on Earth
288 K15 °C59 °FHottest air temperature recorded in Antarctica, at Vanda Station on 1974-05-01[16]
294 K21 °C70 °FRoom temperature
296 K23 °C73 °FMean on Earth during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum[25] about 55.8 million years ago
297 K24 °C75 °FMelting/Freezing point of palm kernel oil[19]
298 K25 °C77 °FMelting/Freezing point of coconut oil[19]
300 K27 °C80.6 °FEstimated melting/freezing point of francium
301 K28 °C82.4 °FMinimum temperature for a naked human to be comfortable[26]
302 K29 °C84 °FHeated indoor swimming pool for recreational swimming
302.9 K29.8 °C85.6 °FMelting/Freezing point of gallium
303.15 K30 °C86 °FMaximum temperature for a naked human to be comfortable[26]
304 K31 °C88 °FMelting/Freezing point of butter, critical point for carbon dioxide
307 K34 °C93 °FKindling point of white phosphorus
307.6 K34.4 °C93.9 °FHottest annual mean temperature on Earth, at Dallol, Ethiopia[17]
308 K35 °C95 °FHypothermic body temperature for humans (see Hypothermia)
Warmest sea measured, at the Red Sea
Melting/freezing point of palm oil[19]
310.0 K36.8 °C98.2 °FAverage body temperature for a human[27] (see Human body temperature)
311.03 K37.87 °C100.2 °FBeginnings of a fever for humans[27]
311.8 K38.6 °C101.5 °FAverage body temperature for a cat[28]
313.15 K40 °C104 °FMaximum standard temperature recommended for hot tub users[29]
315 K42 °C108 °FUsually fatal human fever
319.3 K46.1 °C115 °FWorld's hottest air temperature recorded while raining, at Needles, California, USA on August 13, 2012[30]
319.7 K46.5 °C115.7 °FHighest human fever survived (Willie Jones)[31]
322.1 K48.9 °C120.0 °FHottest air temperature recorded in South America, at Rivadavia, Argentina on 1905-12-11[16]
Maximum safe temperature for hot water according to numeric U.S. plumbing codes[32]
Water will cause a second-degree burn after 8 minutes and a third-degree burn after 10 minutes[32]
323.9 K50.7 °C123.3 °FHottest air temperature recorded in the Southern Hemisphere, at Oodnadatta, Australia on 1960-02-01[16]
326.7 K53.5 °C128.3 °FHottest reliably measured air temperature in Eurasia, at Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan on 2010-05-26[33]
327 K54 °C129 °FHottest officially recorded air temperature in Eurasia, at Tirat Tsvi, Israel on 1942-06-21 (this measurement is an error[34])
327.2 K54.0 °C129.2 °FHottest reliably measured air temperatures on Earth (according to some meteorologists), at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California, USA on 2013-06-30,[35][36] and at Mitribah, Kuwait on 2016-07-21.[36]
328.2 K55.0 °C131.0 °FHottest official air temperature in Africa, at Kebili, Tunisia on 1931-07-07[16] (accuracy of this measurement is disputed)[34]
Water will cause a second-degree burn in 17 seconds and a third-degree burn in 30 seconds[32]
330 K57 °C134 °FHottest official air temperature on Earth, at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California, USA on 1913-07-10[16] (accuracy of this measurement is disputed)[34][35]
333.15 K60 °C140 °FRecommended for keeping food warm
Water will cause a second-degree burn in 3 seconds and a third-degree burn in 5 seconds[32]
336 K63 °C145.4 °FMilk pasteurization
342 K69 °C157 °FBoiling point of water on the summit of Mount Everest[37]
343.15 K70 °C158 °FFood is well done
Hot springs at which some bacteria thrive
350 K77 °C170 °FPoaching of food
351.52 K78.37 °C173.07 °FBoiling point of ethanol
353.15 K80 °C176 °F Average temperature of a sauna
355 K82 °C180 °FRecommended for coffee brewing
355.6 K82.4 °C180.3 °FBoiling point of isopropyl alcohol[15]
366 K93 °C200 °FSimmering of food
367 K94 °C201 °FHottest luminance temperature recorded on Earth at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California, USA on 1972-07-15[38]
371 K98 °C209 °FMelting point of sodium
372 K99 °C210 °FCake is well done
373.13 K99.98 °C211.97 °FBoiling point of water at sea level (see Celsius)
380 K107 °C225 °FOven on very low
Smoke point of raw safflower oil
Syrup is concentrated to 75% sugar
388 K115 °C239 °FMelting/Freezing point of sulfur
400 K127 °C260 °FConcorde nose tip during supersonic flight
Coldest known stars in space (approximate temperature)[39]
408 K135 °C275 °FOven on low
433.15 K160 °C320 °FSyrup is concentrated to 100% sugar
Sucrose (table sugar) caramelizes
444 K171 °C325 °FOven on low-medium
450 K177 °C350 °FOven on medium
Mean on Mercury
Smoke point of butter
Deep frying
453.15 K180 °C356 °FPopcorn pops
477 K204 °C400 °FOven on medium-high
483 K210 °C410 °FAutoignition (kindling) point of diesel fuel
491 K218 °C425 °FOven on high
Kindling point of paper
519 K246 °C475 °FOven on very high
Kindling point of automotive gasoline
522 K249 °C480 °FKindling point of jet fuel (Jet A/Jet A-1)[40]
525 K252 °C485 °FSmoke point of milkfat
Kindling point of jet fuel (Jet B)[40]
538 K265 °C510 °FSmoke point of refined safflower oil
574.59 K301.44 °C574.59 °FApproximate intersecting point of the Fahrenheit and Kelvin temperature scales
600.65 K327.5 °C621.5 °FMelting/Freezing point of lead
723.15 K450 °C842 °FKindling point of aviation gasoline[40]
738 K465 °C870 °FMean on Venus
749 K476 °C889 °FKindling point of magnesium
755 K482 °C900 °FElectric oven on the self-cleaning cycle
798 K525 °C977 °FDraper Point (the point at which nearly all objects start to glow dim red)[41]
809 K536 °C997 °FKindling point of hydrogen
933.47 K660.32 °C1220.58 °FMelting/Freezing point of aluminium
1000 K726.85 °C1340.33 °F

SI Multiples

SI multiples for kelvin (K)
Submultiples Multiples
Value SI symbol Name Value SI symbol Name
10−1 K dK decikelvin 101 K daK decakelvin
10−2 K cK centikelvin 102 K hK hectokelvin
10−3 K mK millikelvin 103 K kK kilokelvin
10−6 K µK microkelvin 106 K MK megakelvin
10−9 K nK nanokelvin 109 K GK gigakelvin
10−12 K pK picokelvin 1012 K TK terakelvin
10−15 K fK femtokelvin 1015 K PK petakelvin
10−18 K aK attokelvin 1018 K EK exakelvin
10−21 K zK zeptokelvin 1021 K ZK zettakelvin
10−24 K yK yoctokelvin 1024 K YK yottakelvin


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