Computer performance by orders of magnitude
Hectoscale computing (102)
- 2.2×102 Upper end of serialized human through put. This is roughly expressed by the lower limit of accurate event placement on small scales of time (The swing of a conductors arm, the reaction time to lights on a drag strip etc.)
- 2×102 IBM 602 1946 computer.
Kiloscale computing (103)
- 92×103 Intel 4004 First commercially available full function CPU on a chip, released in 1971
- 500×103 Colossus computer vacuum tube supercomputer 1943
Megascale computing (106)
- 1×106 Motorola 68000 commercial computing 1979
- 1.2×106 IBM 7030 "Stretch" transistorized supercomputer 1961
Gigascale computing (109)
- 1×109 ILLIAC IV 1972 supercomputer does first computational fluid dynamics problems
- 1.354×109 Intel Pentium III commercial computing 1999
- 147.6×109 Intel Core-i7 980X Extreme Edition commercial computing 2010
Terascale computing (1012)
- 1.34×1012 Intel ASCI Red 1997 Supercomputer
- 1.344×1012 GeForce GTX 480 from NVIDIA at its peak performance
- 4.64×1012 Radeon HD 5970 from ATI at its peak performance
- 5.152×1012 S2050/S2070 1U GPU Computing System from NVIDIA
- 80×1012 IBM Watson
Petascale computing (1015)
Main article: Petascale computing
- 1.026×1015 IBM Roadrunner 2009 Supercomputer
- 8.1×1015 Fastest computer system as of 2012 is the Folding@home distributed computing system
- 17.17×1015 IBM Sequoia's Linpack performance, June 2013
- 33.86×1015 Tianhe-2's Linpack performance, June 2013
- 36.8×1015 Estimated computational power required to simulate a human brain in real time.
- 93.01×1015 Sunway TaihuLight's Linpack performance, June 2016
Exascale computing (1018)
Main article: Exascale computing
- 1×1018 It is estimated that the need for exascale computing will become pressing around 2018
- 1.5×1018 Bitcoin network Hash Rate reached 1.5 Exahashes per seconds in mid 2016
Zettascale computing (1021)
- 1×1021 Accurate global weather estimation on the scale of approximately 2 weeks. Assuming Moore's law remains constant, such systems may be feasible around 2030.
A zettascale computer system could generate more single floating point data in one second than was stored by any digital means on Earth in first quarter 2011.
Yottascale computing (1024)
- 257.6×1024 Estimated computational power required to simulate 7 billion brains in real time.
- Futures studies – study of possible, probable, and preferable futures, including making projections of future technological advances
- History of computing hardware (1960s–present)
- List of emerging technologies – new fields of technology, typically on the cutting edge. Examples include genetics, robotics, and nanotechnology (GNR).
- Artificial intelligence – computer mental abilities, especially those that previously belonged only to humans, such as speech recognition, natural language generation, etc.
- Quantum computing
- Moore's law – observation (not actually a law) that, over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors on integrated circuits doubles approximately every two years. The law is named after Intel co-founder Gordon E. Moore, who described the trend in his 1965 paper.
- Timeline of computing
- Technological singularity – hypothetical point in the future when computer capacity rivals that of a human brain, enabling the development of strong AI — artificial intelligence at least as smart as a human.
- TOP500 – list of the 500 most powerful (non-distributed) computer systems in the world
- "How many frames per second can the human eye see?". 2004-05-19. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
- Overclock3D - Sandra CPU
- Tony Pearson, IBM Watson - How to build your own "Watson Jr." in your basement, Inside System Storage
- http://top500.org/list/2016/06/ Top500 list, june 2016
- "'Exaflop' Supercomputer Planning Begins". 2008-02-02. Retrieved 2010-01-04.
Through the IAA, scientists plan to conduct the basic research required to create a computer capable of performing a million trillion calculations per second, otherwise known as an exaflop.
- Bitcoin hash rate chart
- DeBenedictis, Erik P. (2005). "Reversible logic for supercomputing". Proceedings of the 2nd conference on Computing frontiers. pp. 391–402. ISBN 1-59593-019-1.
- Moore, Gordon E. (1965). "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits" (PDF). Electronics Magazine. p. 4. Retrieved 2006-11-11.