Orders of magnitude (force)
Since weight under gravity is a force, several of these examples refer to the weight of various objects. Unless otherwise stated, these are weights under average Earth gravity at sea level.
Below 1 N
||3.6×10−47 N||Gravitational attraction of the proton and the electron in hydrogen atom|
||8.9×10−30 N||Weight of an electron|
||1.6×10−26 N||Weight of a hydrogen atom|
|5 yN||Force necessary to synchronize the motion of a single trapped ion with an external signal measured in a 2010 experiment|
|10−22||170 yN||Force measured in a 2010 experiment by perturbing 60 beryllium-9 ions|
|10−14||~10 fN||Brownian motion force on an E. coli bacterium averaged over 1 second|
|~10 fN||Weight of an E. coli bacterium|
|10−13||~100 fN||Force to stretch double-stranded DNA to 50% relative extension|
|~4 pN||Force to break a hydrogen bond|
|~5 pN||Maximum force of a molecular motor|
|10−10||~160 pN||Force to break a typical noncovalent bond|
|~1.6 nN||Force to break a typical covalent bond|
||8.2×10−8 N||Force on an electron in a hydrogen atom|
||2×10−7 N||Force between two 1 meter long conductors, 1 meter apart by the definition of one ampere|
|1–150 μN||Output of FEEP ion thrusters used in NASA's Laser Interferometer Space Antenna|
|10−2||19-92 mN||Thrust of the NSTAR ion engine tested on NASA's space probe Deep Space 1|
1 N and above
|newton (N)||1 N||The weight of an average apple|
|10 N||9.8 N||One kilogram-force, nominal weight of a 1 kg object at sea level on Earth|
|102 N||720 N||Average force of human bite, measured at molars|
|8 kN||The maximum force achieved by weight lifters during a 'clean and jerk' lift|
|9 kN||The bite force of one adult American alligator|
|104 N||16.5 kN||The bite force of a 5.2m Saltwater Crocodile|
|18 kN||The estimated bite force of a 6.1m adult great white shark|
|25.5 to 34.5 kN||The estimated bite force of a large 6.7m adult Saltwater Crocodile|
|45 kN||The force applied by the engine of a small car during peak acceleration|
|105 N||100 kN||The average force applied by seatbelt and airbag to a restrained passenger in a car which hits a stationary barrier at 100 km/h|
|890 kN||Maximum pulling force (tractive effort) of a single large diesel-electric locomotive|
|1.8 MN||Thrust of Space Shuttle Main Engine at lift-off|
|1.9 MN||Weight of the largest Blue Whale|
|107 N||35 MN||Thrust of Saturn V rocket at lift-off|
|108 N||570 MN||Simplistic estimate of force of sunlight on Earth|
|1020 N||2.0×1020 N||Gravitational attraction between Earth and Moon|
|1022 N||3.5×1022 N||Gravitational attraction between Earth and Sun|
|1032 N||2.25×1032 N||Gravitational attraction between Sagittarius A* and Sun|
|1044 N||1.2×1044 N||The Planck force|
- Hugh D. Young, University Physics 4th Ed, 1992, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co, Inc.
- Knünz, S.; Herrmann, M.; Batteiger, V.; Saathoff, G.; Hänsch, T.; Vahala, K.; Udem, T. (2010). "Injection Locking of a Trapped-Ion Phonon Laser". Physical Review Letters. 105 (1): 013004. Bibcode:2010PhRvL.105a3004K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.013004. PMID 20867440.
- "Single atoms for detecting extremely weak forces". Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
- Brumfiel, G. (2010). "Scientists measure atomic nudge". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2010.187.
- M. J. Biercuk; H. Uys; J. W. Britton; A. P. VanDevender; J. J. Bollinger (9 Apr 2010). "YoctoNewton force detection sensitivity using trapped ions". arXiv:1004.0780.
detection of forces as small as 174 yN
- "Forces involved at the biological level". PicoTwist. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "E. coli Statistics". The CyberCell Database. Retrieved 2011-09-11.
- Calculated: weight = mass * g = 1e-15 kg * 9.81 m/s^2 = 1e-14 N
- "NSTAR Ion Thruster". NASA. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
thrust from 19 mN to 92 mN
- Lafferty, Peter & Julian Rowe. The Dictionary of Science. New York: Helicon, 1993: 404.
- "Appendix B8—Factors for Units Listed Alphabetically". NIST Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI). NIST. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- Houston T E, Bite Force and Bite Pressure: Comparisons of Humans and Dogs, 2003
- The Human Machine By R. McNeill Alexander, Mark Iley, Sally Alexander
- Erickson, G. M.; Lappin, A. K.; Vliet, K. A. (2003). "The ontogeny of bite-force performance in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)" (PDF). Journal of Zoology. 260 (3): 317. doi:10.1017/S0952836903003819. 9452 N
- "Crocodiles Have Strongest Bite Ever Measured, Hands-on Tests Show". Retrieved 15 March 2012.
The "winners"—saltwater crocodiles—slammed their jaws shut with 3,700 pounds per square inch (psi), or 16,460 newtons, of bite force.
- "Great White Tops List of Hardest-Biting Sharks". Discovery News. Discovery Channel. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
a bite force of 9,320 Newton at the tip of its jaws and 18,216 N at the back of its jaws
- "Insights into the Ecology and Evolutionary Success of Crocodilians Revealed through Bite-Force and Tooth-Pressure Experimentation". Retrieved 14 March 2012.
scientifically documented 6.7-meter long Crocodylus porosus individuals were likely capable of molariform bite forces of approximately 27,531 N to 34,424 N (6,187 to 7,736 lbs).
- Lawrence Weinstein and John A. Adams, Guesstimation, 2008, Section 6.3.1
- "Space Shuttle Main Engine". Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
109% power level at sea level: 418,000 lb
- Wade, Mark. "SSME". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
Launches normally used 104% ... as a maximum
- Calculated: 418000 lbf * 4.45 N/lbf * (104% launch power level / 109%) = 1.77e6 N.
- "What Was the Saturn V?". NASA. Archived from the original on 10 November 2010. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
The rocket generated 34.5 million newtons ... of thrust at launch
- 1.63 x 10−14 x gravitational attraction between Earth and Sun, assuming total absorption of sunlight Sunlight Exerts Pressure, NASA Glenn LTP Math & Science Resources
- Calculated: Planck length * Planck mass / (Planck time)^2 = 1.616e-35 m * 2.177e-8 kg / (5.391e-44)^2 = 1.21e44 N.
- CODATA — Planck length
- CODATA — Planck mass
- CODATA — Planck time