The Penitent Magdalene, c. 1598
|Apostle to the Apostles|
Place: possibly Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France, or Ephesus, Asia Minor
Eastern Orthodox Church|
other Protestant churches
|Attributes||red egg (symbol of the resurrection); embracing the feet of Christ after the Resurrection|
|Patronage||Apothecaries; Kawit, Cavite; Atrani, Italy; Casamicciola Terme, Ischia; contemplative life; converts; glove makers; hairdressers; penitent sinners; people ridiculed for their piety; perfumeries; pharmacists; sexual temptation; tanners; women|
Mary Magdalene (Hebrew: מרים המגדלית, original Biblical Greek: Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνή), literally translated as Mary the Magdalene or Mary of Magdala, is a figure in Christianity who, according to the Bible, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers. She is said to have witnessed Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection. Within the four Gospels she is named at least 12 times, more than most of the apostles. Based off texts of the early Christian era in the third century, it seems that her status as an “apostle" rivals even Peter's.
The Gospel of Luke says seven demons had gone out of her,[Lk. 8:2] and the longer ending of Mark says Jesus had cast seven demons out of her.[Mk. 16:9] She is most prominent in the narrative of the crucifixion of Jesus, at which she was present. She was also present two days later, immediately following the sabbath, when, according to all four canonical Gospels,[Matthew 28:1–8] [Mark 16:9–10] [Luke 24:10] [John 20:18] she was, either alone or as a member of a group of women, the first to testify to the resurrection of Jesus. John 20 and Mark 16:9 specifically name her as the first person to see Jesus after his resurrection.
Mary Magdalene is considered to be a saint by the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran churches—with a feast day of July 22. Other Protestant churches honor her as a heroine of the faith. The Eastern Orthodox churches also commemorate her on the Sunday of the Myrrhbearers, the Orthodox equivalent of one of the Western Three Marys traditions. During the Middle Ages, Mary Magdalene was regarded in Western Christianity as a repentant prostitute or promiscuous woman, accusations not found in any of the four canonical gospels.
Identity: Marys in the New Testament
Mary was a very common name in New Testament times, held by a number of women in the canonical Gospels. The reception history of Mary Magdalene has been greatly affected by different interpretations that biblical references actually refer to her, beyond those where she is identified by the toponym "Magdalene". Historically, the Greek Orthodox church Fathers, as a whole, distinguished among what they believed were three Marys:
- The Virgin Mary, mother of Christ
- Mary of Bethany, the sister of Martha and Lazarus Luke 10:38–42 and John 11 John 12.
- Mary Magdalene
In the four Gospels, Mary Magdalene is nearly always distinguished from other women named Mary by adding "the Magdalene" (ἡ Μαγδαληνή) to her name. This has been interpreted to mean "the woman from Magdala", a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. Luke 8:2 says that she was actually "called Magdalene". In Hebrew מגדל Migdal means "tower", "fortress"; in Aramaic, "Magdala" means "tower" or "elevated, great, magnificent". Talmudic passages speak of a Miriam "hamegadela se’ar nasha", "Miriam, the plaiter of women’s hair" (Hagigah 4b; cf. Shabbat 104b), which could be a reference to Mary Magdalene serving as a hairdresser.
Mary Magdalene's name is mostly given as Μαρία (Maria), but in Matthew 28:1 as Μαριάμ (Mariam), both of which are regarded as Greek forms of Miriam, the Hebrew name for Moses' sister. The name had become very popular during Jesus' time due to its connections to the ruling Hasmonean and Herodian dynasties.
New Testament sources
Primary sources about Mary Magdalene come from the four canonical Gospels and apocryphal texts that were left out from the Bible. These apocryphal sources are dated from the end of the 1st to the early 4th century, all written well after St. Mary's death. The canonical gospels are dated from the second half of the 1st century. In addition, the Gregorian figure of the composite Magdalen developed an elaborate literary and artistic tradition in the Middle Ages.
During Jesus' ministry
After that, Jesus traveled about from one town and village to another. The Twelve were with him, and also some women who had been cured of evil spirits and diseases: Mary (called Magdalene) from whom seven demons had come out—and many others. These women were helping to support them out of their own means.
Luke 8:2 and Mark 16:9 say Jesus cleansed her of "seven demons". Some interpret this as meaning that he healed her from mental or physical illnesses. That she provided for the apostles suggests she was prosperous. The statement in Mark is part of the "longer ending" of that Gospel, not found in the earliest manuscripts, and which may have been a second-century addition to the original text, possibly based on the Gospel of Luke.
During the crucifixion
It is at the time of the crucifixion and resurrection that Mary Magdalene comes to the fore in the gospels. Uniquely among the followers of Jesus, she is specified by name (though not consistently by any one gospel) as a witness to three key events: Jesus' crucifixion, his burial, and the discovery that his tomb was empty. Mark 15:40, Matthew 27:56 and John 19:25 mention Mary Magdalene as a witness to crucifixion, along with various other women. Luke does not name any witnesses, but mentions "women who had followed him from Galilee" standing at a distance.[Lk. 23:49]
After the crucifixion
In listing witnesses who saw where Jesus was buried by Joseph of Arimathea, Mark 15:47 and Matthew 27:61 both name only two people: Mary Magdalene and "the other Mary," who in Mark is "the mother of James." Luke 23:55 describes the witnesses as "the women who had come with Jesus from Galilee." John 19:39–42 mentions no other witness to Joseph's burial of Jesus except for Nicodemus. Mark 16:1 says "...Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices so that they might go to anoint Jesus’ body." The connection with the earlier Anointing of Jesus, and his remarks then, was one of the arguments used in favour of the "composite Magdalene."
After the resurrection
In Mark, Matthew, and John, Mary Magdalene is first witness to the resurrection. John 20:1 names Mary Magdalene in describing who discovered the tomb was empty. Mark 16:9 says she was accompanied by Salome and Mary the mother of James, while Matthew 28:1 omits Salome. Luke 24:10 says the group who reported to the disciples the finding of the empty tomb consisted of "Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary the mother of James, and the others with them". In Luke 24 the resurrection is announced to the women at the tomb by "two men in clothes that gleamed like lightning" who suddenly appeared next to them.
The final chapter of Mark's Gospel contains two narratives relating to Mary Magdalene: firstly that along with Mary the mother of James and Salome, she was advised by "a young man dressed in a white robe" that Jesus had risen, and given instructions to tell Jesus' disciples — and Peter — that he was going before them into Galilee, but through fear they told no one; and secondly, in the longer ending, that Jesus appeared "first" to Mary Magdalene (alone), who then related his appearance to "those who had been with him", but they did not believe her. The occurrence of these two different accounts is one of the factors contributing to the theory that Mark 16:9–20 is a later addition to the Gospel.
John 20:16 and Mark 16:9 both say that Jesus' first post-resurrection appearance was to Mary Magdalene, with no mention of others. In Matthew 28:9, Mary Magdalene is with the other women returning from the empty tomb when they all see the first appearance of Jesus.
The first actual appearance by Jesus that Luke mentions is later that day, when Cleopas and an unnamed disciple walked with a fellow traveler who they later realized was Jesus. The longer ending of Mark describes the same appearance as happening after the private appearance to Mary Magdalene. According to Luke "the apostles", and according to the longer ending of Mark "those who had been with him", did not believe Mary's report of what she saw. Neither Mary Magdalene nor any of the other women are mentioned by name in Paul's catalog of appearances at 1 Cor 15:5–8, which he begins with "he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve".
The Gospel of John[11:1–45] [12:1–8] and the Gospel of Luke[10:38–42] also mention "Mary of Bethany", the sister of Lazarus and Martha. Mary and Martha are among the most familiar sets of sisters in the Bible. Both Luke and John describe them as friends of Jesus. Luke's story, though only four verses long, has been a complex source of inspiration, interpretation, and debate for centuries. John's account, which says the sisters had a brother named Lazarus, spans seventy verses.
Among the women who are specifically named in the canonical gospels, Mary Magdalene's name is one of the most frequently found, appearing 12 times, always, except for Luke 8:2, in connection with the death and resurrection of Jesus. In Matthew 27:56, the author names three women in sequence: "Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of Zebedee's children". In the Gospel of Mark, the author lists a group of women three times, and each time Mary Magdalene’s name appears first. In the Gospel of Luke, the author enumerates the women who reported the tomb visit: "It was Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary the mother of James, and the other women with them." In the Gospel of John, on the other hand, Mary Magdalene is placed after Mary of Clopas.
According to Carla Ricci, "The place she [Mary Magdalene] occupied in the list cannot be considered fortuitous", because over and over Mary Magdalene's name is placed at the head of specifically named women, indicating her importance among the followers of Jesus. Ricci sees the significance of this as strengthened by a comparison with the lists of the twelve apostles, in which Peter occupies the first position, an indication of his importance.
Mary Magdalene does not appear in any other book of the New Testament apart from the Gospels. While she may have been among the women mentioned in Acts 1:14, she is not mentioned in the epistles of Paul the Apostle or the other epistles.
Development of the composite Magdalene
The "composite Magdalene" of the Middle Ages
Mary Magdalene has the reputation in Western Christianity as being a repentant prostitute or loose woman; however, these claims are not supported by the canonical gospels. The identity of Mary Magdalene is believed to have been merged with the identity of the unnamed sinner who anoints Jesus' feet in Luke 7:36–50. Mary Magdalene, the anointing sinner of Luke, and Mary of Bethany, who in John 11:1–2 also anoints Jesus' feet, were long regarded as the same person. Though Mary Magdalene is named in each of the four gospels in the New Testament, none of the clear references to her indicate that she was a prostitute or notable for a sinful way of life, nor link her with Mary of Bethany.
Although the notion of Mary Magdalene being a repentant sinner can be traced as far back as Ephrem the Syrian in the fourth century, the notion of her being a former prostitute or loose woman dates to a claim by Pope Gregory I ("Gregory the Great") made in an influential homily in around 591,, in which he identified Magdalene not only with the anonymous sinner with the perfume in Luke's gospel, but also with Mary of Bethany, the sister of Martha and Lazarus; this interpretation is often called the "composite Magdalene" in modern scholarship. The seven devils removed from her by Jesus "morphed into the seven capital sins, and Mary Magdalene began to be condemned not only for lust but for pride and covetousness as well."
She whom Luke calls the sinful woman, whom John calls Mary, we believe to be the Mary from whom seven devils were ejected according to Mark. What did these seven devils signify, if not all the vices?
It is clear, that the woman previously used the unguent to perfume her flesh in forbidden acts. What she therefore displayed more scandalously, she was now offering to God in a more praiseworthy manner. She had coveted with earthly eyes, but now through penitence these are consumed with tears. She displayed her hair to set off her face, but now her hair dries her tears. She had spoken proud things with her mouth, but in kissing the Lord’s feet, she now planted her mouth on the Redeemer’s feet. For every delight, therefore, she had had in herself, she now immolated herself. She turned the mass of her crimes to virtues, in order to serve God entirely in penance.
The aspect of the repentant sinner became almost equally significant as the disciple in her persona as depicted in Western art and religious literature, fitting well with the great importance of penitence in medieval theology. In subsequent religious legend, Mary's story became conflated with that of St Mary of Egypt, another repentant prostitute who then lived as a hermit. With that, Mary’s image was, according to Susan Haskins, author of Mary Magdalene: Myth and Metaphor, “finally settled...for nearly fourteen hundred years,” although in fact the most important late medieval popular accounts of her life describe her as a rich woman whose life of sexual freedom is purely for pleasure.
The "composite Magdalene" was never accepted by the Eastern Orthodox churches, who saw only Mary the disciple, and believed that after the Resurrection she lived as a companion to the Virgin Mary, and not even in the West was it universally accepted. The Benedictine Order always celebrated Mary of Bethany together with Martha and Lazarus of Bethany on 29 July, while Mary Magdalene was celebrated on 22 July. Not only John Chrysostom in the East (Matthew, Homily 88), but also Ambrose (De virginitate 3,14; 4,15) in the West, when speaking of Mary Magdalene after the resurrection of Jesus Christ, far from calling her a harlot, suggest she was a virgin. In 1518, on the brink of the Protestant Reformation, the leading French Renaissance humanist Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples wrote arguing against the conflation of Mary Magdalene, Mary of Bethany and the unnamed sinner in Luke. There was a flurry of books and pamphlets, most opposing Lefèvre d'Étaples, but others supporting him. In 1521 his views were formally condemned by the theology faculty of the Sorbonne, and debate died down, overtaken by the larger issues raised by Martin Luther. Although Protestant theologians and biblical commentators such as John Calvin rejected the composite Magdalene, for Luther and Zwingli Mary Magdalene is the composite Magdalene of medieval tradition, belief in it long survived the Reformation in much Protestant devotional literature, where the emphasis of depictions of Mary Magdalene continued to be on the penitent whose sins had been forgiven because of her love for Jesus.
From the 12th century Abbot Hugh of Semur (died 1109), Peter Abelard (died 1142), and Geoffrey of Vendome (died 1132) all referred to Mary Magdalene as the sinner who merited the title apostolorum apostola (Apostle to the Apostles), with the title becoming commonplace during the 12th and 13th centuries.
The common identification of Mary Magdalene with other New Testament figures was rejected in the 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar, with the comment regarding her liturgical celebration on 22 July: "No change has been made in the title of today's memorial, but it concerns only Saint Mary Magdalene, to whom Christ appeared after his resurrection. It is not about the sister of Saint Martha, nor about the sinful woman whose sins the Lord forgave (Luke 7:36–50)." Elsewhere it said of the Roman liturgy of 22 July that "it will make mention neither of Mary of Bethany nor of the sinful woman of Luke 7:36–50, but only of Mary Magdalene, the first person to whom Christ appeared after his resurrection". Mary of Bethany's feast day and that of her brother Lazarus is now on 29 July, the memorial of their sister Martha.
Nevertheless, the reputation still lingers. The identification of St. Mary Magdalene as a repentant prostitute was followed by many writers and artists into the 1990s. It is reflected in Martin Scorsese's film adaptation of Nikos Kazantzakis's novel The Last Temptation of Christ, in José Saramago's The Gospel According to Jesus Christ, Andrew Lloyd Webber's musical Jesus Christ Superstar, Mel Gibson's The Passion of the Christ, Jean-Claude La Marre's Color of the Cross and Hal Hartley's The Book of Life.
It was because of this association of St. Mary Magdalene having been a prostitute that she became the patroness of "wayward women", and Magdalene asylums became established to help save women from prostitution.
In Western art
The early notion of Mary Magdalene as a sinner and adulteress was reflected in Western medieval Christian art, where she was the most commonly depicted female figure after the Virgin Mary. She may be shown either as very extravagantly and fashionably dressed, unlike other female figures wearing contemporary styles of clothes, or alternatively as completely naked but covered by very long blond or reddish-blonde hair. The latter depictions represent the Penitent Magdalen, who according to medieval legend (details in next section) had spent a period of repentance as a desert hermit after leaving her life as a follower of Jesus. Her story became conflated in the West with that of Saint Mary of Egypt, a 4th-century prostitute turned hermit, whose clothes wore out and fell off in the desert. In medieval depictions Mary's long hair entirely covers her body and preserves her modesty (supplemented in some German versions such as one by Tilman Riemenschneider by thick body hair), but from the 16th century some depictions, like those by Titian, show part of her naked body, the amount of nudity tending to increase in successive periods. Even if covered, she often wears only a drape pulled around her, or an undergarment. In particular, Mary is often shown naked in the legendary scene of her "Elevation", where she is sustained in the desert by angels who raise her up and feed her heavenly manna, as recounted in the Golden Legend (quoted below).
Mary Magdalene at the foot of the cross during the Crucifixion appears in an 11th-century English manuscript "as an expressional device rather than a historical motif", intended as "the expression of an emotional assimilation of the event, that leads the spectator to identify himself with the mourners". Other isolated depictions occur, but from the 13th century additions to the Virgin Mary and John as the spectators at the Crucifixion become more common, with Mary Magdalene as the most frequently found, either kneeling at the foot of the cross clutching the shaft, sometimes kissing Christ's feet, or standing, usually at the left and behind Mary and John, with her arms stretched upwards towards Christ in a gesture of grief, as in a damaged painting by Cimabue in the upper church at Assisi of c.1290. A kneeling Magdalene by Giotto in the Scrovegni Chapel (c. 1305) was especially influential. As Gothic painted crucifixions became crowded compositions the Magdalene became a prominent figure, with a halo and identifiable by her long unbound blonde hair, and usually a bright red dress. As the swooning Virgin Mary became more common, generally occupying the attention of John, the unrestrained gestures of Magdalene increasingly represented the main display of the grief of the spectators.
Mary Magdalene is usually shown with long flowing hair, which she wears down over her shoulders, and may use either to cover her nakedness in the desert, or to dry Jesus's feet after washing them. The other women of the New Testament in these same depictions ordinarily have dark hair beneath a scarf, following contemporary standards of propriety by hiding their hair beneath headdresses or kerchiefs. Long hair was only worn loose in public by either prostitutes or (by the end of the Middle Ages) noblewomen; working and middle-class women were normally expected to keep their hair covered or at least bound up, with exceptions for festive occasions, in particular brides on their wedding day.
According to Robert Kiely, "No figure in the Christian Pantheon except Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and John the Baptist has inspired, provoked, or confounded the imagination of painters more than the Magdalene". Apart from the Crucifixion, Mary was often shown in scenes of the Passion of Jesus, when mentioned in the Gospels, such as the Crucifixion, Christ Carrying the Cross and Noli me Tangere, but usually omitted in other scenes showing the Twelve Apostles, such as the Last Supper. As Mary of Bethany, she is shown as present at the Resurrection of Lazarus, her brother, and in the scene with Jesus and her sister Martha, which began to be depicted often in the 17th century, as in Christ in the House of Martha and Mary by Velázquez.
Between the time of Pope Gregory I (590–604 AD), until Jacobus de Voragine's Golden Legend and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (Concerning Mary Magdalene) in 1519 AD, various versions of the Legend of Mary Magdalene circulated in the south of France and Germany. Odo of Cluny wrote a version in the 900s AD that described Mary's family as nobility, and in the Golden Legend they are magnates of royal descent, lords of Bethany and owning much property in Jerusalem. Her sinning is entirely non-commercial:
...Magdalene abounded in riches, and because delight is fellow to riches and abundance of things; and for so much as she shone in beauty greatly, and in riches, so much the more she submitted her body to delight, and therefore she lost her right name, and was called customably a sinner.
Most of the later legends speak of a Mary who after the Ascension of Jesus lived as a hermit in a cave for thirty years, communicating with angels. Single "portrait" figures of the Magdalene typically depicted her as the "Penitent Magdalene" in this period of her life (see above). In the words of William Caxton's English translation of the Golden Legend:
...the blessed Mary Magdalene, desirous of sovereign contemplation, sought a right sharp desert, and took a place which was ordained by the angel of God, and abode there by the space of thirty years without knowledge of anybody. In which place she had no comfort of running water, ne solace of trees, ne of herbs. And that was because our Redeemer did do show it openly, that he had ordained for her refection celestial, and no bodily meats. And every day at every hour canonical she was lifted up in the air of angels, and heard the glorious song of the heavenly companies with her bodily ears. Of which she was fed and filled with right sweet meats, and then was brought again by the angels unto her proper place, in such wise as she had no need of corporal nourishing.
The elaborately detailed (and conflicting) legends that brought Mary to Western Europe after Jesus's life on earth were very widely accepted in the Western church, though not at all by Eastern Orthodoxy, which had her retiring with the Virgin Mary, and dying in Ephesus. In the Golden Legend the "right sharp desert" where Mary retires to repent is located near Aix-en-Provence in the South of France. These legends are covered in the section below on the Roman Catholic tradition.
New Testament apocrypha and Gnostic texts
In apocryphal texts, she is portrayed as a visionary and leader of the early movement whom Jesus loved more than he loved the other disciples. Several Gnostic gospels, such as the Gospel of Mary, written in the early 2nd century, see Mary as the special disciple of Jesus who has a deeper understanding of his teachings and is asked to impart this to the other disciples.
Several Gnostic writings, usually dated to 2nd and 3rd centuries, paint a drastically different picture of Mary Magdalene from that of the canonical Gospels. In Gnostic writings Mary Magdalene is seen as one of the most important of Jesus' disciples, whom he loved more than the others. The Gnostic Gospel of Philip names Mary Magdalene as Jesus' companion. Gnostic writings describe tensions and jealousy between Mary Magdalene and other disciples, especially Peter.
Gospel of Mary
In her introduction in The Complete Gospels, Karen King names the manuscripts available for the Gospel of Mary. She writes that only three fragmentary manuscripts are known to have survived into the modern period, two 3rd-century fragments (P. Rylands 463 and P. Oxyrhynchus 3525) published in 1938 and 1983, and a longer 5th-century Coptic translation (Berolinensis Gnosticus 8052,1) published in 1955.
First discovered in 1896, the Gospel of Mary exalts Mary Magdalene over the male disciples of Jesus. The Gospel of Mary provides important information about the role of women in the early church, although it is missing six pages from the beginning, and four from the middle. It is usually dated to about the same period as that of the Gospel of Philip.
The identity of "Mary" appearing as the main character in this Gospel is sometimes disputed, but she is generally believed to be Mary Magdalene. The Gospel of Mary presents her as one of the disciples, says she has seen a private vision from the resurrected Jesus and describes it to other disciples:
Peter said to Mary, "Sister we know that the Savior loved you more than the rest of woman. Tell us the words of the Savior which you remember which you know, but we do not, nor have we heard them". Mary answered and said, "What is hidden from you I will proclaim to you". And she began to speak to them these words: "I", she said, "I saw the Lord in a vision and I said to Him, Lord I saw you today in a vision".
Almost all of Mary's vision is within the lost pages.
When Mary had said these things, she fell silent, since it was up to this point that the Savior had spoken to her.
Mary is then confronted by Andrew and Peter, who do not take for granted what she says, because she is a woman:
"Did he then speak secretly with a woman, in preference to us, and not openly? Are we to turn back and all listen to her? Did he prefer her to us?" Then Mary grieved and said to Peter, "My brother Peter, what do you think? Do you think that I thought this up myself in my heart or that I am lying concerning the Savior?"
Mary is defended by Levi:
"But if the Savior made her worthy, who are you to reject her? Surely the Savior knew her very well. For this reason he loved her more than us".
Gospel of Philip
Gospel of Philip, dating from the 2nd or 3rd century, survives in part among the texts found in Nag Hammadi in 1945. In a manner very similar to John 19:25–26, the Gospel of Philip presents Mary Magdalene among Jesus' female entourage, adding that she was his koinônos, a Greek word variously translated in contemporary versions as partner, associate, comrade, companion.
There were three who always walked with the Lord: Mary, his mother, and her sister, and Magdalene, who was called his companion. His sister, his mother and his companion were each a Mary.
Others' irritation from the love and affection presented by Jesus to Mary Magdalene is claimed in the apocryphal Gospel of Philip. The text is badly fragmented, and speculated but unreliable additions are shown in brackets:
And the companion of the saviour was Mary Magdalene. Christ loved Mary more than all the disciples, and used to kiss her often. The rest of the disciples were offended by it and expressed disapproval. They said to him, "Why do you love her more than all of us?" The Saviour answered and said to them, "Why do I not love you like her?"
Gospel of Thomas
Gospel of Thomas, usually dated to the late 1st or early 2nd century, was also among the finds in the Nag Hammadi library in 1945. It has two short references to a "Mary", generally regarded as Mary Magdalene. The latter of the two describes the sentiment towards female members of the early Gnostics:
Simon Peter said to them: Let Mary go forth from among us, for women are not worthy of the life. Jesus said: Behold, I shall lead her, that I may make her male, in order that she also may become a living spirit like you males. For every woman who makes herself male shall enter into the kingdom of heaven.
The manuscript gives 114 "secret teachings" of Jesus. Mary is mentioned briefly in saying 21. Here, Mary asks Jesus, "Whom are your disciples like?" Jesus responds, "They are like children who have settled in a field which is not theirs. When the owners of the field come, they will say, 'Let us have back our field.' They (will) undress in their presence in order to let them have back their field and to give it back to them". Following this, Jesus continues his explanation with a parable about the owner of a house and a thief, ending with the common rhetoric, "Whoever has ears to hear let him hear".
Pistis Sophia, possibly dating as early as the 2nd century, is the best surviving of the Gnostic writings. Pistis Sophia presents a long dialog with Jesus in the form of his answers to questions from his disciples. Of the 64 questions, 39 are presented by a woman who is referred to as Mary or Mary Magdalene. Jesus says of Mary:
"Mary, thou blessed one, whom I will perfect in all mysteries of those of the height, discourse in openness, thou, whose heart is raised to the kingdom of heaven more than all thy brethren".
Eastern Orthodox tradition
The Eastern Orthodox Church maintains that Mary Magdalene, distinguished from Mary of Bethany and the "sinful woman" who anoints Jesus in Luke,[Lk 7:36–50] had been a virtuous woman all her life, even before her conversion. They have never celebrated her as a penitent. This view finds expression both in her written life (βίος or vita) and in the liturgical service in her honor that is included in the Menaion and performed on her annual feast-day. There is a tradition that Mary Magdalene led so chaste a life that the devil thought she might be the one who was to bear Christ into the world, and for that reason he sent the seven demons to trouble her.
Mary Magdalene is honored as one of the first witnesses of the Resurrection of Jesus, and received a special commission from him to tell the Apostles of his resurrection.[Jn 20:11–18] She is often depicted on icons bearing a vessel of ointment, not because of the anointing by the "sinful woman", but because she was among those women who brought ointments to the tomb of Jesus. For this reason, she is called a Myrrhbearer.
Roman Catholic traditions
Connection with Gaul
Gregory of Tours, writing in Tours in the 6th century, supported the tradition of the eastern Church that she retired to Ephesus, with no mention of any connection to Gaul. But for most of the Middle Ages, the Western church believed that, after her period as a disciple of Jesus, Mary Magdalene had travelled to the south of France and died there.
How a cult of St. Mary Magdalene first arose in Provence has been summed up by Victor Saxer in the collection of essays in La Magdaleine, VIIIe – XIIIe siècle and by Katherine Ludwig Jansen, drawing on popular devotions, sermon literature and iconology. In Provence, Mary is said to have spent her last years alone in the wilderness, fasting and engaging in acts of penitential self-discipline, behavior that was rewarded with experiences of ecstatic union with the divine. Depictions of the Penitent Magdalen became enormously popular in preaching and art (see above).
The French tradition of Saint Lazarus of Bethany is that Mary, her brother Lazarus, and Maximinus, one of the Seventy Disciples and some companions, expelled by persecutions from the Holy Land, traversed the Mediterranean in a frail boat with neither rudder nor mast and landed at the place called Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer near Arles. Mary Magdalene came to Marseille and converted the whole of Provence. Magdalene is said to have retired to a cave on a hill by Marseille, La Sainte-Baume ("holy cave" baumo in Provençal), where she gave herself up to a life of penance for thirty years. When the time of her death arrived she was carried by angels to Aix and into the oratory of Maximinus, where she received the viaticum; her body was then laid in an oratory constructed by St. Maximinus at Villa Lata, afterwards called St. Maximin.
St. Mary Magdalene's relics were first venerated at the Abbey of la Madaleine, Vézelay in Burgundy from about 1050. Jacobus de Voragine gives the common account of the transfer of the relics of Mary Magdalene from her sepulchre in the oratory of Saint Maximin at Aix-en-Provence to the newly founded Vézelay; the transportation of the relics is entered as undertaken in 771 by the founder of the abbey, identified as Gerard, Duke of Burgundy. The earliest mention of this episode is the notice of the chronicler Sigebert of Gembloux (died 1112), who asserts that the relics were removed to Vézelay through fear of the Saracens.
On December 9, 1279, an excavation ordered by Charles II, King of Naples at Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume, Provence, led to the discovery of another purported burial of Mary Magdalene. The shrine was found intact, with an explanatory inscription stating why the relics had been hidden. Charles II commissioned the building of a new Gothic basilica on the site and, in return for providing accommodation for pilgrims, the town's residents were exempt from taxes. Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume gradually displaced Vézelay in popularity and acceptance.
The competition between the Cluniac Benedictines of Vézelay and the Dominicans of Saint-Maxime occasioned a rash of miraculous literature supporting the one or the other site. Jacobus de Voragine, compiling his Golden Legend before the competition arose, characterized Mary Magdalene as the emblem of penitence, washing the feet of Jesus with her copious tears following the "composite" figure, protectress of pilgrims to Jerusalem, daily lifting by angels at the meal hour in her fasting retreat and many other miraculous happenings in the genre of Romance, ending with her death in the oratory of Saint Maximin, all disingenuously claimed to have been drawn from the histories of Hegesippus and of Josephus.
According to another legend, on the way they were shipwrecked on the island of Malta, where Dingli, Rabat, Madliena (Maltese for Magdalene), and Valletta all have chapels or other dedications. Madliena in Gozo also had a chapel dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, but this was demolished.
During the Counter Reformation and Baroque periods (late 16th and 17th centuries), the cult of Mary Magdalene saw a great, new popularity as the Catholic Church publicized her as an attractive, persuasive model of repentance and reform, in keeping with the goals of the reform Council of Trent (1545–63). Numerous works of art and theater featuring the tearful penitent Magdalene appeared in the 17th century. As part of this new attention to the cult of the Magdalene, in 1600, her relics were placed in a sarcophagus commissioned by Pope Clement VIII, the head being placed in a separate reliquary. The relics and free-standing images were scattered and destroyed at the Revolution. In 1814, the church of La Sainte-Baume, also wrecked during the Revolution, was restored. In 1822, the grotto was consecrated afresh. The head of the saint now lies there and has been the centre of many pilgrimages.
In that period, the description "penitent" was added to the indication of her name on her feast day, 22 July. It had not yet been added at the time of the Tridentine Calendar of 1569 and is no longer found in the present General Roman Calendar but, once added, it remained until the General Roman Calendar of 1960. Mary Magdalene thus became a symbol of repentance from the vanities of the world. The Gospel reading in the Tridentine Mass was Luke 7:36–50 (the sinful woman anointing the feet of Jesus), while in the present version of the Roman Rite of Mass it is John 20:1–2, 11–8 (meeting of Mary Magdalene with Jesus after his resurrection). St. Mary Magdalene was the patron of Magdalen College, Oxford, and Magdalene College, Cambridge (both colleges pronounce her name as "maudlin"). In contrast, her name was also used for the Magdalen Asylums, institutions for "fallen women".
Apostle to the apostles
Matthew 28:1–8 and Luke 24:10 speak of women (in the plural), including Mary Magdalene, carrying out this function. An early Christian commentary on the Song of Songs, perhaps by Hippolytus of Rome (170–235), has Christ speak of two women, whom it calls Mary and Martha, as apostles to the apostles: "Christ showed himself to the (male) apostles and said to them: ... 'It is I who appeared to these women and I who wanted to send them to you as apostles.'"
Use of the actual term "apostle to the apostles" or "apostle of the apostles" is first attested much later than the time of Hippolytus. According to Darrell Bock, it first appears in the 10th century, but Katherine Ludwig Jansen says she found no reference to it earlier than the 12th, by which time it was already commonplace. She mentions in particular Hugh of Cluny (1024–1109), Peter Abelard (1079–1142), and Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–1153) among those who gave Mary Magdalene the title of apostolorum apostola (apostle of the apostles). Jane Schaberg adds Geoffrey of Vendôme (c. 1065/70–1132).
It is claimed that the equivalent of the phrase apostolorum apostola appeared already in the 9th century. Chapter XXVII of the Life of Mary Magdalene claiming to be written by Rabanus Maurus (c. 780 – 4 February 856) is headed: Ubi Magdalenam Christus ad apostolos mittit apostolam (Wherein Christ sends Magdalene as an apostle to the apostles). The same chapter says she did not delay in exercising the office of apostolate with which he had been honoured (apostolatus officio quo honorata fuerat fungi non distulit). Raymond E. Brown, commenting on this fact, remarks that Rabanus Maurus frequently applies the word "apostle" to Mary Magdalene in this work. However the work is actually no earlier than the 12th Century
Because of Mary Magdalene's position as an apostle, though not one of those who became official witnesses to the resurrection, the Catholic Church honoured her by reciting the Creed on her feast day, the only woman to be so honoured apart from Mary, the mother of Jesus.
In his apostolic letter Mulieris Dignitatem ("On the dignity and vocation of women", parts 67–69) dated 15 August 1988, Pope John Paul II dealt with the Easter events in relation to the women being present at the tomb after the Resurrection, in a section entitled 'First Witnesses of the Resurrection':
The women are the first at the tomb. They are the first to find it empty. They are the first to hear 'He is not here. He has risen, as he said.'[Mt 28:6] They are the first to embrace his feet.[cf. Mt 28:9] The women are also the first to be called to announce this truth to the Apostles.[Mt 28:1–10] [Lk 24:–11] The Gospel of John (cf. also Mk 16:9 emphasizes the special role of Mary Magdalene. She is the first to meet the Risen Christ. [...] Hence she came to be called "the apostle of the Apostles". Mary Magdalene was the first eyewitness of the Risen Christ, and for this reason she was also the first to bear witness to him before the Apostles. This event, in a sense, crowns all that has been said previously about Christ entrusting divine truths to women as well as men.
On 10 June 2016, the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments issued a decree which elevated Mary's liturgical commemoration from an obligatory memorial to a feast day, like that of most of the Apostles (Peter and Paul are commemorated with a solemnity). The Mass and Liturgy of the Hours (Divine Office) remained the same as they were, except that a specific preface was added to the Mass to refer to her explicitly as the "Apostle to the Apostles".
The 1549 Book of Common Prayer had on July 22 a feast of Saint Mary Magdalene, with the same Scripture readings as in the Tridentine Mass and with a newly composed collect: "Merciful father geue us grace, that we neuer presume to synne through the example of anye creature, but if it shall chaunce vs at any tyme to offende thy dyuine maiestie: that then we maye truly repent, and lament the same, after the example of Mary Magdalene, and by lyuelye faythe obtayne remission of all oure sinnes: throughe the onely merites of thy sonne oure sauiour Christ." The 1552 edition omitted the feast of Saint Mary Magdalene, which was restored to the Book of Common Prayer only after some 400 years.
Among the leaders of the Protestant Reformation, for Luther and Zwingli, Mary Magdalene is the composite Magdalene of medieval tradition, but Calvin distinguishes between her, Mary of Bethany, and the sinful woman.
Modern Protestants honor her as a disciple and friend of Jesus. Anglican Christians refer to her as a saint and may follow her example of repentance; While some interpret the Thirty-Nine Articles as forbidding them to call upon her for intercession, other Anglicans, citing the Episcopal burial service, say they can ask the saint to pray for them. The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America honors Mary Magdalene on July 22 as an Apostle, albeit as a Lesser Festival. The rationale for this change versus the previous worship book of the ELCA is not explained, nor is it clear that an authoritative council of the ELCA approved this change in any organized fashion, other than by adopting the new worshipbook.
Easter egg tradition
For centuries, it has been the custom of many Christians to share dyed and painted eggs, particularly on Easter Sunday. The eggs represent new life, and Christ bursting forth from the tomb. Among Eastern Orthodox Christians this sharing is accompanied by the proclamation "Christ is risen!"
One tradition concerning Mary Magdalene says that following the death and resurrection of Jesus, she used her position to gain an invitation to a banquet given by the Roman Emperor Tiberius. When she met him, she held a plain egg in her hand and exclaimed, "Christ is risen!" The Emperor laughed, and said that Christ rising from the dead was as likely as the egg in her hand turning red while she held it. Before he finished speaking, the egg in her hand turned a bright red and she continued proclaiming the Gospel to the entire imperial house.
Another version of this story can be found in popular belief, mostly in Greece. It is believed that after the Crucifixion, Mary Magdalene and the Virgin Mary put a basket full of eggs at the foot of the cross. There, the eggs were painted red by the blood of the Christ. Then, Mary Magdalene brought them to Tiberius Caesar.
There are many references to Mary Magdalene in the sacred writings of the Bahá'í Faith, where she enjoys an exalted status as a heroine of faith and the "archetypal woman of all cycles". `Abdu'l-Bahá, the son of the founder of the religion, said that she was "the channel of confirmation" to Jesus' disciples, a "heroine" who "re-established the faith of the apostles" and was "a light of nearness in his kingdom". `Abdu'l-Bahá also wrote that "her reality is ever shining from the horizon of Christ", "her face is shining and beaming forth on the horizon of the universe forevermore" and that "her candle is, in the assemblage of the world, lighted till eternity". `Abdu'l-Bahá considered her to be the supreme example of how women are completely equal with men in the sight of God and can at times even exceed men in holiness and greatness. Indeed he claimed that she surpassed all the men of her time, and that "crowns studded with the brilliant jewels of guidance" were upon her head.
The Bahá'í writings also expand upon the scarce references to her life in the canonical Gospels, with a wide array of extra-canonical stories about her and sayings which are not recorded in any other extant historical sources. `Abdu'l-Bahá claimed that Mary traveled to Rome and spoke before the Emperor Tiberius, which is presumably why Pilate was later recalled to Rome for his cruel treatment of the Jews (a tradition also attested to in the Eastern Orthodox Church). According to the memoirs of Juliet Thompson, `Abdu'l-Bahá also compared Mary to Juliet, one of his most devoted followers, claiming that she even physically resembled her and that Mary Magdalene was Juliet Thompson's "correspondence in heaven".
Bahá'ís have noted parallels between Mary Magdalene and the Babí heroine-poet Tahirih. The two are similar in many respects, with Mary Magdalene often being viewed as a Christian antecedent of the latter, while Tahirih in her own right could be described as the spiritual return of the Magdalene; especially given their common, shared attributes of "knowledge, steadfastness, courage, virtue and will power", in addition to their importance within the religious movements of Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith as female leaders.
The name Mary occurs numerous times in the New Testament. There are several people named Mary in the Gospels. There also are several unnamed women who seem to share characteristics with Mary Magdalene. At different times in history, Mary Magdalene has been confused or misidentified with almost every woman in the four Gospels, except the mother of Jesus.
"Beloved Disciple" in the Gospel of John
In 1998, Ramon K. Jusino proposed an unprecedented argument that the "Beloved Disciple" of the Gospel of John is Mary Magdalene. Jusino based his argument largely on the Nag Hammadi Gnostic books, rejecting the view of Raymond E. Brown that these books were later developments, and maintaining instead that the extant Gospel of John is the result of modification of an earlier text that presented Mary Magdalene as the Beloved Disciple. Richard J. Hooper does not make the Jusino thesis his own, but says: "Perhaps we should not altogether reject the possibility that some Johannine Christians considered Mary Magdalene to be 'the disciple whom Jesus loved'." Esther A. de Boer likewise presents the idea as "one possibility among others", not as a definitive solution to the problem of the identity of the anonymous disciple.
Conflation with Mary of Bethany
In the Western "composite" tradition, Mary of Bethany was identified with Mary Magdalene. In the Eastern Orthodox traditions, they always were considered separate persons.
Mary of Bethany is referred to simply as "Mary" both in Luke 10:38–42 and the Gospel of John. Jesus seems to know her family well,[Jn 11:3] and is described as visiting them several times.[Jn 11:17] [12:1] In John 12:3–8 Mary anoints Jesus with expensive perfume and wipes his feet with her hair, at which Jesus says that it was intended that "she should save this perfume for the day of my burial". Following this, Mary of Bethany disappears from the narrative, while Mary Magdalene, already described not as receiving Jesus on his visits to Bethany in Judea, but as travelling about in Galilee with Jesus and the Twelve and with many other women, two of whom are named,[Luke 8:2–4] emerges at Jesus' crucifixion, finding later his tomb empty and being the first to see him after the Resurrection. In the Gospels, Mary Magdalene is referred to simply as "Mary" only in John 20:11 and 20:16.
The Gnostic texts commonly refer to Mary Magdalene as Mary.
Betrothed to John the Evangelist
The monk and historian Domenico Cavalca (c. 1270–1342), citing Jerome, suggested that Mary Magdalene was betrothed to St John the Evangelist: "I like to think that the Magdalene was the spouse of John, not affirming it... I am glad and blythe that St Jerome should say so". They were sometimes thought to be the couple at the Wedding at Cana, though the Gospel accounts say nothing of the ceremony being abandoned. The Dominican friar Jacobus de Voragine (c. 1230–1298) in his Golden Legend dismisses talk of John and Mary being betrothed and that John had left his bride at the altar to follow Jesus.
In 1449 King René d'Anjou gave to Angers Cathedral the amphora from Cana in which Jesus changed water to wine, acquiring it from the nuns of Marseilles, who told him that Mary Magdalene had brought it with her from Judea, relating to the legend where she was the jilted bride at the wedding after which John the Evangelist received his calling from Jesus.
Relationship with Jesus
The Gospel of Philip describes Mary's relation to Jesus by Coptic variants of the Greek κοινωνός (koinōnos). That work uses cognates of koinōnos and Coptic equivalents to refer to the literal pairing of men and women in marriage and sexual intercourse, but also metaphorically, referring to a spiritual partnership, and the reunification of the Gnostic Christian with the divine realm. Mary Magdalene is mentioned as one of three Marys "who always walked with the Lord" and as his companion (Philip 59.6–11). The work also says that the Lord loved her more than all the disciples, and used to kiss her often (63.34–36). Author John Dickson argues that it was common in early Christianity to kiss a fellow believer by way of greeting,[1 Pet. 5:14] thus such kissing would have no romantic connotations. Kripal writes that "the historical sources are simply too contradictory and simultaneously too silent" to make absolute declarations regarding Jesus' sexuality. Bart Ehrman concludes that historical evidence tells us nothing at all about Jesus' sexuality—"certainly nothing to indicate that Jesus and Mary had a sexual relationship of any kind". Ehrman (a scholar of the Greek New Testament and Early Christianity) says that the question people ask him most often is whether Mary Magdalene and Jesus of Nazareth married each other.
The "Gospel of Jesus' Wife", a Coptic papyrus fragment unveiled in 2012, presents Jesus as speaking of his wife: "My wife ... she will be able to be my disciple." If genuine, it appears to date to around the 6th to 9th centuries AD, and would suggest that some Egyptian Christians of that period believed that Jesus was married. Although it does not contain the name of Mary Magdalene, there has been speculation that she is the woman referred to. However, there is substantial scholarly concern about the fragment's authenticity, with a number of scholars regarding it as a modern forgery.
The 13th-century Cistercian monk and chronicler Peter of Vaux de Cernay claimed it was part of Catharist belief that the earthly Jesus Christ had a relationship with Mary Magdalene, described as his concubine:
Further, in their secret meetings they said that the Christ who was born in the earthly and visible Bethlehem and crucified at Jerusalem was 'evil', and that Mary Magdalene was his concubine – and that she was the woman taken in adultery who is referred to in the Scriptures; the 'good' Christ, they said, neither ate nor drank nor assumed the true flesh and was never in this world, except spiritually in the body of Paul. I have used the term 'the earthly and visible Bethlehem' because the heretics believed there is a different and invisible earth in which – according to some of them – the 'good' Christ was born and crucified".
A document, possibly written by Ermengaud of Béziers, undated and anonymous and attached to his Treatise against Heretics, makes a similar statement.
Also they [the Cathars] teach in their secret meetings that Mary Magdalene was the wife of Christ. She was the Samaritan woman to whom He said, "Call thy husband". She was the woman taken into adultery, whom Christ set free lest the Jews stone her, and she was with Him in three places, in the temple, at the well, and in the garden. After the Resurrection, He appeared first to her.
In historical fiction
Edgar Saltus's historical fiction novel Mary Magdalene: A Chronicle (1891) depicts her as a heroine living in a castle at Magdala, who moves to Rome becoming the "toast of the tetrarchy", telling John the Baptist she will "drink pearls... sup on peacock's tongues".
Ki Longfellow's novel The Secret Magdalene (2005) draws on the Gnostic gospels and other sources to portray Mary as a brilliant and dynamic woman who studies at the fabled library at Alexandria, and shares her knowledge with Jesus.
Mary Magdalene by Juan Bautista Maino
Mary Magdalene by El Greco ca. 1580
Mary Magdalene by Artemisia Gentileschi
Mary Magdalene by José de Ribera
Mary Magdalene by Georges de La Tour
Mary Magdalene by Ambrosius Benson
Christ Appearing to Mary Magdalene by Pietro da Cortona
Mary Magdalene Reading by Piero di Cosimo
The Magdalene by George Romney
- Magdalene asylum
- New Testament people named Mary
- Saint Sarah
- St. Mary Magdalene's flood
- The Magdalen Reading
- "Saint Mary Magdalen". New Catholic Dictionary. 1910. Archived from the original on 17 September 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- Μαρία η Μαγδαληνή in Matt 27:56; 27:61; 28:1; Mark 15:40; 15:47; 16:1; 16:9 replaces "η" with "τη" because of the case change. Luke 8:1 says "Μαρία ... η Μαγδαληνή" and 24:10 says "η Μαγδαληνή Μαρία". John 19:25, 20:1 and 20:18 all say "Μαρία η Μαγδαληνή".
- "Mary Magdalene, the clichés". BBC, Religions, 2011-07-20.
- "Lyons, Eric. "The Real Mary Magdalene". Apologetics Press". Apologeticspress.org. Retrieved 2013-05-07.
- James Carroll (June 2006). "Who Was Mary Magdalene". Smithsonian Magazine.
- Thompson, Mary R. Mary of Magdala, Apostle and Leader. New York: Paulist Press, 1995. ISBN 0-8091-3573-6
- Pseudo-Hippolytus, On the Seventy Apostles, for example, disguishes "Mark the Evangelist, Bishop of Alexandria" from "Mark cousin of Barnabas, Bishop of Apollonia" and from "Mark, who is also John, Bishop of Bibloupolis".
- Meyers, Carol, ed. (2000). "Named Women: Mary 3 (Magdalene)". Women in Scripture. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 122. ISBN 0-395-70936-9.
- Catholic Encyclopedia Online St Mary Magdalene. Accessed 12 Jan 2013
- See Marvin Meyer, with Esther A. de Boer, The Gospels of Mary: The Secret Traditions of Mary Magdalene the Companion of Jesus (Harper San Francisco) 2004;Esther de Boer provides an overview of the source texts excerpted in an essay "Should we all turn and listen to her?': Mary Magdalene in the spotlight". pp. 74–96.
- "New Testament names - some Jewish notes". Oztorah.com. Retrieved 2013-05-07.
- John 20:11 and John 20:16.
- "Maria or Mariam". Bible Hub. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- "SBL Greek New Testament (SBLGNT)". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- Mariam, The Magdalen, and The Mother, Deirdre Good, editor, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN 47404-3797. Pages 9–10.
- Larry Hurtado, Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity. 260.
- Jackson, Wayne. "Demons: Ancient Superstition or Historical Reality?" Apologetics Press: Reason & Revelation. April 1998 - 18:25–31. Web. 26 March 2010.
- May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977.
- Mark 16:1–8
- Mark 16:9–11
- "Mary & Martha: Friends of Jesus".
- John 19:25
- Ricci, Carla and Paul Burns. Mary Magdalene and Many Others. Augsburg Fortress, 1994. ISBN 0-8006-2718-0
- Doyle, Ken. "Apostle to the apostles: The story of Mary Magdalene". Catholic Times. Archived from the original on 16 April 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- Morrow, Carol Ann. "St. Mary Magdalene: Redeeming Her Gospel Reputation". Liguori Publications
- "The Penitent Magdalene". The Walters Art Museum.
- Richard J. Hooper, ''The Crucifixion of Mary Magdalene'' (Sanctuary Publications 2008 ISBN 978-0-97469954-7), p. 81. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- Marcella Althaus-Reid, ''Liberation Theology and Sexuality'' (Hymns Ancient and Modern 2009 ISBN 978-0-33404185-6), p. 86. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- Richard J. Hooper, ''The Crucifixion of Mary Magdalene'' (Sanctuary Publications 2008 ISBN 978-0-97469954-7), p. 81. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- "Who Was Mary Magdalene?". Smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved 2013-05-07.
- Haskins, Susan. Mary Magdalene: Myth and Metaphor. Konecky (1993) ISBN 978-1568524962
- Johnston, 64; the accounts are the Life in the Golden Legend, French Passion Plays, and her main subject, the Vie de La Magdaleine by François Demoulins de Rochefort, written 1516–17 (see p. 11)
- "SS Mary, Martha and Lazarus". Ibenedictines.org. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- Hufstader, 32–40, and throughout the rest of the article
- Haskins, 250
- Henderson (2004), pp. 8–14
- Jane Schaberg, The Resurrection of Mary Magdalene: Legends, Apocrypha and The Christian Testament, page 88 (New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group, Inc., 2002). ISBN 0-8264-1645-4
- Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 131
- Calendarium Romanum (1969), p. 98
- Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2001, ISBN 978-88-209-7210-3), p. 398
- Filteau, Jerry. "Scholars seek to correct Christian tradition on Mary Magdalene". Free Republic. Catholic News Service. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- John Trigilio, Jr., Kenneth Brighenti, Saints For Dummies, pages 52–53 (Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2010). ISBN 978-0-470-53358-1
- Witcombe, 279
- Witcombe, 282
- Schiller, II, 116
- Schiller, II, 152–154
- Schiller, II, 154–158
- Kiely, Robert (6 September 2010). "Picturing the Magdalene: How Artists Imagine the Apostle to the Apostles". Commonweal. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- Schiller, Gertud, Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. I, pp. 158–159, 1971 (English trans from German), Lund Humphries, London, ISBN 0853312702
- Ingrid Maisch, Th.D. (1998). Mary Magdalene: The Image of a Woman Through the Centuries. Liturgical Press. pp. 49–. ISBN 978-0-8146-2471-5. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- Golden Legend: "Mary Magdalene had her surname of Magdalo, a castle, and was born of right noble lineage and parents, which were descended of the lineage of kings. And her father was named Cyrus, and her mother Eucharis. She with her brother Lazarus, and her sister Martha, possessed the castle of Magdalo, which is two miles from Nazareth, and Bethany, the castle which is nigh to Jerusalem, and also a great part of Jerusalem, which, all these things they departed among them. In such wise that Mary had the castle Magdalo, whereof she had her name Magdalene. And Lazarus had the part of the city of Jerusalem, and Martha had to her part Bethany. And when Mary gave herself to all delights of the body, and Lazarus entended all to knighthood, Martha, which was wise, governed nobly her brother's part and also her sister's, and also her own, and administered to knights, and her servants, and to poor men, such necessities as they needed. Nevertheless, after the ascension of our Lord, they sold all these things, and brought the value thereof, and laid it at the feet of the apostles. Then when Magdalene abounded in riches, and because delight is fellow to riches and abundance of things; and for so much as she shone in beauty greatly, and in riches, so much the more she submitted her body to delight, and therefore she lost her right name, and was called customably a sinner."
- Thomas F. Head (2001). Medieval Hagiography: An Anthology. Taylor & Francis Group. pp. 659–. ISBN 978-0-415-93753-5. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- Golden Legend
- King, Karen L. "Women In Ancient Christianity: The New Discoveries". Frontline: The First Christians. Web: 2 November 2009.
- "Gospel of Mary". Earlychristianwritings.com. Retrieved 2013-05-07.
- De Boer, Esther A., The Gospel of Mary Listening to the Beloved Disciple. London: Continuum, 2006 (2005).
- Compare with John 20:14–18.
- I. Miller, Robert J. (Robert Joseph). The Complete Gospels: Annotated Scholars Version. Polebridge Press, 1992, p. 365.
- The Old and New Testament and Gnostic contexts and the text are discussed by Robert M. Grant, "The Mystery of Marriage in the Gospel of Philip". Vigiliae Christianae 15.3 (September 1961:129–140).
- Thayer and Smith. "Greek Lexicon entry for Koinonos". The New Testament Greek Lexicon". http://www.biblestudytools.com
- This confusing reference is already in the original manuscript. It is not clear, if the text refers to Jesus' or his mother's sister, or whether the intention is to say something else.
- Meyer, Marvin (2004). The Gospel of Thomas: The Hidden Sayings of Jesus. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-065581-5.
- Ehrman, Bart. Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend. Oxford University Press, USA. 2006. ISBN 0-19-530013-0
- Hurtak, J.J.; Desiree Hurtak (1999). Pistis Sophia: A Coptic Text of Gnosis with Commentary. Los Gatos, CA: Academy for Future Science.
- Gregory of Tours, De miraculis, I, xxx.
- Saxer, La culte de St. Marie Magdalene en occident (1959).
- Ecole française de Rome, (1992).
- Jansen 2000.
- See Franco Mormando, "Virtual Death in the Middle Ages: The Apotheosis of Mary Magdalene in Popular Preaching", in Death and Dying in the Middle Ages, ed. Edelgard DuBruck and Barbara I. Gusick, New York, Peter Lang, 1999, pp. 257–74.
- See Johnston, 111–115 on the rise and fall of Vézelay as a cult centre
- "the Abbey of Vesoul" in William Caxton's translation.
- Rebecca Lea McCarthy (18 January 2010). Origins of the Magdalene Laundries: An Analytical History. McFarland. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-7864-5580-5.
- Susan Haskins (30 September 2011). Mary Magdalen: Truth and Myth. Random House. pp. 129–132. ISBN 978-1-4464-9942-9.
- Linda Kay Davidson; David Martin Gitlitz (1 January 2002). PilgrFile: From the Ganges to Graceland : an Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 562. ISBN 978-1-57607-004-8.
- See Franco Mormando, "Teaching the Faithful to Fly: Mary Magdalene and Peter in Baroque Italy" in Saints and Sinners: Caravaggio and the Baroque Image, Chestnut Hill, MA, McMullen Museum of Art, 1999, pp. 107–135.
- "Deborah Rose, "So, Really ... Who was She?"". Magdalineage.com. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
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- Mclaughlin, Lisa and David Van Biema. "Mary Magdalene Saint or Sinner?" timeonline.com, August 11, 2003. Accessed 7 June 2009
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- Darrell L. Bock, ''Breaking The Da Vinci Code'' (Thomas Nelson 2004 ISBN 978-1-41851338-2), pp. 143–144. Books.google.com. 2004-04-21. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- Katherine Ludwig Jansen, ''The Making of the Magdalen'' (Princeton University Press 2001 ISBN 978-0-69108987-4), p. 63. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
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- "''Patrologia Latina'', vol. 112, col. 1474B". Archive.org. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- PL 112, 1475A
- In the text of Rabanus Maurus, the word used is apostola, the feminine form of apostolus.
- Raymond Edward Brown, ''The Community of the Beloved Disciple'' (Paulist Press 1979 ISBN 978-0-80912174-8), p. 190. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- "Pseudo-Rabanus Maurus' Life of Mary Magdalene and her sister Martha - Magdalen College Oxford". Magdalen College, University of Oxford. 22 July 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- Brown (1979), pp. 189–190
- "Mulieris Dignitatem, John Paul II, 15 August 1988 - Apostolic Letter". Vatican.va. 1988-08-15. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- Holy See Press Office (10 June 2016). "The liturgical memory of Mary Magdalene becomes a feast, like that of the other apostles, 10.06.2016". The Holy See. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "J. Frank Henderson, "The Disappearance of the Feast of Mary Magdalene from the Anglican Liturgy" (2004), pp. 1–4" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- H.D. Egan, An Anthology of Christian mysticism, Pueblo Publishing Co. (1992), pp.407ff.; cf. also, C. Bourgeault,The Meaning of Mary Magdalene: Discovering the Woman at the Heart of Christianity, Shambhala Publ. (2010), passim.
- T. Coletti, Mary Magdalene and the Drama of Saints, University of Pennsylvania Press (2004); E. De Boer, Mary Magdalene: Beyond the Myth, SCM Press (1997), pp.94ff.
- "39 Articles of Religion - XXII. Of Purgatory.". Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- "Liturgical Life Principles". google.com.
- Evangelical Lutheran Worship, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, 2006, p. 57
- Abernethy and Beaty, The Folklore of Texan Cultures, Denton University of North Texas Press, 2000, p. 261.
- Juliet Thompson, I, Mary Magdalene, Foreword
- `Abdu'l-Bahá, The Promulgation of Universal Peace, p. 420
- `Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'í World Faith - `Abdu'l-Bahá Section, p. 385
- `Abdu'l-Bahá in London, p. 105
- `Abdu'l-Bahá, Divine Philosophy, p. 50
- `Abdu'l-Bahá, Tablets of the Divine Plan, pp. 39–40
- `Abdu'l-Bahá, Tablets of `Abdu'l-Bahá Vol.2, p. 467
- Mazal, Peter (2003-10-21). "Selected Topics of Comparison in Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith". bahai-library.org. Retrieved 2006-06-25.
- Jusino, Ramon K (1998). "Mary Magdalene: Author of the Fourth Gospel?". Ramon K. Jusino. Retrieved 2014-12-30.
- "The Crucifixion of Mary Magdalene". google.com.
- "The Gospel of Mary". google.com.
- St. Mary Magdalen, New Advent.
- Pope, H. (1910). St. Mary Magdalen, in The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- The evangelist knew that there would not have been enough time to anoint the body of Jesus after his death for burial (The Anointing at Bethany). Note also that it is to anoint the body that in Mark 16:1 Mary Magdalene, among with other women, goes to Jesus' tomb.
- "The Gospel According to Mary Magdalene". Gnostic Scriptures and Fragments; The Gnostic Society of America.
- Katherine Ludwig Jansen, The Making of The Magdalen: Preaching and Popular Devotion In The Later Middle Ages, page 151, footnote 20 (Princeton University Press, 2000). ISBN 0-691-08987-6. Citing Cavalca, Vita, 329; Life, 2–3.
- Katherine Ludwig Jansen, citing Jacques Levron, Le bon roi René (Paris: Arthaud, 1972).
- Marjanen, Antti (1996). The Woman Jesus Loved: Mary Magdalene in the Nag Hammadi Library and Related Documents. Leiden: Brill. pp. 151–60 et passim. ISBN 9004106588.
- The Christ Files: How Historians Know What They Know About Jesus, John Dickson, p. 95 (Sydney South: Blue Bottle Books, 2006). ISBN 1-921137-54-1
- Jeffrey John Kripal, The Serpent's Gift: Gnostic Reflections on the Study of Religion, p. 52 (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007). ISBN 0-226-45380-4 ISBN 0-226-45381-2
- Sam Masters (2014-04-11). "Jesus had a wife, say scientists, as ancient papyrus scroll verified - Americas - World". The Independent. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- Andrew Brown. "Gospel of Jesus's Wife is fake, claims expert | World news". theguardian.com. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- LAURIE GOODSTEIN. "Fresh Doubts Raised About Papyrus Scrap Known as 'Gospel of Jesus' Wife'". The New York Times.
- "NT Blog: More evidence of forgery in the Jesus' Wife Sister Fragment". Ntweblog.blogspot.com.au. 2014-05-01. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
- W.A. Sibly, M.D. Sibly, The History of the Albigensian Crusade: Peter of les Vaux-de-Cernay's "Historia Albigensis" (Boydell, 1998). ISBN 0-85115-658-4".
- Christian Churches of God. "The Treatise of Ermengaudus (No. B8)". Ccg.org. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- Anne Bradford Townsend, The Cathars of Languedoc as heretics: From the Perspectives of Five Contemporary Scholars, page 147 (UMI Microform, ProQuest, 2008). PhD Dissertation
- Walter L. Wakefield, Austin P. Evans, Heresies of the High Middle Ages: Translated with Notes, page 234 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991). ISBN 0-231-02743-5. The authors speculate on page 230 that this could have been the source used by Peter of Vaux de Cernay.
- Robert Kiefer Webb, Richard J. Helmstadter (editors), Religion and Irreligion in Victorian Society: Essays in Honor of R.K. Webb, page 119 (London: Routledge, 1991). ISBN 0-415-07625-0
- Edgar Saltus, Mary Magdalene: A Chronicle (New York, Belford company, 1891). Available from Open Library .
- "The Secret Magdalene". The Secret Magdalene. Retrieved 2013-05-07.
- "Life of Mary Magdalen", William Caxton's English version of the Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voragine
- Johnston, Barbara, "Sacred Kingship and Royal Patronage in the La Vie de la Magdalene: Pilgrimage, Politics, Passion Plays, and the Life of Louise of Savoy" (Florida State), R. Neuman, Dissertation, PDF, 88–93
- Witcombe, Christopher L. C. E., The Chapel of the Courtesan and the Quarrel of the Magdalens, The Art Bulletin, Vol. 84, No. 2 (Jun., 2002), pp. 273–292, JSTOR
- Acocella, Joan. "The Saintly Sinner: The Two-Thousand-Year Obsession with Mary Magdalene". The New Yorker, February 13 & 20, 2006, p. 140–49. Prompted by controversy surrounding Dan Brown's The Da Vinci Code.
- Brock, Ann Graham. Mary Magdalene, The First Apostle: The Struggle for Authority. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-674-00966-5. Discusses issues of apostolic authority in the gospels and the Gospel of Peter the competition between Peter and Mary, especially in chapter 7, "The Replacement of Mary Magdalene: A Strategy for Eliminating the Competition".
- Burstein, Dan, and Arne J. De Keijzer. Secrets of Mary Magdalene. New York: CDS Books, 2006. ISBN 1-59315-205-1.
- De Boer Esther A., Mary Magdalene, beyond the Myth (SCM Press London, 1997).
- Jurgen Moltmann and E. Moltmann-Wendel, Humanity in God (London: SCM, 1984).
- Jansen, Katherine Ludwig. The Making of the Magdalen: Preaching and Popular Devotion in the Later Middle Ages. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-691-05850-4.
- Kripal, Jeffrey John. (2007). The Serpent's Gift: Gnostic Reflections on the Study of Religion. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-45380-4 ISBN 0-226-45381-2.
- Pearson, Birger A. "Did Jesus Marry?". Bible Review, Spring 2005, pp 32–39 & 47. Discussion of complete texts.
- Picknett, Lynn, and Clive Prince. The Templar Revelation. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997. ISBN 0-593-03870-3. Presents a hypothesis that Mary Magdalene was a priestess who was Jesus' partner in a sacred marriage.
- Shoemaker, Stephen J. "Rethinking the ‘Gnostic Mary’: Mary of Nazareth and Mary of Magdala in Early Christian Tradition". in Journal of Early Christian Studies, 9 (2001) pp 555–595.
- Thiering, Barbara. Jesus the Man: Decoding the Real Story of Jesus and Mary Magdalene. New York: Simon & Schulster (Atria Books), 2006. ISBN 1-4165-4138-1.
- Wellborn, Amy. De-coding Mary Magdalene: Truth, Legend, and Lies. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor, 2006. ISBN 1-59276-209-3. A straightforward accounting of what is well-known of Mary Magdalene.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mary Magdalene.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Mary Magdalene.|
- La Sainte Baume (France) : where she spent the last 30 years of her life
- St. Mary Magdalene (pdf) from Fr. Alban Butler's Lives of the Saints
- "Saint Mary Magdalene". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
- The Life of St. Mary Magdalene: Saint of the Christian Church
- St Mary Magdalene, Catholic Encyclopaedia 1911
- Convent of Saint Mary Magdalene
- Legends of Mary Magdalene
- Miriam/Myriam M'Gadola: Mary Magdalene
- Early Christian Writings: Gospel of Mary
- Gospel of Mary Magdalene
- Saint Mary Magdalene at DMOZ
- Showing inaccuracy of The Da Vinci Code in respect to Mary Magdalene
- Myths and legends of Mary Magdalene
- The Skull and Bones of Mary Magdalene
- In Our Time on BBC Radio 4, 25 February 2016
- "Mary Magdalene". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.