Mac Giolla Phádraig dynasty
|Mac Giolla Phádraig / Fitzpatrick|
|Parent house||Dál Birn|
Kingdom of Ireland titles:
|Founded||ca. 100 AD|
|Final ruler||Bernard FitzPatrick, 2nd Baron Castletown|
|Dissolution||29 May 1937|
Mac Giolla Phádraig (pronunciation) (alternately Mac Gilla Pátraic) is a native Irish dynastic surname which translates into English as "Son of the Devotee of (St.) Patrick". In the medieval period, the Mac Giolla Phádraigs were hereditary kings of Osraige; today, the name is commonly translated to "Fitzpatrick".
The name "Giolla Phádraig" first appears in the annals at the end of the tenth century in connection with the Christianized Uí Ímair dynasty of Waterford, and is later found elsewhere. Likely as a consequence of the intermarriage, this surname came to be borne by the leading medieval branch of the Dál Birn lineage, the illustrious ruling dynasty of the neighbouring Osraige. This surname was adopted by the descendants of king Gilla Pátraic mac Donnchada who reigned as king of Osraige from 976 to 996. Some scholars speculate a Norse influence on the name. In 1541, by the submission of Brian Mac Giolla Phádraig, then the ruling chief of Upper Ossory and lineal descendant of Gilla Pátraic mac Donnchada, the name was anglicised to Fitz-Patrick, and the majority of the Mac Giolla Phádraig clan followed suit. Many members of the lineage feature prominently in Irish and English politics throughout history.
- Gilla Pátraic mac Donnchada, namesake and progenitor of the clan Mac Giolla Phádraig; king of Osraige from 976 to 996.
- Donnchad mac Gilla Pátraic, son of Gilla Pátraic mac Donnchada; king of Osraige from 1003 to 1039. (Also king of Leinster from 1033 to 1039.) First king to bear the surname Mac Giolla Phádraig.
- Domhnall Mac Giolla Phádraig, king of Osraige at the time of the Norman invasion of Ireland.
- Brian Mac Giolla Phádraig, Irish poet (c. 1580 – c. 1652); not to be confused with the 1st through 8th Barons Upper Ossory (See below.)
- Brian Mac Giolla Phádraig, 1st Baron Upper Ossory (1485–1575).
- Barnaby Fitzpatrick, 2nd Baron Upper Ossory (c. 1535–1581)
- Florence Fitzpatrick, 3rd Baron Upper Ossory (died 1613)
- Thady or Teige Fitzpatrick, 4th Baron Upper Ossory (died 1627)
- Barnaby Fitzpatrick, 5th Baron Upper Ossory (died c. 1638)
- Barnaby Fitzpatrick, 6th Baron Upper Ossory (died c. 1666)
- Barnaby Fitzpatrick, 7th Baron Upper Ossory (died 1696). On 11 May 1691, the seventh baron was attainted and the barony forfeited.
- Richard FitzPatrick, 1st Baron Gowran (died 9 June 1727) was a British naval captain.
- John FitzPatrick, 1st Earl of Upper Ossory (1719–1758)
- John FitzPatrick, Lord Gowran, later 2nd Earl of Upper Ossory (1745–1818)
- The Hon. Richard FitzPatrick (24 January 1748 – 25 April 1813)
- John FitzPatrick, 1st Baron Castletown PC (23 September 1811 – 22 January 1883), known as John Wilson until 1842, was an Irish Liberal politician.
- Bernard FitzPatrick, 2nd Baron Castletown KP CMG PC (I) (29 July 1849 – 29 May 1937) was an Irish soldier and Conservative Member of Parliament.
Heritage of the Built-Environment
As would be expected, mumerous of places throughout the historic Osraige and Upper Ossory regions and elsewhere have strong associations with the activity of Clann Giolla Phádraig. These include Jerpoint Abbey in Thomastown, Co. Kilkenny; Aghamacart, Aghaboe Abbey, the vicinity of St Canice's Cathedral, Gowran, Grangefertagh near Johnstown, County Kilkenny, Ballagharahin, Co. Laois, Ballaghmore Castle, Cullahill Castle, amongst other places.
Annals and genealogies
An important Ossorian genealogy for Domnall mac Donnchada mac Gilla Patric is preserved in the Bodleian Library, MS Rawlinson B 502, tracing the medieval Mac Giolla Phádraig dynasty back to Óengus Osrithe, who supposedly flourished in the first or second century. The genealogy goes on further, tracing the pedigree back to Noah (and thus presumably to Adam), but scholars regard this as an attachment of the accounts in Genesis on the back of native tradition. Another early Ossorian genealogy is found in the Book of Leinster.
Armorial Bearings and Mottoes
The Fitzpatrick (Mac Giolla Phádraig) Latin motto – Fortis sub Forte Fatiscet – can be interpreted as "The strong will yield to the strong." A second motto in Irish, "Ceart ládir abú" translates loosely to "Right and Mighty Forever", or more narrowly as "Correct, Strong, to Victory!"
Since 2000, the Fitzpatrick-Mac Giolla Phádraig Clan Society has been at the forefront of researching and promoting the history of the name. Members from across the world have shared information and history, and biennial and triennial clan gatherings have been held in Port Laoise and Kilkenny, Ireland for participants to present their research and visit historical sites of interest to the clan.
In April 2004, a geophysical survey using ground-penetrating radar discovered what were likely the original foundations of the twelfth century cathedral of the diocese of Ossory and another very large structure which was possibly a royal Mac Giolla Phádraig palace; noting that the site bears a strong resemblance to contemporaneous structures at the Rock of Cashel.
- Annals of Ulster 1033.4, Annals of Loch Cé 1033.3, Annals of Tigernach 1033.5
- Team, Forvo. "Mac Giolla Phádraig pronunciation: How to pronounce Mac Giolla Phádraig in Irish". forvo.com. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- "THE NORSE IN OSSORY: THE NAMING OF GIOLLAPHADRAIG". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- Index of Names in Irish Annals: Gilla Pátraic / Giolla Phádraig: http://medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/GiollaPhadraig.shtml
- D'Alton, John (1 January 1861). Illustrations, Historical and Genealogical, of King James's Irish Army List, 1689: 2d Ed.--enl. J.R. Smith.
- "Kings of Osraige". sbaldw.home.mindspring.com. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- Rigg 1889, p. 191.
- "AUGHAMACART, or AGHAMACART, a parish". www.libraryireland.com. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- Carrigan, William (1 January 1905). The history and antiquities of the diocese of Ossory. Sealy, Bryers & Walker.
- "The Standing Stone: Ballagharahin, Tower House, Co. Laois.". www.thestandingstone.ie. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- "Welcome to Ballaghmore Castle". www.castleballaghmore.com. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- Genealogies from Rawlinson B 502; CELT: http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G105003.html
- Digital images of Rawlinson B502 folios from Oxford Bodleian Library: http://image.ox.ac.uk/show?collection=bodleian&manuscript=msrawlb502
- Baldwin. Ossorian Tribal Genealogies: http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/Ireland/Osr/lists/Osraige.htm
- International Clan Gatherings have been held in Kilkenny city in 2000, 2002, 2004, 2007, 2010, and 2013. http://fitzsoc.com/Gatherings/International%20gatherings.htm
- Cóilín Ó Drisceoil. "Probing the past: a geophysical survey at St. Canice's Cathedral, Kilkenny." Old Kilkenny Review No. 58 (2004) p. 80-106. Print.
- Cached image, accessed 19 February 2015: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Z0AhCaqjSlEJ:https://www.facebook.com/MacGiollaPhadraigWay+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
- The Fitzpatrick – Mac Giolla Phádraig Clan Society
- Fitzpatrick DNA Study initiated by forensic genealogist Dr. Colleen M. Fitzpatrick (new website)
- FTDNA Fitzpatrick DNA Project (old website)
- Fitzpatrick Arms, Crests, Mottos and Supporters by Ronan Fitzpatrick
- Descendants of Bryan Fitzpatrick, Lord and First Baron of Upper Ossory
- Fitzpatrick Heritage Society
- Pronunciation of Mac Giolla Phádraig by Forvo
- Stepping into Kilkenny's History
- Variants of the surname Mac Giolla Phádraig
- The Fitzpatricks of Omaha