Irish general election, 2016

Irish general election, 2016
Republic of Ireland
26 February 2016

157 of 158 seats in Dáil Éireann
80 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Turnout 65.1%
  First party Second party Third party
Leader Enda Kenny Micheál Martin Gerry Adams
Party Fine Gael Fianna Fáil Sinn Féin
Leader since 2 June 2002 26 January 2011 13 November 1983[nb 1]
Leader's seat Mayo Cork South-Central Louth
Last election 76 seats, 36.1% 20 seats, 17.4% 14 seats, 9.9%
Seats before 66 21 14
Seats won 50[n 1] 44 23
Seat change Decrease16 Increase23 Increase9
Popular vote 544,140 519,356 295,319
Percentage 25.5% 24.3% 13.8%
Swing Decrease10.6 pp Increase6.9 pp Increase3.9 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
Leader Joan Burton
Party Labour Party AAA–PBP Independents 4 Change
Leader since 4 July 2014
Leader's seat Dublin West
Last election 37 seats, 19.4% 4 seats, 2.2%[n 2] New party
Seats before 33 4 4
Seats won 7 6 4
Seat change Decrease26 Increase2 Steady0
Popular vote 140,898 84,168 31,365
Percentage 6.6% 3.9% 1.5%
Swing Decrease12.8 pp Increase1.7 pp[n 2] New party

  Seventh party Eighth party Ninth party
Leader Stephen Donnelly
Catherine Murphy
Róisín Shortall
Eamon Ryan Lucinda Creighton
Party Social Democrats Green Party Renua Ireland
Leader since 15 July 2015 27 May 2011 13 March 2015
Leader's seat Wicklow
Kildare North
Dublin North-West
Dublin Bay South Dublin Bay South (defeated)
Last election New party 0 seats, 1.8% New party
Seats before 3 0 3
Seats won 3 2 0
Seat change Steady0 Increase2 Decrease3
Popular vote 64,094 57,999 46,552
Percentage 3.0% 2.7% 2.2%
Swing New party Increase0.9 pp New party

Percentage of seats gained by each of the five biggest parties, and number of seats gained by smaller parties and independents.

Taoiseach before election

Enda Kenny
Fine Gael

Elected Taoiseach

Enda Kenny
Fine Gael

The Irish general election of 2016 took place on 26 February to elect 157 Teachtaí Dála (TDs) across 40 constituencies to Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas, Ireland's parliament.[1] The 31st Dáil was dissolved by President Michael D. Higgins on 3 February, at the request of Taoiseach Enda Kenny.[2]

Following the election, Kenny's Fine Gael remained the largest party in the Dáil, albeit having lost 26 seats compared with the previous election. The main opposition party Fianna Fáil, which had suffered its worst-ever election result of 20 seats in 2011, increased its seats to 44. Sinn Féin was expected to make gains, encouraged by opinion polls placing it ahead of Fianna Fáil, and it became the third-most numerous party with 23 deputies. The Labour Party, which had been the junior party in coalition government with Fine Gael and which had returned its best-ever showing of 37 seats in 2011, fell to just seven deputies, its lowest-ever share of Dáil seats. Smaller parties and independent politicians made up the remaining 34 seats.[3][4]

The members of the 32nd Dáil met on 10 March to elect a new Ceann Comhairle, the first to be elected by secret ballot, and Seán Ó Fearghaíl of Fianna Fáil was elected to succeed Seán Barrett of Fine Gael. Kenny formally resigned as Taoiseach that same day, but remained in office as a caretaker until a new government was formed.[5] Kenny sought an agreement with Fianna Fáil to form a government,[6] and negotiations continued through most of April. An agreement was finally reached for a Fine Gael-led minority government on 29 April, 63 days after the election, and the Dáil formally re-elected Kenny as Taoiseach on 6 May. Kenny is the first Taoiseach from Fine Gael to win re-election.[7]

Following the introduction of gender quotas, a record 35 seats were filled by women, bringing the proportion of women in the Dáil to 22 percent, up from 15 percent after the previous general election.


The outgoing government was a Fine GaelLabour Party coalition led by Taoiseach Enda Kenny and Tánaiste Joan Burton. Fianna Fáil, Sinn Féin, Anti-Austerity Alliance–People Before Profit, Renua Ireland, Social Democrats, Workers and Unemployed Action, and independent non-party TDs formed the opposition in the Dáil. The government was formed on 9 March 2011, the first day of the 31st Dáil elected on 25 February 2011.[8]

Whereas the Constitution gives the Taoiseach authority to dissolve the Dáil, under electoral law the precise date of polling is specified by the Minister for the Environment, who was Alan Kelly of Labour.[9] Electoral law required the 31st Dáil to be dissolved by 9 March 2016.[10] Kenny rejected predictions in October 2015 that he would call an election in November to capitalise on rising Fine Gael support.[11] In January 2016, media reported that Fine Gael and Labour respectively favoured Thursday 25 and Friday 26 February 2016 as the election date; Friday would facilitate voting by students registered to vote at their family home.[9][12][13]

After a cabinet meeting on 2 February, Kenny announced that he would be seeking a dissolution the following day. At 09:30 on 3 February he formally told the Dáil this, and that the new Dáil would meet on 10 March; the Dáil was adjourned without statements from the opposition.[14] At 09:58 while Kenny was en route to Áras an Uachtaráin to meet the President, the election date of 26 February was confirmed from his Twitter account. At 10:35 the President issued the proclamation dissolving the Dáil.[15] Later that day, Minister Kelly signed the order setting the polling day.[1] The writs of election are issued by the clerk of the Dáil.[16]

New parties and alliances

A number of parties and political alliances were formed during the lifespan of the 31st Dáil in order to contest the election:

Gender quotas

Part 6 of the Electoral (Amendment) (Political Funding) Act 2012 provides that parties will lose half of their state funding unless at least 30% of their candidates at the election are female and at least 30% are male.[22] All parties except Direct Democracy Ireland fulfilled this condition.[23] This contributed in part to the highest percentage of women elected to the Dáil; at 35 TDs, this was 22% of the 158 TDs, an increase from 15% at the previous general election.[24]

Electoral system

Ireland uses proportional representation with a single transferable vote (PR–STV).[25] The general election took place throughout the state to elect 158 members of Dáil Éireann, a reduction of 8 from the previous 166 members. This follows the passage of the Electoral (Amendment) (Dáil Constituencies) Act 2013. The Ceann Comhairle (speaker of the lower house of parliament) is automatically re-elected unless he opts to retire from the Dáil.[26] The election was held in 40 parliamentary constituencies.[27] Each multi-member constituency elects three, four or five Teachtaí Dála (Dáil deputies, lit. Assembly Deputies).[25]

The closing date for nominations was 11 February 2016. A total of 551 candidates contested the election, slightly down from the 566 that took part in the 2011 general election, a record figure.[1][28][29][30] The number of candidates for each party was: Fine Gael (88), Fianna Fáil (71), Sinn Féin (50), Green Party (40), Labour Party (36), Anti-Austerity Alliance–People Before Profit (31, of which 18 People Before Profit Alliance and 13 Anti-Austerity Alliance), Renua Ireland (26), Direct Democracy Ireland (19), Social Democrats (14), Independents 4 Change (5), Workers' Party (5), Catholic Democrats (3), Fís Nua (2), Irish Democratic Party (1), Communist Party of Ireland (1). Among the 159 independent politicians and others running without a party platform were 21 independents affiliated to the Independent Alliance, 19 independents affiliated to Right2Change, and the outgoing Workers and Unemployed Action TD Séamus Healy, who was nominated as a non-party candidate for this election.[23][30][31] Voting took place between 07:00 and 22:00 (WET).[1]

Islands off the coast of Donegal, Mayo, and Galway voted one day earlier.[32] All resident Irish and UK citizens were eligible to be on the Dáil electoral register.[1] The 2016–17 register was published on 1 February by the local authorities, who were responsible for maintaining it. Applications for the supplementary register for the general election closed on 9 February,[1] with 30,185 names added.[33]

Retiring incumbents

The following members of the 31st Dáil announced in advance of the poll that they would not be seeking re-election:

Constituency Departing TD Party
Cork East Sandra McLellan[34] Sinn Féin
Donegal South-West Dinny McGinley[35] Fine Gael
Dublin Mid-West Robert Dowds[36] Labour Party
Dublin North-East Seán Kenny[37] Labour Party
Dublin South Olivia Mitchell[38] Fine Gael
Dublin South-Central Michael Conaghan[39] Labour Party
Dublin South-East Ruairi Quinn[40] Labour Party
Dublin South-West Pat Rabbitte[41] Labour Party
Dublin West Joe Higgins[42] Socialist Party
Dún Laoghaire Eamon Gilmore[43] Labour Party
Galway East Michael P. Kitt[44] Fianna Fáil
Galway West Brian Walsh[45] Fine Gael
Kerry South Tom Fleming[46] Independent
Kildare South Jack Wall[47] Labour Party
Limerick Dan Neville[48] Fine Gael
Louth Séamus Kirk[49] Fianna Fáil
Roscommon–South Leitrim Frank Feighan[50] Fine Gael
Sligo–North Leitrim Michael Colreavy[51] Sinn Féin
Wexford John Browne[52] Fianna Fáil
Wexford Liam Twomey[53] Fine Gael


Election posters in Cork South-Central

The campaign officially began after the dissolution of Dáil Éireann on 3 February 2016 and lasted until polling day on 26 February 2016. During the campaign, official election posters are permitted in locations which would otherwise constitute litter; some candidates were reported to have illegally erected posters too soon.[54][55] The Broadcasting Authority of Ireland's moratorium on election coverage lasted from 14:00 on 25 February 2016 until polls had closed.[56][57]

Party manifestos and slogans

Party/group Manifesto (external link) Other slogan(s)
Fine Gael Let's Keep the Recovery Going "Your hard work is working"[58]
Fianna Fáil An Ireland for All
Sinn Féin Better with Sinn Féin
Labour Party Standing Up for Ireland's Future "Standing up for working families"[59][60]
AAA–PBP (combined) Common Principles: Radical Alternatives and Real Equality[nb 2] "A voice for people power, share the wealth"[61]
(AAA) Real Change not Spare Change[nb 2]
(PBP) Share the Wealth: An Alternative Vision for Ireland[nb 2]
Social Democrats Building a Better Future 2016–2026
Green Party Think Ahead, Act Now
Independent Alliance Charter for Government 2016
Renua Rewarding Work Rebuilding Trust
Direct Democracy Ireland Returning the power to you
Workers' Party Take a Step in a New Direction

Television debates

RTÉ set a minimum of three TDs for a party to be invited to its 15 February debate.[62] The Green Party, which had no TDs (having lost them all in 2011), took an unsuccessful High Court case against the exclusion of its leader Eamon Ryan.[62][63] An Irish language debate, moderated by Eimear Ní Chonaola was to be broadcast on TG4 on 17 February, but was cancelled due to the weak proficiency in that language of Adams and Burton. Aodhán Ó Ríordáin (Labour) and Pearse Doherty (Sinn Féin) were suggested as fluent replacements, but Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael insisted that a leaders' debate should be confined to party leaders only.[64][65] TG4 instead broadcast successive one-to-one interviews with each party's representative.[66] There was also a "live audience discussion" on RTÉ Two on 21 February featuring Timmy Dooley (FF), Mary Lou McDonald (SF), Aodhán Ó Ríordáin (Labour), Averil Power (non-party), Eamon Ryan (Greens), Leo Varadkar (FG), and Adrienne Wallace (AAA-PBP). The discussion was hosted by Keelin Shanley at Facebook's Dublin office and featured questions submitted via Facebook and Twitter.[67] There was some controversy surrounding this debate as a representative of special needs parents said she was to appear to ask a question on waiting lists only to be told by RTÉ later that the topic would not be covered.[68]

Irish general election debates, 2016[69][70][71]
Date Broadcaster Moderator(s) Participants    Name  Participant    N  Party not invited  Notes
AAA–PBP Fianna Fáil Fine Gael Labour Renua Sinn Féin Social Democrats
8 February RTÉ Claire Byrne N McGrath Noonan Howlin N Doherty N Finance spokespersons. 50 minutes.[72]
11 February TV3 Colette Fitzpatrick
Pat Kenny
N Martin Kenny Burton N Adams N Party leaders. 80 minutes.[73]
15 February RTÉ Claire Byrne Boyd Barrett Martin Kenny Burton Creighton Adams Donnelly Party leaders.[nb 3] 115 minutes.[76]
15 February TV3 Mick Clifford N Cowen Reilly Kelly N McDonald N Deputy leaders.[nb 4] 60 minutes.[77]
22 February RTÉ Claire Byrne N Kelleher Varadkar Lynch N Ó Caoláin N Health spokespersons.[nb 5] 60 minutes.[78]
23 February RTÉ Miriam O'Callaghan N Martin Kenny Burton N Adams N Party leaders. 85 minutes.[79][80]

Opinion polls


Polling results for the 2016 Irish General Election, compared to the actual result

Counting of votes began at 09:00 UTC on Saturday 27 February 2016 and continued over the course of the weekend and into the following week, with the final two seats, in Longford–Westmeath, announced after multiple recounts at 05:30 UTC on Thursday 3 March.[81][82]

It was Fine Gael's lowest number of seats since the 2002 general election, the election that led to Kenny becoming leader (the outgoing finance minister in 2016, Michael Noonan, had been Fine Gael's leader in 2002.) Fianna Fáil more than doubled the number of seats that they had coming into the election. Sinn Féin recorded their strongest showing under Adams to become the third party. Labour's vote collapse meant that not until the Longford–Westmeath result did they reach the seven-seat threshold to qualify as a parliamentary group with full speaking rights under current Dáil rules.[81]

Party Fine Gael Fianna Fáil Sinn Féin Labour Party AAA–PBP Independents 4 Change Social Democrats Green Party
Leader Enda Kenny Micheál Martin Gerry Adams Joan Burton None None Stephen Donnelly
Catherine Murphy
Róisín Shortall
Eamon Ryan
Votes,1st pref. 25.5%, 544,140 24.3%, 519,356 13.8%, 295,319 6.6%, 140,898 3.9%, 84,168 1.5%, 31,365 3.0%, 64,094 2.7%, 57,999
Seats 50[n 1] (31.5%) 44 (28%) 23 (14.5%) 7 (4.5%) 6 (4%) 4 (2.5%) 3 (2%) 2 (1%)
50[n 1] 44 23 19[n 3] 7 6 4 3 2
Fine Gael Fianna Fáil Sinn Féin Inds Lab AAA PBP
Graphical illustration of elected deputies. Note that this is not the official seating plan.
  AAA-PBP: 6 seats
  Independents 4 Change: 4 seats
  Sinn Féin: 23 seats
  Social Democrats: 3 seats
  Green Party: 2 seats
  Labour Party: 7 seats
  Fianna Fáil: 44 seats
  Fine Gael: 50 seats
  Independent: 19 seats

First preference vote share of different parties in the election.

  Fine Gael (25.5%)
  Fianna Fáil (24.3%)
  Sinn Féin (13.8%)
  Labour Party (6.6%)
  AAA-PBP (3.9%)
  Social Democrats (3.0%)
  Green Party (2.7%)
  Renua Ireland (2.2%)
  Other (16.5%)
Summary of 26 February 2016 Dáil Éireann election results[83][84]
Party Leader First Preference Votes Seats
votes % FPv Swing% Candidates
[n 4]
[n 5]
% of
Fine Gael Kenny, EndaEnda Kenny 544,140 25.5 Decrease10.6 88 76 66[n 6] 49[n 6] Decrease27 31.6
Fianna Fáil Martin, MicheálMicheál Martin 519,356 24.3 Increase6.9 71 19[n 6] 21 44 Increase25 27.8
Sinn Féin Adams, GerryGerry Adams 295,319 13.8 Increase3.9 50 14 14 23 Increase9 14.6
Labour Party Burton, JoanJoan Burton 140,898 6.6 Decrease12.8 36 37 33 7 Decrease30 4.4
AAA–PBP None 84,168 3.9 Increase1.7[n 2] 31 4[n 2] 4 6 Increase2 3.8
Independents 4 Change[n 7] None 31,365 1.5 Increase1.5[n 8] 5 N/A[n 9] 4 4 Increase4 2.5
Social Democrats Murphy, CatherineCatherine Murphy
Shortall, RóisínRóisín Shortall
Donnelly, StephenStephen Donnelly
64,094 3.0 Increase3.0[n 8] 14 N/A[n 9] 3 3 0 1.9
Green Party Ryan, EamonEamon Ryan 57,999 2.7 Increase0.9 40 0 0 2 Increase2 1.3
Renua Ireland Creighton, LucindaLucinda Creighton 46,552 2.2 Increase2.2[n 8] 26 N/A[n 9] 3 0 0 0
Direct Democracy Greene, PatPat Greene 6,481 0.3 Increase0.3[n 8] 19 N/A[n 9] 0 0 0 0
Workers' Party Donnelly, MichaelMichael Donnelly 3,242 0.2 Increase<0.05[n 10] 5 0 0 0 0 0
Catholic Democrats Bennis, NoraNora Bennis 2,013 0.1 Increase0.1[n 11] 3 0 0 0 0 0
Fís Nua None 1,224 0.1 Increase<0.05[n 12] 2 0 0 0 0 0
Irish Democratic Party Smollen, KenKen Smollen 971 <0.05 Increase<0.05[n 8] 1 N/A[n 9] 0 0 0 0
Communist Party Walker, LyndaLynda Walker 185 <0.05 Increase<0.05[n 13] 1 0 0 0 0 0
Identity Ireland[n 7] O'Loughlin, PeterPeter O'Loughlin 183 <0.05 Increase<0.05[n 8] 1 N/A[n 9] 0 0 0 0
Independent Alliance[n 7] None 88,930[n 7] 4.2[n 7] Increase4.2[n 7][n 8] 21[n 7] N/A[n 9] 5[n 7] 6[n 7] Increase6[n 7] 3.8[n 7]
Independent[n 7] 249,285[n 7] 11.7[n 7] Increase1.3[n 7] 136[n 7] 14 10[n 7] 13[n 7] Decrease1[n 7] 8.2[n 7]
Ceann Comhairle Barrett, SeánSeán Barrett N/A N/A N/A 1[n 6] 1 1[n 6] 1[n 6] 0 0.6
Total 2,136,405 100% 552[85][n 14] 166 165[n 15] 158 Decrease8 100%
  1. 1 2 3 The 50 seats for Fine Gael includes the Ceann Comhairle Seán Barrett, elected in 2011 for Fine Gael, who is returned automatically.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Anti-Austerity Alliance–People Before Profit (AAA–PBP) was formed in 2015 by the AAA and PBP, and the AAA was formed in 2012 by the Socialist Party. The 2011 seats and votes figures used for comparison are the combined votes and seats of Socialist Party and PBP candidates.
  3. The 19 seats for independents includes 6 seats for politicians participating in the Independent Alliance, which is not a political party, and 13 seats for other independents, but not the 4 seats for Independents 4 Change, which is a registered political party.
  4. TDs in the party at the 2016 dissolution of the 31st Dáil
  5. Change in number of seats from the 2011 election to the 2016 election
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The Ceann Comhairle returned in 2011 was Séamus Kirk, who rejoined Fianna Fáil after the election; the Ceann Comhairle to be returned in 2016 is Seán Barrett, elected in 2011 for Fine Gael.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Data for 2016 under "Independents" excludes both Independents 4 Change, which is a registered party, and the Independent Alliance and Identity Ireland, which are not. Most members of all these groups were classified as "Independents" in 2011.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 This is a new party or group, created after the 2011 general election, so all its votes are counted as a gain.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Party was founded after the 2011 election
  10. The Workers' Party got 3,056 votes in 2011 (out of a total vote of 2,220,359).
  11. Although not a new party (though a party with a new name since 2012), the Catholic Democrats fielded no candidates in 2011, so all their votes are counted as a gain. A different party, the Christian Solidarity Party, which was removed from the official register of political parties in 2014, got 2,102 votes in 2011 (out of a total vote of 2,220,359).
  12. Fís Nua got 938 votes in 2011 (out of a total vote of 2,220,359).
  13. Although not a new party, the Communist Party of Ireland fielded no candidates in 2011, so all its votes are counted as a gain.
  14. Figure of 551 excluding the Ceann Comhairle who is returned automatically.[28]
  15. One seat was vacant at the dissolution, after the resignation of Brian Walsh for health reasons.

TDs who lost their seats

Party Seats lost Name Constituency Other offices held Year elected
Fine Gael
James Bannon[87] Longford–Westmeath 2007
Tom Barry[88] Cork East 2011
Ray Butler Meath West 2011
Jerry Buttimer[89] Cork South-Central 2011
Paudie Coffey[90] Waterford Minister of State for Housing, Planning
and Co-ordination of the Construction 2020 Strategy
Áine Collins[91] Cork North-West 2011
Paul Connaughton, Jnr[92] Galway East 2011
Noel Coonan[93] Tipperary 2007
Jimmy Deenihan[94] Kerry Minister of State for the Diaspora 1987
Noel Harrington[95] Cork South-West 2011
Tom Hayes[96] Tipperary 2001
Derek Keating Dublin Mid-West 2011
Anthony Lawlor Kildare North 2011
Gabrielle McFadden Longford–Westmeath 2014
Michelle Mulherin Mayo 2011
Kieran O'Donnell[97] Limerick City 2007
John O'Mahony Galway West 2007
Joe O'Reilly Cavan–Monaghan 2011
John Perry[98] Sligo–Leitrim 1997
James Reilly[99] Dublin Fingal Minister for Children and Youth Affairs 2007
Alan Shatter[100] Dublin South 1981[lower-alpha 1]
Labour Party
Eric Byrne[101] Dublin South-Central 1989[lower-alpha 2]
Ciara Conway Waterford 2011
Joe Costello[102] Dublin Central 1992[lower-alpha 3]
Anne Ferris[103] Wicklow 2011
Dominic Hannigan[104] Meath East 2011
Kevin Humphreys[105] Dublin Bay South Minister of State for
Employment, Community and Social Support
Ciarán Lynch[106] Cork South-Central 2007
Kathleen Lynch[107] Cork North-Central Minister of State for
Primary Care, Mental Health and Disability
1994[lower-alpha 4]
John Lyons[108] Dublin North-West 2011
Michael McCarthy[95] Cork South-West 2011
Michael McNamara[109] Clare 2011
Ged Nash[110] Louth Minister of State for
Business and Employment
Derek Nolan[111] Galway West 2011
Aodhán Ó Ríordáin[112] Dublin Bay North Minister of State for
New Communities, Culture and Equality
Ann Phelan Carlow–Kilkenny 2011
Arthur Spring[113] Kerry 2011
Emmet Stagg[114] Kildare North 1987
Joanna Tuffy[115] Dublin Mid-West 2007
Alex White[116] Dublin Rathdown Minister for Communications, Energy and Natural Resources 2011
Renua Ireland
Lucinda Creighton[117][118] Dublin Bay South 2007
Terence Flanagan Dublin Bay North 2007
Billy Timmins Wicklow 1997
Fianna Fáil
Colm Keaveney[119] Galway East 2011
Sinn Féin
Pádraig Mac Lochlainn[120][121] Donegal 2011
Seán Conlan Cavan–Monaghan 2011
Eamonn Maloney Dublin South-West 2011
Peter Mathews Dublin Rathdown 2011
Total 48
  1. Shatter lost his seat in 2002 but regained it in 2007.
  2. Byrne lost his seat in 1992 but regained it in 1994, lost it again in 1997 but regained it in 2011.
  3. Costello lost his seat in 1997 but regained it in 2002.
  4. Lynch lost her seat in 1997 but regained it in 2002.

Government formation

Enda Kenny immediately conceded that the outgoing coalition government of Fine Gael and Labour would be unable to continue. This led to speculation of a possibility of a coalition between Fine Gael and Fianna Fáil, of a minority government, or of another general election later in 2016.[122] Talks to form a government got underway in March.

On 29 April, after 63 days of negotiation, Fine Gael and Fianna Fáil reached an agreement about a Fine Gael minority government.[7]


  1. Gerry Adams became President of Sinn Féin on 13 November 1983, but only became parliamentary leader of Sinn Féin in the Dáil once elected to the Dáil for the first time in February 2011. Prior to that its parliamentary leader in the Dáil since 1997 was Caoimhghín Ó Caoláin.
  2. 1 2 3 AAA–PBP issued a joint "statement of common principles"; each of its two components issued a separate manifesto
  3. The Social Democrats were represented by one of their three TDs, who are interim co-leaders.[74] The AAA–PBP have no leader and nominated Richard Boyd Barrett of PBP, one of their four TDs.[75]
  4. Fianna Fáil have had no deputy leader since Éamon Ó Cuív resigned the post in 2012. The party nominated Barry Cowen for the deputy leaders' debate.
  5. Non-party candidate Denis Naughten was also included as a participant.


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