Fine Gael

Fine Gael
Leader Enda Kenny TD
Chairman Martin Heydon TD
Deputy Leader Senator James Reilly
Seanad Leader Senator Jerry Buttimer
Founder W. T. Cosgrave,
Frank MacDermot,
Eoin O'Duffy
Founded 8 September 1933 (1933-09-08)
Merger of Cumann na nGaedheal,
National Centre Party,
National Guard
Headquarters 51 Upper Mount Street,
Dublin 2, Ireland
Youth wing Young Fine Gael
Women's wing Fine Gael Women
Membership  (2016) 25,000[1]
Ideology Liberal conservatism[2]
Christian democracy[2]
Political position Centre-right[3][4][5]
European affiliation European People's Party
International affiliation Centrist Democrat International
European Parliament group European People's Party
Colours      Blue
Dáil Éireann
50 / 158
Seanad Éireann
19 / 60
European Parliament
4 / 11
Local government
234 / 949

Fine Gael (/ˌfnə ˈɡl/;[6] meaning Family or Tribe of the Irish) is a liberal-conservative[7][8] and Christian democratic[9][10] political party in Ireland. Fine Gael is currently the governing and largest party in Ireland in terms of members of the Oireachtas and Irish members of European Parliament.[11] The party has a membership of 25,000,[12] and is the senior partner governing in a minority coalition with several independent politicians, with the Fine Gael party leader Enda Kenny serving as Taoiseach. Kenny has led the party since 2002.[13]

Fine Gael was founded on 8 September 1933[14] following the merger of its parent party Cumann na nGaedheal, the National Centre Party and the National Guard (popularly known as the "Blueshirts", a name still used colloquially to refer to the party). Its origins lie in the struggle for Irish independence and the pro-Treaty side in the Irish Civil War and Michael Collins, in particular, is often identified as the founder of the movement.[15]

Fine Gael is generally considered to be more of a proponent of market liberalism than its traditional rival, Fianna Fáil.[16] However, apart from brief minority governments (as in 1987), Fine Gael has rarely governed Ireland without a coalition that also included the Labour Party, a social-democratic, centre-left party. Fine Gael describes itself as a "party of the progressive centre" which it defines as acting "in a way that is right for Ireland, regardless of dogma or ideology". It lists its core values as equality of opportunity, free enterprise and reward, security, integrity and hope.[17][18] It is strongly in favour of the European Union and opposed to physical force Irish republicanism. The party's youth wing, Young Fine Gael, was formed in 1977, and has approximately four thousand members.[19] Fine Gael is a founding member of the European People's Party and a member of the Centrist Democrat International.

Alternative logo – glyph version


Main article: History of Fine Gael

The following is timeline of participation in governments and positions on proposed constitutional referenda:[20][21][22][23][24]

Ideology and policies

Law and order party

Although Ireland's political spectrum was traditionally divided along Civil War lines, rather than the traditional European left–right spectrum, Fine Gael is described generally as a centre-right, Christian democratic party, with a focus on law and order, enterprise and reward, and fiscal rectitude.[25] As the descendant of the pro-Treaty factions in the Irish Civil War, Fine Gael has a strong affinity with Michael Collins and his legacy. He remains a symbol for the party, and the anniversary of his death is commemorated each year in August.[26]

Economically liberal

Fine Gael has, since its inception, portrayed itself as a party of fiscal rectitude and minimal government interference in economics, advocating pro-enterprise policies. In that they followed the line of the previous pro-Treaty government that believed in minimal state intervention, low taxes and social expenditures.[27] Newly elected politicians for the party in the Dáil have strongly advocated liberal economic policies. Lucinda Creighton (who has since left the party) and Leo Varadkar in particular have been seen as strong advocates of a neoliberal approach to Ireland's economics woes and Ireland's unemployment problems.[28] Varadkar in particular has been a strong proponent of small, indigenous business, advocating that smaller firms should benefit from the government's recapitalisation program[29] Its former finance spokesman Richard Bruton's proposals have been seen as approaching problems from a pro-enterprise point of view. Its fairer budget website suggests that its solutions are "tough but fair".[30] Other solutions conform generally to conservative governments' policies throughout Europe, focusing on cutting numbers in the public sector, while maintaining investment in infrastructure.

Fine Gael's proposals have sometimes been criticised mostly by smaller political groupings in Ireland, and by some of the trade unions, who have raised the idea that the party's solutions are more conscious of business interests than the interests of the worker. The SIPTU trade union has stated its opposition to the Taoiseach Enda Kenny's assertion, in response to Ireland's economic crisis, that the national wage agreement should be suspended. Kenny's comments had support however and the party attributes its significant rise in polls in 2008 to this.[31] In spite of this perceived opposition to Fine Gael from the left of the Irish political spectrum, the party, due to Dáil arithmetic, has never entered into national government without the backing of the Labour Party.

Economic policies

Fine Gael's Simon Coveney launched what the party termed a radical re-organisation of the Irish Semi-State Company sector. Styled the New Economy and Recovery Authority (or NewERA), Coveney said that it is an economic stimulus plan that will "reshape the Irish economy for the challenges of the 21st century".[32] Requiring an €18.2 billion investment in Energy, Communications and Water infrastructure over a four-year period, it was promoted as a way to enhance energy security and digital reputation of Ireland. A very broad ranging document, it proposes the combined management of a portfolio of semi-state assets, and the sale of all other, non-essential services. The release of equity through the sale of the various state resources, including electricity generation services belonging to the ESB, Bord na Móna and Bord Gáis, in combination with use of money in the National Pensions Reserve Fund, is the means by which Fine Gael is proposing to fund its national stimulus package.[33]

The plan is seen at being the basis of a Fine Gael program for government. Seen as being the longer term contribution to Fine Gael's economic plan, it has been publicised in combination with a more short term policy proposal from FG TD, Dr. Leo Varadkar. This document, termed "Hope for a Lost Generation", promises to bring 30,000 young Irish people off the Live Register in a year by combining a National Internship Program, a Second Chance Education Scheme, an Apprenticeship Guarantee and Community Work Program, as well as instituting a German style, Workshare program.[34]

Commentary on the FG's economic proposals has generally been positive from some economic commentators including Eddie Hobbs and David McWilliams who have praised the proposals stating that they have considerable potential. Eamon Gilmore's Labour Party has launched policies which are seen to be broadly consistent with the FG platform.[35]

Constitutional reform policies

Fine Gael is seen as being a constitutional party, with members and public representatives always showing considerable deference to the institutional organs of the Irish state. The party leadership has been eager to be seen to engage in an ongoing constitutional debate in Ireland on the topic of political reform. The debate which has been monitored by the Irish Times in its Renewing the Republic opinion pieces, has largely centred on the make up of the Oireachtas, the Irish parliament. Fine Gael's Phil Hogan TD, now a European Commissioner, has published the party's proposals for political and constitutional reform. In a policy document entitled New Politics, Hogan suggested creating a country with "a smaller, more dynamic and more responsive political system," reducing the size of the Dáil by 20, changing the way the Dáil works, and in a controversial move, abolishing the Irish senate, Seanad Éireann.[36]

Aiming to carry out the parties proposals through a series of constitutional referendums, the proposals were echoed by then Labour leader Eamon Gilmore, when he proposed his own constitutional "crusade" at his 2010 party conference, shortly after.[37]

Social policies

Fine Gael was traditionally conservative on social matters for most of the twentieth century, due to the conservative Christian ethos of Irish society during this time. Its members are variously influenced by Christian democracy, liberalism and social democracy on issues of social policy. Under Garret FitzGerald, the party's more liberal or pluralist wing gained prominence. Proposals to allow divorce were put by referendum by two Fine Gael–led governments, in 1986 under FitzGerald,[38] and in 1995 under John Bruton, passing very narrowly on this second attempt.[39]

Fine Gael supported civil unions for same-sex couples from 2003, voting for the Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Bill 2010, and the party approved a motion at its 2012 Ard Fheis to prioritise the consideration of same-sex marriage in the upcoming constitutional convention. In 2013 party leader and Taoiseach Enda Kenny announced his support for same-sex marriage. The Fine Gael led government held a referendum on the subject on 22 May 2015. The referendum passed. The electorate voted to extend full marriage rights to same sex couples, with 62.1% in favour and 37.9% opposed. The party has run advertisements in GCN (Gay Community News) advertising its commitments to same-sex couples.

Fine Gael supported making the Irish language an optional subject in the secondary school curriculum after the Junior Certificate in the 2011 general election.[40][41]

Health policies

The Irish health system, being administered centrally by the Health Service Executive, is seen to be poor by comparison to other countries in Europe, ranking outside expected levels at 25th according to the Euro Health Consumer Index 2006.[42] Fine Gael wants Ireland to break with the system of private health insurance, public medical cards and what it calls the two tiers of the health system and has launched a campaign to see the system reformed. Speaking in favour of the campaign, Fine Gael then health spokesman James Reilly stated "Over the last 10 years the health service has become a shambles. We regularly have over 350 people on trolleys in A&E, waiting lists that go on for months, outpatient waiting lists that go on for years and cancelled operations across the country..."[43]

Fine Gael launched its FairCare campaign and website in April 2009, which stated that the health service would be reformed away from a costly ineffective endeavour, into a publicly regulated system where compulsory universal health insurance would replace the existing provisions.[44]

This strategy was criticised by Fianna Fáil's then Minister for Children, Barry Andrews. The spokesperson for family law and children, Alan Shatter TD, robustly defended its proposals as the only means of reducing public expenditure, and providing a service in Ireland more akin to the Canadian, Dutch and German health systems.


As a Christian democratic party, Fine Gael has historically been anti-abortion. It has however frequently disagreed with various pro-life organisations in Ireland. In 1983, having initially supported the proposal, it came out in opposition to the Eighth Amendment to the Irish Constitution that was being submitted in a referendum in 1983. Under then leader and Taoiseach Dr Garret FitzGerald it campaigned for a 'No' vote, arguing, on the advice of the Attorney General of Ireland Peter Sutherland, that the wording, which had been drafted under the previous government, when analysed was ambiguous and open to many interpretations.[45] This referendum resulted in the Eighth Amendment to the Irish constitution, giving the unborn child a qualified[46] equal right to life to that of the mother.[47] Its stance conflicted with that of the Pro-Life Amendment Campaign (PLAC) and the Roman Catholic bishops, and Fianna Fáil, the largest party in the State at the time, but then in opposition.

The party also campaigned against the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution in 2002, which proposed to remove suicide as a grounds for granting a termination of a pregnancy. Suicide had been ruled as a ground, under the 8th amendment, in the X Case judgement of the Irish Supreme Court. The amendment was rejected by Irish voters.[48]

In 2013 it proposed, and supported, the enactment of the Protection of Life During Pregnancy Act, 2013, which implemented in statute law the X case ruling of the Irish Supreme Court, granting access to a termination of a pregnancy where there is a real and substantial risk to the life, not the health, of the mother, including a threat of suicide.[49] The enactment of the Act was criticised by various "pro-life" groups[50] and the Roman Catholic bishops, but supported by a majority of the electorate in polls, with many indicating they wished to see a more liberal law on abortion.[51]

As of December 2015, the party is divided on repealing the Eighth Amendment.[52] Kenny has pledged that his party's Oireachtas members will be given a free vote on the issue.[53]


Fine Gael is among the most pro-European integration parties in Ireland, having supported the European Constitution,[54] the Lisbon Treaty, and advocating participation in European common defence.[55] Under Enda Kenny, the party has questioned Irish neutrality, with Kenny claiming that "the truth is, Ireland is not neutral. We are merely unaligned."[54]

European affiliations

Fine Gael is a founding member of the European People's Party (EPP), the largest European political party comprising conservative and Christian democratic national-level parties from across Europe. Fine Gael's MEPs sit with the EPP Group in the European Parliament, and FG parliamentarians also sit with the EPP Groups in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe and Committee of the Regions. Young Fine Gael is a member of the Youth of the European People's Party (YEPP).

It is inferred from Fine Gael's relationship to European counterparts via membership of the European People's Party that FG belongs on the centre-right.[56][57][58] The party conforms generally with European political parties that identify themselves as being Christian democratic.[59] Some younger parliamentarians are identified with the centre-right. The Irish Times supplement described front bench member Leo Varadkar TD as having explicitly centre-right views.[60]

Electoral performance

At the 2011 general election, Fine Gael gained 25 seats bringing them to a total of 76. The party ran candidates in all 43 constituencies, and had candidates elected in every constituency except Dublin North-West.

Fine Gael won 19 seats in Seanad Éireann following the 2011 election, a gain of four from the previous election in 2007.

At the 2009 Local elections held on 5 June 2009, Fine Gael won 556 seats, surpassing Fianna Fáil which won 407 seats, and making Fine Gael the largest party of local government nationally.[61] They gained 88 seats from their 2004 result.

At 2009 European Parliament election held on the same day as the Local elections, which saw a reduction in the number seats from 13 to 12 for Ireland, the party won four seats, retaining the largest number of seats of an Irish party in the European Parliament. This was a loss of one seat from its 2004 result.[62]

While Fine Gael was responsible for the initial nomination of the uncontested, first President of Ireland, Douglas Hyde, a Fine Gael candidate has never won an election to the office of President. The most recent Fine Gael presidential candidate, Gay Mitchell, finished fourth in the 2011 presidential election, with 6.4% of the vote.[63] In 2004, Fine Gael supported the re-election of President Mary McAleese.

In the 2016 general election the outgoing government of consisting of Fine Gael and it's partner the Labour Party was defeated. The previous government had the largest majority in the history of the state with a combined 113 seats out of the 166th seat Dáil Éireann. The aftermath of the general election resulted in months of negotiations for an agreement of government. A deal was reached with the main opposition and traditional rival Fianna Fáil to facilitate a minority Fine Gael led government. Fine Gael now governs Ireland alone with eight Independent members of the Dáil.

Planning and Payment Tribunals

The Moriarty Tribunal has sat since 1997 and has investigated the granting of a mobile phone license to Esat Telecom by Michael Lowry when he was Fine Gael Minister for Transport, Energy and Communications in the Rainbow Coalition of the mid-1990s. Lowry resigned from the Cabinet after it was revealed at the Moriarty Tribunal that businessman Ben Dunne had paid for an IR£395,000 extension to Lowry's Tipperary home. Lowry, now an independent TD, supported the Fianna FáilGreen Party government in Dáil Éireann until March 2011.

It was also revealed in December 1996 that Fine Gael had received some £180,000 from Ben Dunne in the period 1987 to 1993. This was composed of £100,000 in 1993, £50,000 in 1992 and £30,000 in 1989. In addition, Michael Noonan received £3,000 in 1992 towards his election campaign, Ivan Yates received £5,000, Michael Lowry received £5,000 and Sean Barrett received £1,000 in the earlier 1987 election. John Bruton said he had received £1,000 from Dunne in 1982 towards his election campaign, and Dunne had also given £15,000 to the Labour Party during the 1990 Presidential election campaign.[64]

Following revelations at the Moriarty Tribunal on 16 February 1999, in relation to Charles Haughey and his relationship with AIB, former Taoiseach Garret Fitzgerald confirmed that AIB and Ansbacher wrote off debts of almost £200,000 that he owed in 1993, when he was in financial difficulties because of the collapse of the aircraft leasing company, GPA, in which he was a shareholder. The write-off occurred after Dr Fitzgerald left politics and Dr. Fitzgerald also said he believed his then Fine Gael colleague, Peter Sutherland, who was chairman of AIB at the time, was unaware of the situation.[65]


Mayo TD Enda Kenny was elected leader of Fine Gael in a secret ballot of the parliamentary party on 5 June 2002. Kenny defeated Richard Bruton, Phil Hogan and Gay Mitchell in the leadership election, which was triggered by the resignation of Michael Noonan following the 2002 general election. The position of deputy leader has been held since July 2010 by James Reilly. It was previously held by Dublin North-Central TD Richard Bruton from 2002 until 2010.[66] He was preceded as deputy leader by Jim Mitchell.

Party leader

Main article: Leader of Fine Gael

The following are the terms of office as party leader and as Taoiseach (bolded) if applicable:

Leader Period Constituency Periods in office (if Taoiseach)
Eoin O'Duffy 1933–34 None[67]
W. T. Cosgrave 1934–44 Carlow–Kilkenny
Richard Mulcahy 1944–59[68][69] Tipperary John A. Costello[70]19481951; 19541957
(Government of the 13th Dáil and 15th Dáil)
James Dillon 1959–65 Monaghan
Liam Cosgrave 1965–77 Dún Laoghaire 19731977
(Government of the 20th Dáil)
Garret FitzGerald 1977–87 Dublin South-East 1981Feb 1982; Nov 19821987
(Government of the 22nd Dáil and 24th Dáil)
Alan Dukes 1987–90 Kildare South
John Bruton 1990–2001 Meath 1994–1997
(Government of the 27th Dáil)
Michael Noonan 2001–02 Limerick East
Enda Kenny 2002–present Mayo 2011–present
(Government of the 31st Dáil)

Deputy leader

Name Period Constituency
Tom O'Higgins 1972–77 Dublin County South
Peter Barry 1977–87 Cork South-Central
John Bruton 1987–90 Meath
Peter Barry 1991–93 Cork South-Central
Nora Owen 1993–2001 Dublin North
Jim Mitchell 2001–02 Dublin Central
Richard Bruton 2002–10 Dublin North-Central
James Reilly 2010–2016 Dublin North

Seanad leader

Name Period Panel
Michael J. O'Higgins 1973–77 Nominated member of Seanad Éireann
Patrick Cooney 1977–81 Cultural and Educational Panel
Gemma Hussey 1981–82 National University of Ireland
James Dooge 1982–87 National University of Ireland
Maurice Manning 1987–2002 Cultural and Educational Panel
Brian Hayes 2002–2007 Cultural and Educational Panel
Michael Finucane 2007 (acting) Labour Panel
Frances Fitzgerald 2007–2011 Labour Panel
Maurice Cummins 2011–2016 Labour Panel
Jerry Buttimer 2016- Labour Panel

General election results

Election Seats won ± Position First Pref votes % Government Leader
48 / 138
Decrease11[71] Steady2nd 461,171 34.8% Opposition W. T. Cosgrave
45 / 138
Decrease3 Steady2nd 428,633 33.3% Opposition W. T. Cosgrave
32 / 138
Decrease12 Steady2nd 307,490 23.1% Opposition W. T. Cosgrave
30 / 138
Decrease2 Steady2nd 249,329 20.5% Opposition Richard Mulcahy
31 / 147
Increase1 Steady2nd 262,393 19.8% Coalition (FG-LP-CnP-CnT-NLP) Richard Mulcahy
40 / 147
Increase9 Steady2nd 349,922 27.2% Opposition Richard Mulcahy
50 / 147
Increase10 Steady2nd 427,031 32.0% Coalition (FG-LP-CnT) Richard Mulcahy
40 / 147
Decrease10 Steady2nd 326,699 26.6% Opposition Richard Mulcahy
47 / 144
Increase7 Steady2nd 374,099 32.0% Opposition James Dillon
47 / 144
Steady Steady2nd 427,081 34.1% Opposition James Dillon
50 / 144
Increase3 Steady2nd 449,749 34.1% Opposition Liam Cosgrave
54 / 144
Increase4 Steady2nd 473,781 35.1% Coalition (FG-LP) Liam Cosgrave
43 / 148
Decrease11 Steady2nd 488,767 30.5% Opposition Liam Cosgrave
65 / 166
Increase22 Steady2nd 626,376 36.5% Coalition (FG-LP) Garret FitzGerald
1982 (Feb)
63 / 166
Decrease2 Steady2nd 621,088 37.3% Opposition Garret FitzGerald
1982 (Nov)
70 / 166
Increase7 Steady2nd 662,284 39.2% Coalition (FG-LP) Garret FitzGerald
51 / 166
Decrease19 Steady2nd 481,127 27.1% Opposition Garret FitzGerald
55 / 166
Increase4 Steady2nd 485,307 29.3% Opposition Alan Dukes
45 / 166
Decrease10 Steady2nd 422,106 24.5% Opposition John Bruton
Coalition (FG-LP-DL) (from December 1994)
54 / 166
Increase9 Steady2nd 499,936 27.9% Opposition John Bruton
31 / 166
Decrease23 Steady2nd 417,619 22.5% Opposition Michael Noonan
51 / 166
Increase20 Steady2nd 564,428 27.3% Opposition Enda Kenny
76 / 166
Increase25 Increase1st 801,628 36.1% Coalition (FG-LP) Enda Kenny
50 / 158
Decrease26 Steady1st 544,410 25.5% Minority government (supported by Fianna Fáil) Enda Kenny

Front bench

Main article: Fine Gael Front Bench

Young Fine Gael

Main article: Young Fine Gael

Young Fine Gael (YFG) is the youth movement of Fine Gael. It was founded in 1976 by the then leader Garret FitzGerald. It caters for young people under 30 with an interest in Fine Gael and politics, in cities, towns, parishes and third level colleges throughout Ireland. YFG has 4,000 members nationwide.[72] YFG is led by its national executive consisting of ten members elected on a regional basis, and on a national panel.

See also

Notes and references

  1. Analysis – Irish referendum puts Sinn Fein in the spotlight. Padraic Halpin. Reuters.
  2. 1 2 Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  3. 1 2 Richard Dunphy (2015). "Ireland". In Donatella M. Viola. Routledge Handbook of European Elections. Routledge. p. 247. ISBN 978-1-317-50363-7.
  4. Nicholas Rees; Brid Quinn; Bernadette Connaughton (2010). "Ireland and the European Union". In Nicholas Rees; Brid Quinn; Bernadette Connaughton. Europeanisation and New Patterns of Governance in Ireland. Manchester University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-84779-336-2.
  5. Kate Nicholls (2015). Mediating Policy: Greece, Ireland, and Portugal Before the Eurozone Crisis. Routledge. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-317-64273-2.
  6. "Fine Gael: definition of Fine Gael in Oxford dictionary (British & World English). Meaning, pronunciation and origin of the word". Oxford Language Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  7. Kerstin Hamann; John Kelly (2010). Parties, Elections, and Policy Reforms in Western Europe: Voting for Social Pacts. Routledge. p. 1980. ISBN 978-1-136-94986-9.
  8. Cesáreo R. Aguilera de Prat; Jed Rosenstein (2009). Political Parties and European Integration. Peter Lang. p. 64. ISBN 978-90-5201-535-4.
  9. T. Banchoff (1999). Legitimacy and the European Union. Taylor & Francis. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-415-18188-4. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  10. Hans Slomp (2011). Europe, a Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 333. ISBN 978-0-313-39181-1.
  11. Angus Reid Global Monitor Retrieved 10 May 2009.
  12. Fine Gael. Your Fine Gael. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
  13. "Enda Kenny elected Fine Gael leader". RTÉ News. 5 June 2002. Retrieved 31 October 2007.
  14. "History of Fine Gael". Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  15. "Legacy of the Easter Rising". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2007.
  16. "Ireland's politics on the brink of a seismic shift". Retrieved 2016-02-03.
  17. Gael, Fine. "Our Values". Fine Gael. Retrieved 2016-02-03.
  18. "FG Values". David Stanton website. Retrieved 10 January 2011.
  19. "Election 2007 – Youth parties". RTÉ News. Archived from the original on 14 May 2007. Retrieved 31 October 2007.
  20. Lee, Joseph (1989-01-01). Ireland, 1912–1985: Politics and Society. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521266482.
  21. Meehan, Ciara (2013-10-15). A Just Society for Ireland? 1964–1987. Springer. ISBN 9781137022066.
  22. Hussey, Gemma (1990-01-01). At the Cutting Edge: Cabinet Diaries, 1982–1987. Gill and Macmillan. ISBN 9780717117536.
  23. Collins, Neil; Cradden, Terry (2001-01-01). Irish Politics Today. Manchester University Press. ISBN 9780719061745.
  24. Gael, Fine. "History of FG". Fine Gael. Retrieved 2016-03-14.
  25. Fine Gael is a party of fiscal rectitude. Retrieved on 19 January 2010.
  26. The Hogan Stand (21 September 2005). Michael Collins' view of life in Achill Gaeltacht. Retrieved on 31 October 2007.
  27. Political Parties in the Republic of Ireland by Michael Gallagher. Manchester University Press, 1985. ISBN, 0719017971, 9780719017971. p. 43
  28. "Lucinda CREIGHTON TD – Economy Vision". Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  29. "Leo Varadkar – Small Business Fund must be included in recapitalisation plan". 16 December 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  30. "". Retrieved 22 November 2010.
  31. "Union criticises FG on wage agreements position while FG gains 35% in polls". RTÉ.ie. 23 November 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  32. FG's New Era policy commentated on by RTÉ –, RTÉ Website, 26 April 2010
  33. FG Launches 11bn Euro Stimulus Plan –, RTÉ Website, 26 April 2010
  34. FG Hope for a Lost Generation Document –, Young Fine Gael website, 26 April 2010
  35. Gilmore's Economic Policies and Fine gael –, The Sunday Post, 26 April 2010
  36. "Irish Times on Kenny Conference Speech, 26 April 2010". 20 March 2010. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  37. Commentary of Gilmore conference speech and Labour consistency with FG policy –, 26 April 2010
  38. "Referendum 26 June 1986 Dissolution of Marriage". Retrieved 25 February 2011.
  39. "Referendum 24 November 1995 Dissolution of Marriage". 24 November 1995. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  40. Walshe, John (25 May 2006). "Students split on compulsory Irish for Leaving Cert". Irish Independent. Retrieved 22 November 2010.
  41. "Forcing students to learn Irish has failed, says Hayes". The Irish Times. 15 April 2010. Retrieved 22 November 2010.
  42. "Euro Health Consumer Index 2006" (PDF). Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  43. "Dr. James O' Rehilly comments on health service". 27 April 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  44. "Fine Gael launch Fair Care Website and campaign". Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  45. Muldowney, Mary (March–April 2013). ""BREAKING THE SILENCE ON ABORTION: the 1983 referendum campaign".". History Ireland.
  46. Through the words "as far as practicable". Attorney General v X, [1992] IESC 1; [1992] 1 IR 1. Also reflected in A, B, C v Ireland.
  47. Book, Irish Statute. Retrieved 2015-12-09. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  48. "2002 referendum". Elections Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  49. "/". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 2015-12-14.
  50. "Irish abortion bill becomes law". BBC News. Retrieved 2015-12-14.
  51. "Abortion law doesn't go far enough – poll". Herald/ie. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  52. "Fine Gael politicians are VERY divided on the 8th Amendment*". Retrieved 2015-12-09.
  53. "Taoiseach Enda Kenny pledges free vote to TDs on future abortion changes". Irish Independent. Retrieved 2015-12-14.
  54. 1 2 National Forum on Europe (26 October 2006). Enda Kenny calls for Unified EU Approach to Immigration. Retrieved on 31 October 2007.
  55. National Forum on Europe (3 April 2003). Should we back a pledge to defend others if they come under attack?. Retrieved on 31 October 2007
  56. Fine Gael – MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009.
  57. Encyclopedia of British and Irish ... – Google Libri. 2000. ISBN 9780826458148. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  58. Valencia (7 January 2007). "What Fine Gael needs to do is find its bottom – National News, Frontpage". Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  59. Fine Gael’s European Strategy – EAST WEST EUROPE | Ireland and the Wider Europe, 2008 Archived 8 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  60. "Centre-right views, outspoken, seen by some as arrogant at times". 20 November 2010. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
  61. "2009 Local Elections". Retrieved 6 September 2009.
  62. "Elections 2009 – European Elections: National Summary". RTÉ News. Archived from the original on 10 August 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
  63. "2011 Presidential Election". Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  64. "Irish Times article". The Irish Times.
  65. "RTÉ News: AIB and Ansbacher wrote off Fitzgerald's £200,000 debt". RTÉ.ie. 17 February 1999. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  66. "Richard Bruton sacked as FG deputy leader". RTÉ News. 14 June 2010. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
  67. O'Duffy did not hold a seat in the Oireachtas while he was party leader.
  68. While Mulcahy was a member of the Seanad in 1944, Tom O'Higgins acted as parliamentary party leader.
  69. Between 1948 and 1959, John A. Costello served as parliamentary leader.
  70. While Mulcahy was party leader, Costello was Taoiseach on two occasions.
  71. The total number of Fine Gael TDs is compared to the combined total won by Cumann na nGaedheal and the National Centre Party at the previous general election.
  72. RTÉ News. 2007 General Election. . Retrieved on 1 July 2009


  • Nealon's Guide to the 29th Dáil and Seanad (Gill and Macmillan, 2002) (ISBN 0-7171-3288-9)
  • Stephen Collins, "The Cosgrave Legacy" (Blackwater, 1996) (ISBN 0-86121-658-X)
  • Garret FitzGerald, "Garret FitzGerald: An Autobiography" (Gill and Macmillan, 1991) (ISBN 0-7171-1600-X)
  • Jack Jones, In Your Opinion: Political and Social Trends in Ireland through the Eyes of the Electorate (Townhouse, 2001) (ISBN 1-86059-149-3)
  • Maurice Manning, James Dillon: A Biography (Wolfhound, 1999/2000) (ISBN 0-86327-823-X)
  • Stephen O'Byrnes, Hiding Behind a Face: Fine Gael under FitzGerald (Gill and Macmillan: 1986) (ISBN 0-7171-1448-1)
  • Raymond Smith, Garret: The Enigma (Aherlow, 1985) (no ISBN)
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