Timeline of Jerusalem

This is a timeline of major events in the History of Jerusalem; a city that had been fought over sixteen times in its history.[1] During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times.[2]

Ancient period

New Kingdom at its maximum territorial extent in the 15th century BCE
The Levant showing Jerusalem in c. 830 BCE
Neo-Assyrian Empire at its greatest extent
Achaemenid Empire under Darius III

Proto-Canaanite period

Canaanite and New Kingdom Egyptian period

Independent Israel and Judah (House of David) period

Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires period

Illustration from the Nuremberg Chronicle of the destruction of Jerusalem under the Babylonian rule

Persian (Achaemenid) Empire period

Classical antiquity

Hellenistic Kingdoms (Ptolemaic / Seleucid) period

Kingdoms of the Diadochi and others before the battle of Ipsus, c. 303 BCE
The Seleucid Empire in c. 200 BCE
Hasmonean Kingdom at its greatest extent under Salome Alexandra

Hasmonean kingdom

Early Roman period

Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus, 30BCE – 6AD
Pompey in the Temple, 63 BCE (Jean Fouquet 1470–1475)
Jesus at the Temple (Giovanni Paolo Pannini c. 1750)
The siege of Jerusalem, 70AD (David Roberts, 1850)
Flevit super illam” (He wept over it); by Enrique Simonet, 1892.

Late Roman period (Aelia Capitolina)

The Roman empire at its peak under Hadrian showing the location of the Roman legions deployed in 125 CE.

Late Antiquity period

Byzantine period

Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476
Helena finding the True Cross (Italian manuscript, c. 825)
The Madaba Map depiction of sixth-century Jerusalem

Middle Ages

Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates period

The expansion of the caliphate under the Umayyads.
  Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
  Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750
An anachronistic map of the various de facto independent emirates after the Abbasids lost their military dominance (c. 950)

Fatimid Caliphate period

The Fatimid Caliphate at its greatest extent

First Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099–1187)

Crusader states in 1180
The capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders on 15 July 1099
1. The Holy Sepulchre, 2. The Dome of the Rock, 3. Ramparts
A woodcut of Jerusalem in the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493

Ayyubid period and Second Crusader Kingdom

The Crusader defeat at the Battle of Hattin leads to the end of the First Crusader Kingdom (1099–1187). During the Second Crusader Kingdom (1192–1291), the Crusaders can only gain a foothold in Jerusalem on a limited scale, twice through treaties (access rights in 1192 after the Treaty of Jaffa; partial control 1229–39 after the Treaty of Jaffa and Tell Ajul), and again for a last time between 1241–44.[54]

Jerusalem under the Ayyubid dynasty after the death of Saladin, 1193
The Bahri Mamluk Dynasty 1250–1382

Bahri Mamluk and Burji Mamluk periods

Early modern period

Early Ottoman period

The Ottoman Empire in 1683, showing Jerusalem

Modern era

Decline of the Ottoman Empire period

Map of Jerusalem in 1883
"Independent" Vilayet of Jerusalem shown within Ottoman administrative divisions in the Levant after the reorganisation of 1887–88

British Mandate period

Zones of French and British influence and control proposed in the Sykes-Picot Agreement
General Allenby enters Jerusalem on foot out of respect for the Holy City, 11 December 1917

Partition between Israel and Jordan

Israeli period

The Temple Mount as it appears today. The Western Wall is in the foreground with the Dome of the Rock in the background
  • 6 June: The Battle of Ammunition Hill takes place in the northern part of Jordanian controlled East Jerusalem.
  • 7 June: The Old City is captured by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).
  • 10 June: The Moroccan Quarter including 135 houses and the Al-Buraq mosque is demolished, creating a plaza in front of the Western Wall.
  • 28 June: Israel declares Jerusalem unified and announces free access to holy sites of all religions.

Graphical Overview of Jerusalem's Historical Periods

Positions on Jerusalem Occupation of the West Bank and East Jerusalem by Jordan British Empire Ottoman Empire Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) Ayyubid Empire Kingdom of Jerusalem Ayyubid Empire Kingdom of Jerusalem Seljuq Empire Fatimid Caliphate Abbasid Caliphate Umayyad Caliphate Rashidun Caliphate Byzantine Sassanid Empire Byzantine Roman Empire Hasmonean dynasty Syrian Wars Achaemenid Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire Neo-Assyrian Empire History of ancient Israel and Judah Jebusite Egyptian New Kingdom Canaan

See also

Other cities in Israel



  1. Steckoll, Solomon H., The gates of Jerusalem, Frederick A. Praeger, New York, 1968, preface
  2. "Do We Divide the Holiest Holy City?". Moment Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008.. According to Eric H. Cline's tally in Jerusalem Besieged.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Slavik, Diane. 2001. Cities through Time: Daily Life in Ancient and Modern Jerusalem. Geneva, Illinois: Runestone Press, p. 60. ISBN 978-0-8225-3218-7
  4. Mazar, Benjamin. 1975. The Mountain of the Lord. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., p. 45. ISBN 0-385-04843-2
  5. Jane M. Cahill (2003). "Jerusalem at the time of the United Monarchy". In Vaughn, Andrew; Killebrew, Ann. E. Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period. Society of Biblical Literature. p. 21. ISBN 978-1589830660. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  6. Chronology of the Israelite Tribes from The History Files (historyfiles.co.uk)
  7. Ben-Dov, Meir. 1985. In the Shadow of the Temple. New York, New York: Harper & Row Publishers, Inc., pp. 34–35. ISBN 0-06-015362-8
  8. Bright, John (1980). A History of Israel. p. 311.
  9. http://studentreader.com/jerusalem/#Edict-of-Cyrus Student Reader Jerusalem: "When Cyrus captured Babylon, he immediately issued the Edict of Cyrus, a decree that those who had been exiled by the Babylonians could return to their homelands and start rebuilding."
  10. "Maccabean Revolt". Virtualreligion.net. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  11. Josephus The Jewish Wars (1:60)
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  13. "Josephus, chapter 10". Christianbookshelf.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  14. Encyclopaedic dictionary of the Bible, Volume 5, William George Smith. Books.google.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  15. Sievers, 142
  16. Between Rome and Jerusalem: 300 years of Roman-Judaean relations By Martin Sicker. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  17. "Armenians of Jerusalem Launch Project To Preserve History and Culture". Pr-inside.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  18. The problem of the Greek sources of Movsēs Xorenacʻi's History of Armenia. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  19. A History of the Jews in Babylonia, Vol. 2 By Jacob Neusner p. 351. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  20. "And when he had ordained five councils (συνέδρια), he distributed the nation into the same number of parts. So these councils governed the people; the first was at Jerusalem, the second at Gadara, the third at Amathus, the fourth at Jericho, and the fifth at Sepphoris in Galilee." Josephus, Ant. xiv 54:
  21. "Josephus uses συνέδριον for the first time in connection with the decree of the Roman governor of Syria, Gabinius (57 BCE), who abolished the constitution and the then existing form of government of Palestine and divided the country into five provinces, at the head of each of which a sanhedrin was placed ("Ant." xiv 5, § 4)." via Jewish Encyclopedia: Sanhedrin:
  22. Armstrong 1996, p. 126
  23. Sicker 2001, p. 75
  24. Israel handbook: with the Palestinian Authority areas By Dave Winter. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  25. The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ. Books.google.co.uk. 14 November 2000. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  26. "Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews – Book XVIII, "Cyrenius came himself into Judea, which was now added to the province of Syria"". Ccel.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  27. H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, pp. 247–248: "Consequently, the province of Judea may be regarded as a satellite of Syria, though, in view of the measure of independence left to its governor in domestic affairs, it would be wrong to say that in the Julio-Claudian era Judea was legally part of the province of Syria."
  28. A History of the Jewish People, H.H. Ben-Sasson editor, 1976, p. 247: "When Judea was converted into a Roman province [in 6 CE, p. 246], Jerusalem ceased to be the administrative capital of the country. The Romans moved the governmental residence and military headquarters to Caesarea. The centre of government was thus removed from Jerusalem, and the administration became increasingly based on inhabitants of the Hellenistic cities (Sebaste, Caesarea and others)."
  29. John P. Meier's A Marginal Jew, vol. 1, ch. 11; also H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, p. 251: "But after the first agitation (which occurred in the wake of the first Roman census) had faded out, we no longer hear of bloodshed in Judea until the days of Pilate."
  30. Luke 2:41–43
  31. H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, The Crisis Under Gaius Caligula, pp. 254–256: "The reign of Gaius Caligula (37–41) witnessed the first open break between the Jews and the Julio-Claudian empire. Until then—if one accepts Sejanus' heyday and the trouble caused by the census after Archelaus' banishment—there was usually an atmosphere of understanding between the Jews and the empire ... These relations deteriorated seriously during Caligula's reign, and, though after his death the peace was outwardly re-established, considerable bitterness remained on both sides. ... Caligula ordered that a golden statue of himself be set up in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Only Caligula's death, at the hands of Roman conspirators (41), prevented the outbreak of a Jewish-Roman war that might well have spread to the entire East."
  32. Acts 21:26–39
  33. See also Flavius Josephus, Jewish Antiquities XX, ix, 1.
  34. Eusebius, Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, III, xxxii.
  35. Christopher Mackay. "Ancient Rome a Military and Political History" 2007: 230
  36. Schaff's Seven Ecumenical Councils: First Nicaea: Canon VII: "Since custom and ancient tradition have prevailed that the Bishop of Aelia [i.e., Jerusalem] should be honored, let him, saving its due dignity to the Metropolis, have the next place of honor."; "It is very hard to determine just what was the "precedence" granted to the Bishop of Aelia, nor is it clear which is the "metropolis" referred to in the last clause. Most writers, including Hefele, Balsamon, Aristenus and Beveridge consider it to be Cæsarea; while Zonaras thinks Jerusalem to be intended, a view recently adopted and defended by Fuchs; others again suppose it is Antioch that is referred to."
  37. Browning, Robert. 1978. The Emperor Julian. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, p. 176. ISBN 0-520-03731-6
  38. Horn, Cornelia B.; Robert R. Phenix, Jr. 2008. The Lives of Peter the Iberian, Theodosius of Jerusalem, and the Monk Romanus. Atlanta, Georgia: Society of Biblical Literature, p. lxxxviii. ISBN 978-1-58983-200-8
  39. The Emperor Justinian and Jerusalem (527–565)
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  41. Karen Armstrong. 1997. Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths. New York, New York: Ballantine Books, p. 229. ISBN 0-345-39168-3
  42. "Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 21, Number 281: "Do not set out on a journey except for three Mosques i.e. Al-Masjid-AI-Haram, the Mosque of Allah's Apostle, and the Mosque of Al-Aqsa, (Mosque of Jerusalem)."". Islamicity.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  43. Ostrogorsky, George. 1969. History of the Byzantine State. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p. 104. ISBN 0-8135-0599-2
  44. Theophilus of Edessa's Chronicle, Robert G. Hoyland
  45. Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies
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  49. 1 2 Guy le Strange (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems from AD 650 to 1500, Translated from the Works of the Medieval Arab Geographers. Florence: Palestine Exploration Fund.
  50. Damascus: A History, Ross Burns, p. 138
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  55. Larry H. Addington (1990). The Patterns of War Through the Eighteenth Century. Midland book. Indiana University Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780253205513. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... in the Sixth Crusade, Frederick II ...concluded a treaty with the Saracens in 1229 that placed Jerusalem under Christian control but allowed Muslim and Christian alike freedom of access to the religious shrines of the city. ... Within fifteen years of Frederick's departure from the Holy Land, the Khwarisimian Turks, successors to the Seljuks, rampaged through Syria and Palestine, capturing Jerusalem in 1244. (Jerusalem would not be ruled again by Christians until the British occupied it in December 1917, during World War I.)
  56. Denys Pringle (2007). The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: Volume 3, The City of Jerusalem: A Corpus. The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780521390385. Retrieved 30 May 2014. During the period of Christian control of Jerusalem between 1229 and 1244 ...
  57. Annabel Jane Wharton (2006). Selling Jerusalem: Relics, Replicas, Theme Parks. University of Chicago Press. p. 106. ISBN 9780226894225. Retrieved 30 May 2014. (footnote 19): It is perhaps worth noting that the same sultan, al-Malik al-Kamil, was later involved in the negotiations with Emperor Frederick II that briefly reestablished Latin control in Jerusalem between 1229 and 1244.
  58. Hossein Askari (2013). Conflicts in the Persian Gulf: Origins and Evolution. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 52. ISBN 9781137358387. Retrieved 30 May 2014. Later, during the years 1099 through 1187 AD and 1229 through 1244 AD, Christian Crusaders occupied Jerusalem ...
  59. Moshe Ma'oz, ed. (2009). The Meeting of Civilizations: Muslim, Christian, and Jewish. Sussex Academic Press. p. 3. ISBN 9781845193959. Retrieved 30 May 2014. (Introduction by Moshe Ma'oz) ... When the Christian Crusaders occupied Jerusalem (AD 1099–1187, 1229–1244) ...
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  73. Segev, Tom (1999). One Palestine, Complete. Metropolitan Books. pp. 295–313. ISBN 0-8050-4848-0. The group assembled at the Wall shouting "the Wall is ours". They raised the Jewish national flag and sang Hatikvah, the Israeli anthem. The authorities had been notified of the march in advance and provided a heavy police escort in a bid to prevent any incidents. Rumours spread that the youths had attacked local residents and had cursed the name of Muhammad.
  74. Levi-Faur, Sheffer and Vogel, 1999, p. 216.
  75. Sicker, 2000, p. 80.
  76. 'The Wailing Wall In Jerusalem Another Incident', The Times, Monday, 19 August 1929; p. 11; Issue 45285; col D.
  77. Prince-Gibson, Eetta (27 July 2006). "Reflective truth". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 10 May 2009.
  78. "Christians in the Holy Land" Edited by Michael Prior and William Taylor. ISBN 0-905035-32-1. p. 104: Albert Aghazarian "The significance of Jerusalem to Christians". This writer states that "Jews did not own any more than 20% of this quarter" prior to 1948
  79. "Palestine and Palestinians", p. 117.


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