Historical map of Cooch Behar
|Historical era||Medieval India|
The Koch (Pron:kɒʧ) dynasty of Assam and Bengal, named after the Koch tribe, emerged as the dominant ruling house in the Kamata kingdom in 1515 after the fall of the Khen dynasty in 1498. The first of the Koch kings, Viswa Singha and then his sons, Nara Narayan as the subsequent king and Chilarai as the general, soon occupied the western portion of the erstwhile Kamarupa Kingdom as well as some regions of south Assam. The dynasty forked for the first time into two major branches that controlled Koch Bihar and Koch Hajo. Koch Bihar became a vassal of the Mughals, whereas Koch Hajo came under Ahom control and was subsequently absorbed. Koch Bihar became a princely state during British rule and was absorbed after Indian independence. A third branch of this dynasty at Khaspur disappeared into the Kachari kingdom.
After the fall of the Pala dynasty of Kamarupa, the kingdom fractured into different domains in the 12th century. In the extreme east the Sutiya kingdom emerged on the north bank of Brahmaputra river. The Ahom kingdom emerged in the south bank and to their west was the Kachari kingdom. Sandhya, a ruler of Kamarupanagara (Guwahati) moved his capital further west to present-day North Bengal in the middle of the 13th century and the domain he ruled over came to be called Kamata kingdom. The buffer region, between the eastern kingdoms and Kamata was the domain of the Baro-Bhuyans chieftains. Alauddin Husain Shah of Gaur defeated Nilambar of Kamata in 1498, occupied the region and placed his son, Daniyal in charge. Within a few years, the Baro-Bhuyans, led by one Harup Narayan of the Brahmaputa valley defeated, captured and executed Daniyal, and the region lapsed into Bhuyan confederate rule.
Meanwhile, an alliance was formed when a Mech chief, Hariya Mandal, married two sisters Hira and Jira, the daughters of Hajo, a Koch chief. Hariya Mandal's domain was in Chikna Mountains situated between the Sankosh River and the Champabati River, about 80 kilometers north of Dhubri in the erstwhile Undivided Goalpara district of Assam. Bisu, who was to later become Viswa Singha, was born to Hariya Mandal and Hira.
Beginning of the Koch dynasty
The first ruler of the Koch dynasty was Vishwa Singha, who established himself in 1515 as the ruler of the Kamata kingdom. According to J N Sarkar, Viswa Singha belonged to one of the dominant Koch tribes, which were a collection of Mongoloid tribes, loosely allied to the Meches, Garos, Tharus and also Dravidians. When Bisu, as Viswa Singha was then known, acquired power, the Brahmins found him out and conferred on him the status of the Kshatriya varna; and the subsequent interaction with Brahmans lead to the Hinduization of his tribesmen. The earliest known ancestor of Viswa Singha was his father Haria Mandal, from the Chiknabari village in Goalpara district, the head of the twelve most powerful Mech families. Haria Mandal was married to Jira and Hira, daughters of a Koch chief named Hajo, after whom Koch Hajo was named. Viswa Singha was the son of Haria Mandal and Hira.
Viswa Singha sought the alliance of tribal chiefs against the more powerful Baro-Bhuyans and began his campaign around 1509. Successively, he defeated the Bhuyans of Ouguri, Jhargaon, Karnapur, Phulaguri, Bijni and Pandunath (Pandu, in Guwahati). He was particularly stretched by the Bhuyan of Kanrnapur, and could defeat him only by a stratagem during Bihu. After subjugating the petty rulers, he announced himself the king of Kamata bounded on the east by Barnadi river and on the west by the Karatoya river in the year 1515. He moved his capital from Chikana to Kamatapur (also called Kantapur) which is just a few miles southeast of the present-day Cooch Behar town.
Viswa Singha's two sons, Naranarayan and Shukladhwaj (Chilarai), the king and the commander-in-chief of the army respectively, took the kingdom to its zenith. Nara Narayan made Raghudev, the son of Chilarai, the governor of Koch Hajo, the eastern portion of the country. After the death of Nara Narayan, Raghudev declared independence. The division of the Kamata kingdom into Koch Bihar and Koch Hajo was permanent.
Rulers of undivided Koch kingdom
- Biswa Singha
- Nara Narayan
Rulers of Koch Bihar
- Lakshmi Narayan
- Bir Narayan
- Pran Narayan
- Basudev Narayan
- Mahindra Narayan
- Roop Narayan
- Upendra Narayan
- Devendra Narayan
- Dhairjendra Narayan
- Rajendra Narayan
- Dharendra Narayan
- Harendra Narayan
- Shivendra Narayan
- Narendra Narayan
- Nripendra Narayan
- Rajendra Narayan II
- Jitendra Narayan (father of Gayatri Devi)
- Jagaddipendra Narayan
- Virajdendra Narayan
Rulers of Koch Hajo
- Raghudev (son of Chilarai, nephew of Nara Narayan)
- Parikshit Narayan
Rulers of Darrang
Parikshit Narayana was attacked by the Mughals stationed at Dhaka in alliance with Lakshmi Narayan of Koch Bihar in 1612. His kingdom Koch Hajo, bounded by Sankosh river in the west and Barnadi river in the east, was occupied by the end of that year. Parikshit Narayan was sent to Delhi for an audience with the Mughal Emperor, but his brother Balinarayan escaped and took refuge in the Ahom kingdom. The region to the east of Barnadi and up to the Bharali river was under the control of some Baro-Bhuyan chieftains, but they were soon removed by the Mughals. In 1615 the Mughals, under Syed Hakim and Syed Aba Bakr, attacked the Ahoms but were repelled back to the Barnadi river. The Ahom king, Prataap Singha, then established Balinarayan as a vassal in the newly acquired region between Barnadi and Bharali rivers, and called it Darrang. Balinarayan's descendants continued to rule the region till it was annexed by the British in 1826.
- Balinarayan (brother of Parikshit Narayan)
- Mahendra Narayan
- Chandra Narayan
- Surya Narayan
Rulers of Beltola
|Outline of South Asian history|
- Gaj Narayan Dev (brother of Parikshit Narayan, ruler of Koch Hajo, brother of Balinarayan, first Koch ruler of Darrang).
- Shivendra Narayan Dev (Son of Gaj Narayan)
- Gandharva Narayan Dev (Son of Shivendra Narayan)
- Uttam Narayan Dev (Son of Gandharva Narayan Dev)
- Dhwaja Narayan Dev (Son of Uttam Narayan Dev)
- Jay Narayan Dev (Son of Dhwaja Narayan Dev)
- Lambodar Narayan Dev (Son of Jay Narayan Dev)
- Lokpal Narayan Dev (Son of Lambodar Narayan Dev)
- Amrit Narayan Dev (Son of Lokpal Narayan Dev)
- Chandra Narayan Dev (Son of Lokpal Narayan Dev) (died 1910 CE)
- Rajendra Narayan Dev (Son of Chandra Narayan Dev) (died 1937 CE)
- Lakshmipriya Devi (wife of Rajendra Narayan Dev) ( reign:1937-1947 CE died: 1991 CE)
Rulers of Bijni
The Bijni rulers reigned between the Sankosh and the Manas rivers, the region immediately to the east of Koch Bihar.
- Chandra Narayan (son of Parikshit Narayan)
- Joy narayan
- Shiv Narayan
- Bijoy Narayan
- Mukunda Narayan
- Haridev Narayan
- Indra Narayan
- Amrit Narayan
- Kumud Narayan
- Bhairabendra Narayan
Rulers of Khaspur
- Kamal Narayan (Gohain Kamal, son of Viswa Singha, governor of Khaspur)
- Udita Narayan (declared independence of Khaspur)
- Vijay Singha
- Dhir Singha
- Mahendra Singha
- Ranjit Singha
- Nara Singha
- Bhim Simha (his only issue, daughter Kanchani, married prince Lakshmichandra of Kachari kingdom, and Khaspur merged into the Kachari kingdom.)
Shri Sir Nripendra Narayan, Maharaja of Cooch Behar.
H.H. Maharaja Shri Sir Jitendra Narayan Bhup Bahadur, Maharaja of Cooch-Behar, KCSI, 1913.
Maharaja Jagaddipendra Narayan.
- (Sarkar 1992:91)
- (Nath 1989:2–11)
- (Gogoi 2002, p. 17)
- (Nath 1989:21)
- "...it becomes clear that Biswa Singha's father was a Mech and mother was a Koch and both the tribes were "rude" and "impure", hence non-Aryan or non-Hinduised." (Nath 1989, p. 17)
- (Sarkar 1992:69)
- (Sarkar1992:69f). "Minjahuddin found the features of the Koch, Mech and Tharu tribes similar to a south Siberian tribe. Bryan Hodgson (JASB) xviii (2) 1849, 704-5, classes the Koches with the Bodo and Dhimal tribes. Buchanan agrees. Dalton takes them to be Dravidian. But Risley thinks they represented a fusion of Mongoloid and Dravidian stock, with the later predominating. According to Waddell Mongoloid type of Koches predominated in Assam."
- (Nath 1989:2–3)
- (Gogoi 2002, p. 18)
- (Sarkar 1992:70f)
- (Sarkar 1992:70f). According to some Koch chronicles, a son of Haria Mandal, Chandan, became the king in 1510 followed by Vishwa Singha. According to other chronicles, Chandan was an earlier king. (Nath 1989:17)
- (Nath 1989:23–24)
- (Nath 1989:28–29)
- (Nath 1989:28)
- (Nath 1989:35)
- An Introduction to Shri Sir Nripendra Narayan
- (Nath 1989:102–104)
- Gogoi, Jahnabi (2002), Agrarian system of medieval Assam, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi
- Nath, D (1989), History of the Koch Kingdom: 1515-1615, Delhi: Mittal Publications
- Sarkar, J N (1992), "Chapter IV: Early Rulers of Koch Bihar", in Barpujari, H. K., The Comprehensive History of Assam, 2, Guwahati: Assam Publication Board
- Royal History of Koch Bihar, retrieved 2007-12-05