Approximate extent of the Shunga empire in (c. 185 BCE).
|•||185–151 BCE||Pushyamitra Shunga|
|Today part of|| India|
The Shunga Empire (IAST: Śuṅga) was an ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled vast areas of the Indian subcontinent from around 187 to 78 BCE. The dynasty was established by Pushyamitra Shunga, after the fall of the Maurya Empire. Its capital was Pataliputra, but later emperors such as Bhagabhadra also held court at Besnagar (modern Vidisha) in eastern Malwa.
Pushyamitra Shunga ruled for 36 years and was succeeded by his son Agnimitra. There were ten Shunga rulers. The empire is noted for its numerous wars with both foreign and indigenous powers. They fought the Kalinga, the Satavahana dynasty, the Indo-Greek Kingdom and possibly the Panchalas and Mathuras.
Art, education, philosophy, and other forms of learning flowered during this period including small terracotta images, larger stone sculptures, and architectural monuments such as the stupa at Bharhut, and the renowned Great Stupa at Sanchi. Shunga rulers helped to establish the tradition of royal sponsorship of learning and art. The script used by the empire was a variant of Brahmi script and was used to write Sanskrit.
The Shunga Empire played an imperative role in patronizing culture at a time when some of the most important developments in Hindu thought were taking place. Patanjali's Mahābhāṣya was composed in this period. Artistry also progressed with the rise of the Mathura art style.
The Kanva dynasty succeeded the Shungas around 73 BCE.
The Shunga dynasty was a brahmin dynasty established in 185 BCE, about 50 years after Ashoka's death, when the emperor Brihadratha Maurya, the last ruler of the Maurya Empire, was assassinated by his Senānī or commander-in-chief, Pushyamitra Shunga, while he was reviewing the Guard of Honour of his forces. Pushyamitra Shunga then ascended the throne.
Pushyamitra Shunga became the ruler of Magadha and neighbouring territories. The empire of Pushyamitra was extended to the Narmada River in the south, controlled Jalandhar and Sialkot in the Punjab region in the northwest and the city of Ujjain in Central India. Kabul and much of the Punjab passed into the hands of the Indo-Greeks and the Deccan Plateau to the Satavahana dynasty.
Pushyamitra died after ruling for 36 years (187–151 BCE). He was succeeded by son Agnimitra. This prince is the hero of a famous drama by one of India's greatest playwrights, Kālidāsa. Agnimitra was viceroy of Vidisha when the story takes place.
The power of the Shungas gradually weakened. It is said that there were ten Shunga emperors. The Shungas were succeeded by the Kanva dynasty around 73 BCE.
Following the Mauryans, the first Brahmin emperor was Pushyamitra Shunga, and is believed by some historians to have persecuted Buddhists and contributed to a resurgence of Brahmanism that forced Buddhism outwards to Kashmir, Gandhara and Bactria. Buddhist scripture Divyavdan and ancient Tibbatan historian Taranath have written about persecution of Buddhists, However, there is doubt as to whether he did persecute Buddhists actively.
Later Shunga emperors were seen as amenable to Buddhism and as having contributed to the building of the stupa at Bharhut.
Some writers believe that Brahmanism competed in political and spiritual realm with Buddhism in the Gangetic plains. Buddhism flourished in the realms of the Bactrian kings.
Some Indian scholars are of the opinion that the orthodox Shunga emperors were not intolerant towards Buddhism and that Buddhism prospered during the time of the Shunga emperors. The existence of Buddhism in Bengal in the Shunga period can also be inferred from a terracotta tablet that was found at Tamralipti and is on exhibit at the Asutosh Museum in Kolkata.
- An inscription at Bodh Gaya at the Mahabodhi Temple records the construction of the temple as follows:
- "The gift of Nagadevi the wife of Emperor Brahmamitra."
- Another inscription reads:
- "The gift of Kurangi, the mother of living sons and the wife of Emperor Indragnimitra, son of Kosiki. The gift also of Srima of the royal palace shrine. "
Cunningham has regretted the loss of the latter part of these important records. As regards the first coping inscription, he has found traces of eleven Brahmi letters after "Kuramgiye danam", the first nine of which read "rajapasada-cetika sa". Bloch reads these nine letters as "raja-pasada-cetikasa" and translates this expression in relation to the preceding words:
- "(the gift of Kurangi, the wife of Indragnimitra and
- the mother of living sons), "to the caitya (cetika)
- of the noble temple", taking the word raja before
- pasada as an epithet on ornans, distinguishing the
- temple as a particularly large and stately building
- similar to such expressions as rajahastin 'a noble
- elephant', rajahamsa `a goose (as distinguished from
- hamsa 'a duck'), etc." Cunningham has translated the
- expression by "the royal palace, the caitya",
- suggesting that "the mention of the raja-pasada would
- seem to connect the donor with the king's family,"
- Luders doubtfully suggests "to the king's temple" as
- a rendering of "raja-pasada-cetikasa."
Wars of the Shungas
War and conflict characterized the Shunga period. They are known to have warred with the Kalingas, Satavahanas, the Indo-Greeks, and possibly the Panchalas and Mathuras.
The Shunga Empire's wars with the Indo-Greek Kingdom figure greatly in the history of this period. From around 180 BCE the Greco-Bactrian ruler Demetrius, conquered the Kabul Valley and is theorized to have advanced into the trans-Indus. The Indo Greek Menander is credited with either joining or leading a campaign to Pataliputra with other Indian rulers; however, very little is known about the exact nature and success of the campaign. The net result of these wars remains uncertain.
Some interpretations of the Mahabharata and Yuga Purana have attempted to account for this:
The Anushasana Parva of the Mahabharata affirms that the city of Mathura was under the joint control of the Yavanas and the Kambojas.
Also the Hindu text of the Yuga Purana, which describes Indian historical events in the form of a prophecy, relates the attack of the Indo-Greeks on the capital Pataliputra, a magnificent fortified city with 570 towers and 64 gates according to Megasthenes, and describes the ultimate destruction of the city's walls:
- "Then, after having approached Saketa together with the Panchalas and the Mathuras, the Yavanas, valiant in battle, will reach Kusumadhvaja ("The town of the flower-standard", Pataliputra). Then, once Puspapura (another name of Pataliputra) has been reached and its celebrated mud[-walls] cast down, all the realm will be in disorder." (Yuga Purana, Paragraph 47–48, 2002 edition.)
Pushyamitra is recorded to have performed two Ashvamedhas and Shunga imperial inscriptions have extended as far as Jalandhar. Scriptures such as the Divyavadana note that his rule extended even farther to Sialkot, in the Punjab. Moreover, if it was lost, Mathura was regained by the Shungas around 100 BCE (or by other indigenous rulers: the Arjunayanas (area of Mathura) and Yaudheyas mention military victories on their coins ("Victory of the Arjunayanas", "Victory of the Yaudheyas"), and during the 1st century BCE, the Trigartas, Audumbaras and finally the Kunindas also started to mint their own coins). Accounts of battles between the Greeks and the Shunga in Northwestern India are also found in the Mālavikāgnimitram, a play by Kālidāsa which describes a battle between Greek cavalrymen and Vasumitra, the grandson of Pushyamitra, on the Indus river, in which the Indians defeated the Greeks and Pushyamitra successfully completed the Ashvamedha Yagna.
Nevertheless, very little can be said with great certainty. However, what does appear clear is that the two realms appeared to have established normalized diplomatic relations in the succeeding reigns of their respective rulers.
The Indo-Greeks and the Shungas seem to have reconciled and exchanged diplomatic missions around 110 BCE, as indicated by the Heliodorus pillar, which records the dispatch of a Greek ambassador named Heliodorus, from the court of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas, to the court of the Shunga emperor Bhagabhadra at the site of Vidisha in central India.
While there is much debate on the religious politics of the Shunga dynasty, it is recognized for a number of contributions. Art, education, philosophy, and other learning flowered during this period. Most notably, Patanjali's Yoga Sutras and Mahabhashya were composed in this period. It is also noted for its subsequent mention in the Malavikaagnimitra. This work was composed by Kalidasa in the later Gupta period, and romanticized the love of Malavika and King Agnimitra, with a background of court intrigue.
Artistry on the subcontinent also progressed with the rise of the Mathura school, which is considered the indigenous counterpart to the more Hellenistic Gandhara school of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
During the historical Shunga period (185 to 73 BCE), Buddhist activity also managed to survive somewhat in central India (Madhya Pradesh) as suggested by some architectural expansions that were done at the stupas of Sanchi and Barhut, originally started under Emperor Ashoka. It remains uncertain whether these works were due to the weakness of the control of the Shungas in these areas, or a sign of tolerance on their part.
The last of the Shunga emperors was Devabhuti (83–73 BCE). He was assassinated by his minister (Vasudeva Kanva) and is said to have been overfond of the company of women. The Shunga dynasty was then replaced by the subsequent Kanvas.
- Shunga Yakshi, 2nd–1st century BCE.
- Shunga masculine figurine (molded plate). 2nd–1st century BCE.
- Shunga woman with child. 2nd–1st century BCE.
- Shunga Yaksha. 2nd–1st century BCE.
- Shunga fecundity deity. 2nd–1st century BCE.
- Shunga fecundity deity. 2nd–1st century BCE.
The script used by the Shunga was a variant of Brahmi, and was used to write the Sanskrit language. The script is thought to be an intermediary between the Maurya and the Kalinga Brahmi scripts.
- Bronze coin of the Shunga period, Eastern India. 2nd–1st century BCE.
- Another Shunga coin
List of Shunga Emperors
|Pushyamitra Shunga||185–149 BCE|
|Bhadraka (aka Ardraka or Odruka)||124–122 BCE|
|Ghosha (aka Ghoshavasu)||?|
|Bhagabhadra (aka Bhagavata)||?|
- ↑ Stadtner, Donald (1975). "A Śuṅga Capital from Vidiśā". Artibus Asiae. 37 (1/2): 101–104. doi:10.2307/3250214. JSTOR 3250214.
- ↑ "Pushyamitra is said in the Puranas to have been the senānī or army-commander of the last Maurya emperor Brihadratha" The Yuga Purana, Mitchener, 2002.
- ↑ "India". Encyclopedia Britannica.
- 1 2 3 Sarvastivada pg 38–39
- ↑ Akira Hirakawa, Paul Groner, "A History of Indian Buddhism: From Sakyamuni to Early Mahayana", Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1996, ISBN 81-208-0955-6 pg 223
- ↑ (Barua, B.M., 'Old Buddhist Shrines at Bodh-Gaya Inscriptions)
- ↑ "Bodh Gaya from 500 BCE to 500 CE". buddhanet.net.
- ↑ D.N. Jha,"Early India: A Concise History"p.150, plate 17
- ↑ "tatha Yavana Kamboja Mathuram.abhitash cha ye./ ete ashava.yuddha.kushaladasinatyasi charminah."//5 — (MBH 12/105/5, Kumbhakonam Ed)
- ↑ "For any scholar engaged in the study of the presence of the Indo-Greeks or Indo-Scythians before the Christian Era, the Yuga Purana is an important source material" Dilip Coomer Ghose, General Secretary, The Asiatic Society, Kolkata, 2002
- ↑ "Megasthenes: Indika". Project South Asia. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008.
The greatest city in India is that which is called Palimbothra, in the dominions of the Prasians [...] Megasthenes informs us that this city stretched in the inhabited quarters to an extreme length on each side of eighty stadia, and that its breadth was fifteen stadia, and that a ditch encompassed it all round, which was six hundred feet in breadth and thirty cubits in depth, and that the wall was crowned with 570 towers and had four-and-sixty gates. (Arr. Ind. 10. 'Of Pataliputra and the Manners of the Indians')
- ↑ "Indo-Greek, Indo-Scythian and Indo-Parthian coins in the Smithsonian institution", Bopearachchi, p16. Also: "Kalidasa recounts in his Mālavikāgnimitra (5.15.14–24) that Puṣpamitra appointed his grandson Vasumitra to guard his sacrificial horse, which wandered on the right bank of the Sindhu river and was seized by Yavana cavalrymen- the latter being thereafter defeated by Vasumitra. The "Sindhu" referred to in this context may refer the river Indus: but such an extension of Shunga power seems unlikely, and it is more probable that it denotes one of two rivers in central India -either the Sindhu river which is a tributary of the Yamuna, or the Kali-Sindhu river which is a tributary of the Chambal." The Yuga Purana, Mitchener, 2002.
- ↑ "Silabario Sunga". proel.org.
- "The Legend of King Ashoka, A study and translation of the Ashokavadana", John Strong, Princeton Library of Asian translations, 1983, ISBN 0-691-01459-0
- "Dictionary of Buddhism" by Damien KEOWN (Oxford University Press, 2003) ISBN 0-19-860560-9
- Aśoka and the Decline of the Mauryas, Romila Thapar, 1961 (revision 1998); Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-564445-X
- "The Yuga Purana", John E. Mitchiner, Kolkata, The Asiatic Society, 2002, ISBN 81-7236-124-6
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|Magadha dynasties|| Succeeded by|
|Middle kingdoms of India|
| Timeline and
|Northwestern India||Indo-Gangetic Plain||Central India||Southern India|
|Western Gangetic Plain|| Northern India
(Central Gangetic Plain)
|Culture||Late Vedic Period|| Late Vedic Period
(Brahmin ideology)[lower-alpha 1]
| Late Vedic Period
(Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)[lower-alpha 2]
|6th century BC||Gandhara||Kuru-Panchala||Magadha||Adivasi (tribes)|
|Culture||Persian-Greek influences|| "Second Urbanisation"
Rise of Shramana movements
|5th century BC||(Persian rule)||Shishunaga dynasty||Adivasi (tribes)|
|4th century BC||(Greek conquests)|
|Culture||Spread of Buddhism||Pre-history||Sangam period|
(300 BC – 200 AD)
|3rd century BC||Maurya Empire|| Early Cholas|
46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam
|Culture|| Preclassical Hinduism[lower-alpha 3] - "Hindu Synthesis"[lower-alpha 4] (ca. 200 BC - 300 AD)[lower-alpha 5][lower-alpha 6]
Epics - Puranas - Ramayana - Mahabharata - Bhagavad Gita - Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition
|2nd century BC||Indo-Greek Kingdom||Shunga Empire||Adivasi (tribes)||Early Cholas|
46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam
|1st century BC||Yona||Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty|
|1st century AD||Kuninda Kingdom|
|2nd century||Pahlava||Varman dynasty|
|3rd century||Kushan Empire||Western Satraps||Kamarupa kingdom||Kalabhra dynasty|
|Culture|| "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. AD 320-650)[lower-alpha 7]|
Co-existence of Hinduism and Buddhism
|4th century||Gupta Empire|| Kalabhra dynasty|
Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)
|5th century||Maitraka||Adivasi (tribes)|| Kalabhra dynasty|
Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)
|6th century||Badami Chalukyas|
|Culture|| Late-Classical Hinduism (ca. AD 650-1100)[lower-alpha 8]|
Advaita Vedanta - Tantra
Decline of Buddhism in India
|7th century||Indo-Sassanids|| Vakataka dynasty
Empire of Harsha
|Mlechchha dynasty||Adivasi (tribes)||Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)|
|8th century||Kidarite Kingdom||Pandyan Kingdom|
|9th century||Indo-Hephthalites (Huna)||Gurjara-Pratihara||Rashtrakuta dynasty|
|10th century||Pala dynasty||Kalyani Chalukyas|
References and sources for table