Italian general election, 2013
|Legislative election results map. Red denotes provinces with a Democratic plurality, Yellow denotes those with a Five Star plurality, Azure denotes those with a People of Freedom plurality, Green denotes those with a Lega Nord plurality, Light Blue and Gray denotes those with a Regionalist plurality.|
A general election took place on 24–25 February 2013 to determine the 630 members of the Chamber of Deputies and the 315 elective members of the Senate of the Republic for the 17th Parliament of the Italian Republic. The centre-left alliance Italy Common Good led by the Democratic Party obtained a clear majority of seats in the Chamber of Deputies, thanks to a majority bonus that has effectively trebled the number of seats assigned to the winning force, while in the popular vote it narrowly defeated the centre-right alliance of former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi. Close behind, the new anti-establishment Five Star Movement of comedian Beppe Grillo became the third force, clearly ahead of the centrist coalition of outgoing Prime Minister Mario Monti. In the Senate, no political group or party won an outright majority, resulting in a hung parliament. Eventually a coalition between the centre-left, centre and centre-right was formed.
Following the European sovereign debt crisis, Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi resigned from his position in November 2011. He was replaced as Prime Minister by technocratic Senator for Life Mario Monti.
In December 2012, Berlusconi announced his intention to run for Prime Minister for a sixth time. Shortly after, his party, People of Freedom (PdL), withdrew endorsement for Monti's Cabinet and Monti announced he would resign after sending the annual budget to parliament, which was expected by Christmas. The Constitution of Italy then requires an election to be held within 70 days of the dissolution of parliament by President Giorgio Napolitano. Monti's resignation came after he said that, following the PdL's withdrawal, he "matured [to] the conviction that we could not continue like this any longer," and that he could not govern with a loss of support for his platform.
During Monti's tenure, Italy had faced tax increases and state spending cuts, as well as reforms intended to improve the competitiveness of the Italian economy. On the other hand, PdL parliamentary party leader Angelino Alfano told parliament on 7 December that Italy's debt, unemployment, and tax rates had risen in contrast to the economy since Monti became prime minister. In the approximately one year since Monti took office, unemployment rose by almost two percent. Previously Monti had controversially told the rising tide of youth unemployment to forget about a steady job for life, saying such is "monotonous [anyway and] it's nice to change and take on challenges." He also called for changes to Article 18 of the 1970 Workers Statute that forbids companies with over 15 employees from sacking an employee without "just cause", saying that it "can be pernicious for Italy's growth."
The same reforms and austerity-focused policies which upset many Italians are perceived to have improved international confidence in Italy. Monti was supported by other Eurozone leaders, such as Germany's Angela Merkel and former French President Nicolas Sarkozy. Merkel's spokesman, Georg Streiter, said that she had "always worked well" with Monti and "had a relationship of esteem"; however, when asked about Berlusconi, he said it was not up to him to decide domestic politics of other countries. German Finance Minister Wolfgang Schäuble added that he did not foresee "any destabilisation in the eurozone [but] expect[ed] Italy to keep going forward by respecting its European commitments." In reaction, financial markets fell on speculation of further instability; while, specifically, Italian 10-year bond yields rose by 0.4% to reach 4.87% and the Italian stock exchange's flagship index dropped by over 3.5%.
From the summer of 2012, a number of parties and movements from the so-called "Third Pole" of the political spectrum, including Pier Ferdinando Casini's Union of the Centre (UdC), Gianfranco Fini's Future and Freedom (FLI), Luca Cordero di Montezemolo's Toward the Third Republic (VTR), as well as a number of other politicians from both PD and PdL, pushed for direct involvement of Mario Monti in an election. Monti's statement that he would resign after the budget was passed, was suggested by Reuters to be indicative of him seeking to run for office.
Monti also told a press conference in France that "populism" was dangerous, and he further said that a failure to pass the budget "would render more serious the government crisis, also at a European level" and that his resignation would then be "irrevocable." The two largest parties in parliament, the PdL and the Democratic Party (PD) said they would be willing to work together to expedite passage of the budget. PD Secretary Pier Luigi Bersani said: "Faced with the irresponsibility of the right that betrayed a commitment it made a year ago before the whole country...Monti responded with an act of dignity that we profoundly respect." PD Deputy Secretary Enrico Letta said of the PdL's withdrawal from the government that "the financial markets will judge this latest outburst by Berlusconi and they certainly will not judge it positively." Bersani had won the centre-left primary election shortly before the PdL withdrew from the government. Following a defeat in the primary, Mayor of Florence Matteo Renzi ruled out an approach, in writing, from Berlusconi's PdL to join the party during the election. In the following weeks, both PD and Left Ecology Freedom (SEL) announced their intention to hold primary elections for MP candidates on 29 and 30 December.
The possibility of Monti directly involving himself in the election was seen as increasingly likely after the government crisis in December later that year, as Monti was invited to a European People's Party meeting at which Berlusconi was present too. A few days later, Monti published a political agenda for Italy, dubbed the "Monti agenda", and offered it to all political parties. After the Third Pole promptly agreed to use it as their own platform for the upcoming elections, talks started regarding a direct involvement of Monti as premiership candidate. On 28 December 2012, following a 4-hour meeting and after being publicly backed by the Vatican regarding a potential bid, Monti publicly announced his candidacy as head of the Third Pole, which ran in the Senate as a unique component provisionally named "Monti's Agenda for Italy", and in the Lower House as a coalition of several components.
Berlusconi said the platform his party would run on includes opposition to Monti's economic performance, which he said put Italy into a "recessive spiral without end." He also told the media, on the sidelines of AC Milan's practice session (the football club he owns along with Mediaset, the largest media outlet in the country): ""I race to win. To win, everyone said there had to be a tested leader. It's not that we did not look for one. We did, and how! But there isn't one...I'm doing it out of a sense of responsibility." Berlusconi and Five Star Movement (M5S) leader Beppe Grillo criticised the eurozone and Germany's influence on European policy. Grillo wrote that the average Italian "is literally terrified about the prospects of five more years of Monti-like rule."
On 8 December 2012, a new political party formed around a think tank named "Fermare il Declino" (Stop the Decline), on an initiative by the economic journalist Oscar Giannino and supported by various economists. On 19 December 2012, the name "FARE per Fermare il Declino" ("ACT to Stop The Decline") was chosen, and a list was presented with Oscar Giannino as PM candidate. The party's programme was also introduced, roughly inspiring to reduce the role of the State in the economy, reduce the national debt through disposing redundant assets, and to propose market liberalizations and privatizations.
On 29 December 2012, a new coalition, Civil Revolution (RC), was formed with the support of Italy of Values (IdV), Orange Movement (MA), Communist Refoundation Party (PRC), Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) and Federation of the Greens (FdV). It is led by celebrity magistrate Antonio Ingroia and Mayor of Naples Luigi de Magistris. FdS co-leader Paolo Ferrero said it would be a "Fourth Pole" that would bring new hope for the left. Civil Revolution attempted to solicit M5S to join them, saying "the door is open." Grillo, however, turned them down, writing on his blog "... the door is open for M5S? Well, thank you, but close the door again, please."
On 7 January 2013, Berlusconi announced he had penned a coalition agreement with Lega Nord (LN); as part of it, PdL will support Roberto Maroni's bid for the presidency of Lombardy, and he will run as "leader of the coalition", but suggested he could accept a role as Minister of Economy under a cabinet headed by another People of Freedom member, such as Angelino Alfano. Later that day, LN leader Maroni confirmed his party will not support a new candidacy of Berlusconi as Prime Minister in the case of an electoral win.
When Fascism ended, Italy started to use the proportional representation based on multi-member electoral to include both men and women. That was from 1948-1993, the proportional representation was the cause of many of the reasons why the Italian government was constantly crumbling. The electoral was based on majority vote and was still a compulsory voting system until 1993. In 1993, the law was changed to Mattarellum law, or a mixed electoral system. In 2005, Silvio Berlusconi, changed the system from the Mattarellum law to the newly reformed electoral system, Porcellum law. Porcellum law was still a proportional representation, but now the system is based on coalitions, with blocked lists that have the candidates appointed by the parties and the voters cannot express who they want for their candidate. The candidates are appointed by the party leaders.
The current election system is a form of party-list proportional representation with a series of thresholds to encourage parties to form coalitions. Italy is divided into 26 districts for the Chamber of Deputies and 20 regions for the Senate. Each district is assigned a number of seats in proportion to its share of the population. To guarantee a working majority, the coalition or party that obtains a plurality of the vote, but fewer than 340 seats, is assigned additional seats to reach that number, which roughly is about 54 percent of all seats. Inside each coalition, seats are divided between parties by the largest remainder method.
The coalition or party that wins a plurality in a region is guaranteed 55 percent of the region's Senate seats. As this mechanism is region-based, opposing parties or coalitions may benefit from it in different regions. It therefore does not guarantee any party or coalition a majority in the Senate.
At the end of 2013, Italy's Constitutional Court declared that this electoral law failed to meet a number of Constitutional requirements.
Main parties and leaders
Coalitions and electoral lists
The coalitions and main electoral lists are:
- Coalitions consisting of several lists
- Italy. Common Good (centre-left; Democratic Party, Left Ecology Freedom, Italian Socialist Party, Democratic Centre, South Tyrolean People's Party, Moderates, The Megaphone – Crocetta List)
- Centre-right coalition (centre-right; The People of Freedom, Lega Nord, The Right, Brothers of Italy, Great South–MPA, Moderates in Revolution, Popular Agreement, Pensioners' Party)
- With Monti for Italy (centrist; Civic Choice, Union of the Centre, Future and Freedom)
- Unitary electoral lists
- Five Star Movement (anti-establishment populist)
- Civil Revolution (left-wing; Italy of Values, Communist Refoundation Party, Party of Italian Communists, Federation of the Greens and Orange Movement)
- Act to Stop the Decline (economic liberal)
- Amnesty Justice Freedom List radical liberal, libertarian)
- I Love Italy (social conservative)
- Italian Reformists (social-democratic, former centre-right)
- Workers' Communist Party (Trotskyist)
- New Force (neo-fascist)
- Tricolour Flame (neo-fascist)
- CasaPound (neo-fascist)
|Political force or alliance||Constituent lists||Leader|
(Italia. Bene Comune)
|Democratic Party (Partito Democratico)|| |
|Left Ecology Freedom (Sinistra Ecologia Libertà)|
|Democratic Centre (Centro Democratico)|
|Italian Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Italiano) – only for Senate in: Lazio, Campania and Calabria|
|South Tyrolean People's Party (Südtiroler Volkspartei: SVP) – only in: Trentino-Alto Adige|
|Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party (Partito Autonomista Trentino Tirolese: PATT) – only for Senate in: Trentino-Alto Adige|
| Union for Trentino (Unione Per il Trentino: UPT) – only for Senate in: Trentino-Alto Adige|
(Please note that the party instead opted to be part of the Monti-coalition in the "Chamber of Deputies election")
|Moderates (Moderati) – only for Senate in: Sicily and Lombardia|
|The Megaphone – Crocetta List (Il Megafono – Lista Crocetta) – only for Senate in Sicily|
(Coalizione del centrodestra)
|The People of Freedom (Il Popolo della Libertà)|| |
|Lega Nord incl. Labour and Freedom List (Lista Lavoro e Libertà)|
|Brothers of Italy (Fratelli d'Italia)|
|The Right (La Destra)|
|Great South – Movement for the Autonomies (Grande Sud–MpA)|
|Moderates in Revolution (Moderati in Rivoluzione)|
|Popular Agreement (Intesa Popolare)|
|Pensioners' Party (Partito Pensionati)|
(Movimento 5 Stelle)
|Five Star Movement (Movimento 5 Stelle)|| |
(Con Monti per l'Italia)
|Civic Choice (Scelta Civica)|| |
|Union of the Centre (Unione di Centro)|
|Future and Freedom (Futuro e Libertà)|
| Union for Trentino (Unione Per il Trentino: UPT) – only for Chamber of Deputies in: Trentino-Alto Adige|
(Please note that the party leader Lorenzo Dellai – who became elected to the Chambers of Deputies – did not run the election with his own party list but was elected through the Civic Choice list, and that the UPT party was part of the Bersani-coalition in the election for the Senate)
|Italy of Values (Italia dei Valori)|| |
|Communist Refoundation Party (Partito della Rifondazione Comunista)|
|Party of Italian Communists (Partito dei Comunisti Italiani)|
|Orange Movement (Movimento Arancione)|
|Federation of the Greens (Federazione dei Verdi)|
(Fare per Fermare il Declino)
|Act to Stop the Decline (Fare per Fermare il Declino)|| |
|Coalition||Portrait||Name||Most recent position|
|Italy. Common Good||Pier Luigi Bersani|| Secretary of the Democratic Party|
Minister of Economic Development
|Centre-right coalition||Silvio Berlusconi|| Prime Minister of Italy|
President of the People of Freedom
|Five Star Movement||Beppe Grillo|| Leader of the Five Star Movement|
|With Monti for Italy||Mario Monti|| Prime Minister of Italy|
Leader of Civic Choice
|Civil Revolution||Antonio Ingroia|| Leader of Civil Revolution|
|Act to Stop the Decline||Oscar Giannino|| Leader of Act to Stop the Decline|
Results for Chamber of Deputies
Italy (19 regions out of 20)
|Italy. Common Good||Democratic Party||8,644,187||25.42||292|
|Left Ecology Freedom||1,089,442||3.20||37|
|South Tyrolean People's Party||146,804||0.43||5|
|Centre-right coalition||The People of Freedom||7,332,667||21.56||97|
|Brothers of Italy||666,035||1.95||9|
|Great South – MPA||148,534||0.43||0|
|Moderates in Revolution||81,982||0.24||0|
|Free for a Fair Italy||3,238||0.00||0|
|Five Star Movement||8,689,168||25.55||108|
|With Monti for Italy||Civic Choice||2,824,001||8.30||37|
|Union of the Centre||608,199||1.78||8|
|Future and Freedom||159,429||0.46||0|
|Act to Stop the Decline||380,937||1.12||0|
|Workers' Communist Party||89,995||0.26||0|
|Amnesty Justice Freedom List||64,732||0.19||0|
|I Love Italy||42,529||0.12||0|
|Italian Liberal Party||28,026||0.08||0|
|Sardinian Action Party||18,585||0.05||0|
|Venetian Republic League||15,838||0.04||0|
|Independence for Sardinia||7,598||0.02||0|
|Italian Republican Party||7,143||0.02||0|
|Communist Alternative Party||5,159||0.01||0|
|Project Italy Movement||3,967||0.01||0|
|Italian Missinian Refoundation||3,178||0.00||0|
|Thought Action Party||1,526||0.00||0|
|All Together for Italy||1,452||0,00||0|
|Stems of Italy||585||0,00||0|
|Source: Ministry of the Interior|
Results by Regions
|Region||Italy. Common Good||Centre-right Coalition||Five Star Movement||With Monti for Italy||Civil Revolution||Others|
The semi-autonomous region of Aosta Valley, in northwestern Italy, elects one member to the Chamber of Deputies through a direct first-past-the-post election. Some parties that formed electoral coalitions in Italy, might have opted to run against one another (or form different coalitions) in this particular region.
|Candidate||Party (or a unified coalition list)||Total votes||%||Seats|
|Rudi Marguerettaz (SA)||Aosta Valley coalition (UV-SA-FA)||18,376||25.36||1|
|Laurent Viérin||Progressive Valdostan Union||18,191||25.11||0|
|Jean Pierre Guichardaz||Autonomy Liberty Democracy||14,340||19.79||0|
|Roberto Ugo Massimo Cognetta||Five Star Movement||13,403||18.50||0|
|Giorgia Meloni||Brothers of Italy||3,051||4.21||0|
|Nicoletta Spelgatti||Lega Nord||2,384||3.29||0|
|Lucia Bringhen||Union of the Centre||1,355||1.87||0|
|Fabrizio Buillet||Act to Stop the Decline||748||1.03||0|
|Eros Campion||Nation Val d'Outa||145||0.20||0|
|Total valid votes||72,436||–||–|
|Source: Ministry of the Interior|
Twelve members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected by Italians abroad. Two members are elected for North America and Central America (including most of the Caribbean), four members for South America (including Trinidad and Tobago), five members for Europe, and one member for the rest of the world (Africa, Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica). Voters in these regions select candidate lists and may also cast a preference vote for individual candidates. The seats are allocated by proportional representation.
The election law allow for parties to form other electoral coalitions on the lists abroad, compared to the lists in Italy. In the 2013 election, this freedom was used by Left Ecology Freedom to provide a list as an independent party, instead of making themselves available as part of the mainlands coalition with Democratic Party.
|Party (or a unified coalition list)||Votes||%||Seats|
|With Monti for Italy||180,674||18.39||2|
|The People of Freedom||145,824||14.84||1|
|Associative Movement Italians Abroad||140,473||14.30||2|
|Five Star Movement||95,041||9.67||1|
|South American Union Italian Emigrants||44,024||4.48||1|
|Italians for Freedom||22,321||2.27||0|
|Left Ecology Freedom||17,375||1.76||0|
|Union of Italians for South America||11,470||1.16||0|
|Act to Stop the Decline||10,160||1.03||0|
|Together for the Italians||3,890||0.39||0|
|Source: Ministry of the Interior|
- The 5 deputies from Democratic Party were elected by the following regions: Europe (2), North- and Central America (1), South America (1), remaining world (1).
- The 2 deputies from the Monti-coalition were elected by the following regions: Europe (1), North- and Central America (1).
- The deputy from the Berlusconi-coalition was elected by the following region: Europe (1).
- The 2 deputies from MAIE were elected by the following region: South America (2).
- The deputy from the Five Star Movement was elected by the following region: Europe (1).
- The deputy from USEI was elected by the following region: South America (1).
|Pier Luigi Bersani:
Italy. Common Good
|Democratic Party (PD)||297|
|Left Ecology Freedom (SEL)||37|
|Democratic Centre (CD)||6|
|South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP)||5|
|The People of Freedom (PdL)||98|
|Lega Nord (LN)||18|
|Brothers of Italy (FdI)||9|
|Beppe Grillo: Five Star Movement (M5S)||109|
With Monti for Italy
|Civic Choice (SC)||37|
|Union of the Centre (UDC)||8|
|With Monti for Italy (SC abroad)||2|
|Associative Movement Italians Abroad (MAIE)||2|
|South American Union Italian Emigrants (USEI)||1|
|Aosta Valley coalition (VA)||Edelweiss (SA)||1|
Popular vote and parliamentary seats in the Chamber of deputies.
Results for the Senate of the Republic
Italy (18 regions out of 20)
|Italy. Common Good||Democratic Party||8,400,255||27.43||105|
|Left Ecology Freedom||912,374||2.97||7|
|The Megaphone – Crocetta List||138,581||0.45||1|
|Italian Socialist Party||57,688||0.18||0|
|Centre-right coalition||The People of Freedom||6,829,373||22.30||98|
|Brothers of Italy||590,083||1.92||0|
|Moderates in Revolution||69,649||0.22||0|
|Party of Sicilians–MPA||48,618||0.15||0|
|Free for a Fair Italy||6,769||0.02||0|
|Five Star Movement||7,285,850||23.79||54|
|With Monti for Italy||2,797,486||9.13||18|
|Act to Stop the Decline||278,396||0.90||0|
|Workers' Communist Party||113,935||0.37||0|
|Amnesty Justice Freedom List||63,149||0.20||0|
|I Love Italy||40,781||0.13||0|
|Liga Veneta Repubblica||20,381||0.06||0|
|Halve the pay of politicians||7,968||0.02||0|
|No to closing of hospitals||7,547||0.02||0|
|Sardinian Action Party||18,602||0.06||0|
|Rural Civility Development||13,945||0.04||0|
|Stand Up Abruzzo!||11,817||0.03||0|
|Marxist–Leninist Italian Communist Party||9,604||0.03||0|
|Italian Republican Party||8,476||0.02||0|
|Women for Italy||7,610||0.02||0|
|Independence for Sardinia||7,494||0.02||0|
|Communist Alternative Party||5,176||0.01||0|
|Action Party for Development||4,522||0.01||0|
|The Base Sardinia||3,386||0.01||0|
|All Together for Italy||3,155||0.01||0|
|Italian Missinian Refoundation||2,717||0.00||0|
|To Build Democracy||2,635||0.00||0|
|Project Italy Movement - Disabilities Italian Movement||1,451||0.00||0|
|Party of the South||1,276||0.00||0|
|Italian Naturalist Movement||1,170||0.00||0|
|Source: Ministry of the Interior|
Trentino-Alto Adige/South Tyrol
The semi-autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige in north Italy, including South Tyrol, elects seven members to the Italian Senate through its six constituencies. Each constituency elects one senator by first-past-the post, except for the Pergine Valsugana constituency in which two senate seats are filled proportionally. Some parties that formed electoral coalitions in Italy, might have opted to run against one another (or form different coalitions) in this particular region.
|Party (or a unified coalition list)||Total votes||%||Seats|
|SVP – PATT – PD – UPT (only Trentino)||127,656||23.43||3|
|SVP (only Brixen and Merano constituencies)||97,141||17.82||2|
|The People of Freedom – Lega Nord||85,298||15.65||1|
|Five Star Movement||82,499||15.14||0|
|PD – SVP (only Bolzano constituency)||47,623||8.74||1|
|Die Freiheitlichen (only South Tyrol)||42,094||7.72||0|
|Greens (only Brixen and Merano constituencies)||12,808||2.34||0|
|Democratic Party (only Brixen and Merano constituencies)||8,797||1.61||0|
|Act to Stop the Decline (only Bolzano constituency and Trentino)||8,796||1.61||0|
|With Monti for Italy (only Brixen and Merano constituencies)||6,646||1.39||0|
|Alto Adige in the Heart||4,672||0.85||0|
|Moderates in Revolution (only Trentino)||3,414||0.62||0|
|Brothers of Italy (only Bolzano constituency)||3,414||0.62||0|
|The Right (only South Tyrol)||1,181||0.21||0|
|CasaPound (only Bolzano constituency)||1,160||0.21||0|
|Party for All (only Bolzano constituency)||426||0.07||0|
|Total valid votes||544,838||–||–|
|Source: Ministry of the Interior|
The semi-autonomous region of Aosta Valley, in northwestern Italy, elects one member to the Senate through a direct first-past-the-post election. Some parties that formed electoral coalitions in Italy, might have opted to run against one another (or form different coalitions) in this particular region.
|Candidate||Party (or a unified coalition list)||Total votes||%||Seats|
|Albert Lanièce (UV)||Aosta Valley coalition (UV-SA-FA)||24,609||37.03||1|
|Patrizia Morelli||Autonomy Liberty Democracy||20,430||30.75||0|
|Stefano Ferrero||Five Star Movement||13,760||20.71||0|
|Sandra Maria Cane||Lega Nord||2,608||3.92||0|
|Paolo Dalbard||The Right||2,014||3.03||0|
|Luigi Bracci||Union of the Centre||1,594||2.39||0|
|Enrico Martial||Act to Stop the Decline||814||1.22||0|
|Giovanni Battista Mascia||Nation Val d'Outa||186||0.27||0|
|Total valid votes||66,439||–||–|
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Six members of the Senate are elected by Italians abroad. One member is elected for North America and Central America (including most of the Caribbean), two members for South America (including Trinidad and Tobago), two members for Europe, and one member for the rest of the world (Africa, Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica). Voters in these regions select candidate lists and may also cast a preference vote for individual candidates. The seats are allocated by proportional representation.
The election law allow for parties to form other electoral coalitions on the lists abroad, compared to the lists in Italy. In the 2013 electional list for the Senate all parties were listed independently without any coalitions formed. None of the parties were neither in internal coalitions at the mainland; so in 2013 the electoral situation abroad actually was not different compared to the electoral situation at the mainland.
|Party (or a unified coalition list)||Votes||%||Seats|
|With Monti for Italy (FLI)||177,402||19.8||1|
|The People of Freedom||136,052||15.2||0|
|Associative Movement Italians Abroad||120,290||13.4||1|
|Five Star Movement||89,562||10.0||0|
|South American Union Italian Emigrants||38,223||4.3||0|
|Italians for Freedom||15,260||1.7||0|
|Union of Italians for South America||10,881||1.2||0|
|Act to Stop the Decline||7,892||0.9||0|
|Together for the Italians||3,223||0.4||0|
|Source: Ministry of the Interior|
- The 4 senators from Democratic Party were elected by the following regions: Europe (1), North- and Central America (1), South America (1), remaining world (1).
- Aldo Di Biagio, The senator from the Monti-coalition (FLI) was elected by the following region: Europe (1).
- The senator from MAIE was elected by the following region: South America (1).
|Pier Luigi Bersani:
Italy. Common Good
|Democratic Party (PD)||111|
|Left Ecology Freedom (SEL)||7|
|South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP)||2|
|Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party (PATT)||1|
|Union for Trentino (UPT)||1|
|The Megaphone – Crocetta List (IM-LC)||1|
|The People of Freedom (PdL)||98|
|Lega Nord (LN)||18|
|Great South (GS)||1|
|Beppe Grillo: Five Star Movement (M5S)||54|
|Mario Monti: With Monti for Italy||19|
|Associative Movement Italians Abroad (MAIE)||1|
|Aosta Valley coalition (VdA)||Valdostan Union (UV)||1|
Popular vote and parliamentary seats in the Senate of the Republic.
Vote result for the Senate in each Italian region.
|Coalition results||List apportionment|
|Coalition seats||Percentage||Party seats|
|Piedmont||22||13||4||2||3||0||29.8||29.3||11.6||25.7||3.5||PD 13||PdL 3 LN 1||Monti 2||M5S 3||0|
|Aosta Valley||1||0||0||0||0||VdA 1||–||7.0||2.4||20.7||69.9||0||0||0||0||UV 1|
|Lombardy||49||11||27||4||7||0||29.7||37.6||10.7||17.4||4.4||PD 11||PdL 16 LN 11||Monti 4||M5S 7||0|
|Trentino-Alto Adige||7||6||1||0||0||0||50.6||16.3||1.4||15.1||13.7|| PD 2 SVP 2|
PATT 1 UPT 1
|Veneto||24||4||14||2||4||0||25.0||32.9||11.0||24.6||6.2||PD 4||PdL 9 LN 5||Monti 2||M5S 4||0|
|Friuli-Venezia Giulia||7||4||1||1||1||0||29.3||28.8||12.3||25.5||4.2||PD 4||PdL 1||Monti 1||M5S 1||0|
|Liguria||8||5||1||1||1||0||33.0||24.1||9.4||30.3||3.1||PD 5||PdL 1||Monti 1||M5S 1||0|
|Emilia-Romagna||22||13||4||1||4||0||42.1||21.3||8.9||23.1||4.5||PD 13||PdL 4||Monti 1||M5S 4||0|
|Tuscany||18||10||3||1||4||0||43.5||21.3||8.1||22.7||4.4||PD 9 SEL 1||PdL 3||Monti 1||M5S 4||0|
|Umbria||7||4||1||1||1||0||37.6||25.2||8.3||25.3||3.4||PD 4||PdL 1||Monti 1||M5S 1||0|
|Marche||8||5||1||1||1||0||33.2||22.2||10.0||30.3||4.2||PD 5||PdL 1||Monti 1||M5S 1||0|
|Lazio||28||16||6||0||6||0||32.3||28.9||7.5||25.9||5.4||PD 14 SEL 2||PdL 6||0||M5S 6||0|
|Abruzzo||7||1||4||0||2||0||28.1||29.6||7.5||28.4||6.4||PD 1||PdL 4||0||M5S 2||0|
|Molise||2||1||1||0||0||0||30.3||30.1||8.4||26.6||4.6||PD 1||PdL 1||0||0||0|
|Campania||29||6||16||2||5||0||29.0||38.4||8.2||20.7||4.6||PD 5 SEL 1||PdL 16||Monti 2||M5S 5||0|
|Apulia||20||4||11||1||4||0||28.5||34.4||9.1||24.1||3.9||PD 3 SEL 1||PdL 11||Monti 1||M5S 4||0|
|Basilicata||7||4||1||1||1||0||36.7||25.3||8.4||22.9||6.8||PD 3 SEL 1||PdL 1||Monti 1||M5S 1||0|
|Calabria||10||2||6||0||2||0||31.7||33.3||7.6||22.2||5.2||PD 2||PdL 5 GS 1||0||M5S 2||-|
|Sicily||25||5||14||0||6||0||27.3||33.4||5.9||29.5||3.9||PD 4 IM-LC 1||PdL 14||0||M5S 6||0|
|Sardinia||8||5||1||0||2||0||31.7||25.5||6.6||28.7||7.5||PD 4 SEL 1||PdL 1||0||M5S 2||0|
|Expats||6||4||0||1||0||MAIE 1||30.69||15.2||19.8||10.0||26.0||PD 4||0||Monti 1||0||MAIE 1|
|Total||315||123||117||19||54||2||–||–||–||–||–||PD 111, SEL 7|
SVP 2, PATT 1
UPT 1, IM-LC 1
LN 18, GS 1
|Monti 19||M5S 54|| UV 1 |
Media analysis of the result was one of political stalemate. Unlike most parliamentary democracies, a government must maintain a majority in both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate in order to pass legislation, since both houses have equal power. While Italy Common Good has a solid majority in the Chamber of Deputies, it could not form a government on its own since it lacked a majority in the Senate. Bersani said that Italy was in a "dramatic situation". Italian and global shares fell as the result became clear, with the value of the euro also dropping. Strong results for anti-austerity parties were interpreted as showing popular opposition to the austerity measures of the Monti government, with the populist Five Star Movement considered to have had a strong election. Analysts were uncertain as to how this new party would behave in the legislature.
On 26 February La Repubblica ran the headline "Boost for Grillo: Italy ungovernable", whilst Il Giornale described Berlusconi's result as a miracle. Il Messaggero declared that "The winner is ungovernability".
Formal talks to form a new government were expected to start on 10 March with the official confirmation of the results and the convening of parliament. The formation task immediately turned out to be tough due to the absence of a clear majority in the Senate, with Giorgio Napolitano being unable to dissolve the Parliament due to constitutional constraints forbidding a president from doing so during the last six months of his term.
On 22 March, after the election of house speakers Laura Boldrini and Piero Grasso, and after two days of consultations with all the parliamentary groups, Napolitano designated Pier Luigi Bersani with the task of forming a new government. Bersani immediately ruled out the possibility of a grand coalition with Berlusconi's right-wing coalition, and instead tried to form a minority government supported by the Five Star Movement. On 28 March, after formal talks with Napolitano, Bersani admitted there was no chance to form such a government. Given the troubles in forming a majority coalition, Napolitano then decided to directly form two informal bipartisan commissions with the task of agreeing on a number of shared reforms
At the same time, a new presidential election was called for 18 April. However, the lack of a clear majority turned out to be problematic also in this scenario, as the first five ballots failed to elect a candidate. The Democratic Party split into several factions due to internal conflicts involving the support of party candidates Franco Marini and Romano Prodi, leading to Bersani's resignation as party leader. On the sixth ballot, in an unprecedented move, Napolitano was elected for a second term as Italian president.
Successively, Napolitano started talks again and on 24 April appointed the Democratic Party's deputy secretary Enrico Letta as designated prime minister on 28 April, he announced that he had managed to form a grand coalition of his Democratic Party, the People of Freedom, Civic Choice, the Union of the Centre and the Radicals that would take office and seek a vote of confidence the next day. The same day as the swearing-in a gunman opened fire at the prime minister's office, Palazzo Chigi, injuring two police officers. Letta told parliament in his inaugural speech "Italy is dying from austerity alone. Growth policies cannot wait." He added that there would not be a property tax imposed and that a "fairer" system for the less affluent was being worked. He also won the vote of confidence by 453 votes to 153.
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