Exclusive economic zone

Sea areas in international rights

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.[1] It stretches from the baseline out to 200 nautical miles (nmi) from its coast. In colloquial usage, the term may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nmi limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters.[2]


The World's exclusive economic zones, shown in dark blue

Generally, a state's exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, extending seaward to a distance of no more than 200 nautical miles (370 km) out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when exclusive economic zones would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nautical miles (740 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary.[3] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.[4]

A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370.4 km) from the baseline. The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 nmi (22 km) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea).[5] Thus, the exclusive economic zones includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nautical miles (648 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the exclusive economic zones, but such areas are not part of their exclusive economic zones. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the exclusive economic zone.


The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.

Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nautical miles or 6 km (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nautical miles (~22 km) beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States in the Truman Proclamation of September 28, 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 (El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947) and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947 (El Peruano: Diario Oficial. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947).[6]

It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted as:

Part V, Article 55 of the Convention states:

Specific legal regime of the exclusive economic zone
The exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention.


Baselines and EEZ claims in East and Southeast Asia showing the amount of overlap in the disputed South China Sea (the Spratly Islands in particular). People's Republic of China: The baseline and EEZ limit of the Spratlys have not been officially published, hence they are calculated based upon features that remain above sea-level at high-tide according to what is set forth in the ratified UNCLOS III. Mischief reef and Subi Reef are naturally above water only at low tide.[7]

The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters.

Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute.[12]

Transboundary stocks

Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.[13] Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.[14]

Exclusive economic zone by country


Argentina's exclusive economic zone including territorial claims


Australia's exclusive economic zones including Antarctic claim

Australia has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind the United States and France, but ahead of Russia, with the total area actually exceeding that of its land territory. Per the UN convention, Australia's EEZ generally extends 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.[16]

The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ.[17][18] Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory,[19] but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres.[18]

EEZ Area (km2)[18]
Heard and McDonald Islands 410,722
 Christmas Island 463,371
 Cocos Islands 325,021
 Norfolk Island 428,618
Macquarie Island 471,837
Mainland Australia, Tasmania and minor islands 6,048,681
Australian Antarctic Territory 2,000,000[status 1]
Total 10,148,250


Brazil's exclusive economic zones

Brazil's EEZ includes areas around the Fernando de Noronha Islands, St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago and the Trindade and Martim Islands.

EEZ Area (km2)[20]
Mainland 2 400 917
Fernando de Noronha 363 362
St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago 413 636
Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl. 468 599
Total 3 646 514

In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.[21]


Canada's exclusive economic zone and territorial waters

Canada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 2,755,564 km2, is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.[22] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 nautical miles (560 km; 350 mi) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago.


Chile's exclusive economic zones, including Antarctic claim

Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands, Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands.

Region EEZ Area (km2)[23] Land area Total
Mainland 1 975 760 755 757 2 731 517
Desventuradas 449 836
Easter 720 412 164 720 576
Juan Fernandez 502 524
Total 3 648 532 755 921 4 404 453

There is a dispute with Peru over the extent of Chile's EEZ: Chilean–Peruvian maritime dispute


People's Republic of China's exclusive economic zone:
  China's EEZ
877,019 km2
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by Taiwan
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by others
3,000,000 km2 Total:3,877,019

The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account neighboring powers' claims.


Exclusive economic zone between Israel and Cyprus as signed in Nicosia

The Exclusive Economic Zone of Cyprus covers more than 70,000 km2 and is divided between 13 exploration blocks. The process of the establishment of Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon Exclusive Economic Zones was held in Nicosia in 2010 with separate meetings between each country.[24] Cyprus and Israel as part of their wider cooperation have agreed to start their gas explorations with a common American company, specifically Noble Energy. Cypriot and Israeli governments are discussing to export their natural gas through the shipping of compressed Natural Gas to Greece and then to the rest of Europe or through a subsea Pipelines starting from Israel and then leading to Greece via Cyprus.[25][26]


The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark

The Kingdom of Denmark includes the constituent country (selvstyre) of Greenland and the constituent country (hjemmestyre) of the Faroe Islands.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[27] Land area Total
 Denmark 105 989 42 506 149 083
 Faroe Islands 260 995 1 399 262 394
 Greenland 2 184 254 2 166 086 4 350 340
Total 2 551 238 2 210 579 4 761 817


Exclusive economic zones of France, including Antarctic territorial claim

Due to its numerous Overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,691,000 km2 (4,514,000 mi2), the EEZ of the United States is the second largest (11,351,000 km2 / 4,382,000 mi2). The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[18] Land area Total
 Metropolitan France 334,604 551,695 886,299
 French Guiana 133,949 83,846 217,795
 Guadeloupe 95,978 1,628 97,606
 Martinique 47,640 1,128 48,768
 Réunion 315,058 2,512 317,570
 French Polynesia 4,767,242 4,167 4,771,409
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 12,334 242 12,576
 Mayotte 63,078 376 63,454
 Wallis and Futuna 258,269 264 258,533
 Saint-Martin 1,000 53 1,053
 Saint-Barthélemy 4,000 21 4,021
 New Caledonia 1,422,543 18,575 1,441,118
 Clipperton Island 431,263 6 431,269
Crozet Islands 574,558 352 574,910
Kerguelen Islands 567,732 7,215 574,947
Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands 509,015 66 509,081
Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean 352,117 44 352,161
Tromelin Island 270,455 1 270,456
Total 11,691,000 675,417 12,366,417

Note, the EEZ (and territorial seas) column only adds up to 10,155,838 square km. All but the two smallest (Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthélemy) components of France's EEZ/territorial seas match those at http://www.seaaroundus.org/data/#/eez/, which would be a better reference than the reference given—which only provides EEZ sizes for Australia.


Greece has claimed an exclusive economic zone, as it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law.[28]

According to published maps, the Israeli government has recognized the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Greece and Cyprus. They describe the course of the gas pipeline which will transfer gas produced by American Νoble Εnergy Ltd. from the Leviathan reservoir to Europe, through an undersea pipeline crossing Greece. The gas pipeline should traverse the sea area, which according to international law, is part of the Greek EEZ. By this proposal, Israel recognizes the Greek EEZ in the area and offers an advantage that Greece can use during negotiation procedures to support its claims on the area. In practice, this cooperation will set up a powerful energy coalition between Greece, Cyprus and Israel. The mining and operating part will be undertaken by an American company.[29] "The substance of the issue is that in an effort to protect and secure vital Israeli interests in the Mediterranean Sea, Israel has been left with no choice other than to officially delimit its maritime borders".[30]


India's exclusive economic zones

India is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 miles.[31]


In 2010, an agreement was signed with Cyprus concerning the limit of territorial waters between Israel and Cyprus at the maritime half way point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross border resources discovered, and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources, however this area is not a true EEZ as described in the UNCLOS.[32]


Japan's exclusive economic zones:
  Japan's EEZ
  Joint regime with Republic of Korea
  EEZ claimed by Japan, disputed by others

Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, Republic of Korea, China and Taiwan). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project[33][34] both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Japan also refers to various categories of "shipping area" – Smooth Water Area, Coasting Area, Major or Greater Coasting Area, Ocean Going Area – but it is unclear whether these are intended to have any territorial or economic implications.


Exclusive economic zone of Mexico

Mexico's exclusive economic zones comprise a total surface area of 3,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.[35]

New Zealand

Exclusive economic zones of the Realm of New Zealand, including the Ross Dependency (shaded)

New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2,[36][37] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2.[38] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).


Norway's exclusive economic zones, including dependent territory Bouvet Island

Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen .[39]

In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.[40]

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
Mainland 1 273 482 323 802 1 597 284
Svalbard 402 574 61 002 463 576
Jan Mayen 273 118 373 273 491
Bouvet Island 436 004 49 436 053
Total 2 385 178 385 226 2 770 404


The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines shown in the lighter blue shade, with Archepelagic Waters in the darkest blue

The Philippines' EEZ covers 2,263,816 km2[41]


The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2 within the Baltic Sea.[42]


Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zones plus submitted Extended Continental Shelf to the UN[43]

Portugal has the 10th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones:

Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over additional 2.15 million square kilometers of the neighboring continental shelf in May 2009,[44] resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website.

Spain disputes the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain objects, arguing that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf,[45] citing article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.[46]


Russia's exclusive economic zone


Somalia's exclusive economic zone

South Africa

South Africa's maritime zones, including the exclusive economic zone

South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1,535,538 km2.[48]

South Korea

South Korean exclusive economic zone:
  Korean EEZ
  EEZ claimed by Republic of Korea, disputed by Japan
  Joint regime with Japan

Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2

United Kingdom

The exclusive economic zones of the United Kingdom in blue, including the British Overseas Territories and the Crown Dependencies. The British claim in Antarctica is shown in shaded blue.[49]

The United Kingdom's exclusive economic zone is the fifth largest in the world at 6,805,586 square km. It comprises the exclusive economic zones surrounding the United Kingdom,[50] the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory. The exclusive economic zones associated with the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina.

Only the United Kingdom and Gibraltar are part of the EU. The Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and the remaining overseas territories (that is, all except Gibraltar) are not part of the EU. The United Kingdom has not as yet claimed its rights with regards to Gibraltar or the Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus.

Areas of EEZs of the UK, crown dependencies and overseas territories[51]
Territory km2 sq mi Notes
United Kingdom 773,676 298,718 includes Rockall and the Isle of Man
Anguilla 92,178 35,590
Ascension Island 441,658 170,525
Bermuda 450,370 173,890
British Indian Ocean Territory 638,568 246,552 disputed with Mauritius
British Virgin Islands 80,117 30,933
Cayman Islands 119,137 45,999
Channel Islands 11,658 4,501
Falkland Islands 550,872 212,693 disputed with Argentina
Gibraltar 426 164 disputed with Spain
Montserrat 7,582 2,927
Pitcairn Island 836,108 322,823
Saint Helena 444,916 171,783
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 1,449,532 559,667 disputed with Argentina
Tristan da Cunha archipelago† 754,720 291,400
Turks and Caicos Islands 154,068 59,486
Total 6,805,586 2,627,651

†Part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km.

United States

Exclusive economic zones of the United States, including insular areas

The United States' exclusive economic zone is the second largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located in three oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.

The sizes of the components of the US EEZ/territorial seas are (in decreasing size):[52]

Total: 11,351,000 km2 (4,383,000 sq mi)

Rankings by area

This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA).

Country EEZ km2[51] Shelf km2 EEZ+TIA km2
 United States11,351,0002,193,52621,814,306
 United Kingdom6,805,586722,8917,048,486
 New Zealand4,083,744277,6104,352,424
 Federated States of Micronesia2,996,41919,4032,997,121
 Papua New Guinea2,402,288191,2562,865,128
 Marshall Islands1,990,53018,4112,008,941
 Solomon Islands1,589,47736,2821,618,373
 South Africa1,535,538156,3372,756,575
 China877,019231,340 1,108,359
 Cape Verde800,5615,591804,594
 Costa Rica574,72519,585625,825
 Sri Lanka532,61932,453598,229
 South Korea475,469292,522575,469
 Venezuela471,507 98,5001,387,950
 Equatorial Guinea303,5097,820331,560
 Dominican Republic255,89810,738304,569
 Saudi Arabia228,633107,2492,378,323
 Sierra Leone215,61128,625287,351
 Côte d'Ivoire176,25410,175498,717
 North Korea132,82654,566253,364
 São Tomé and Príncipe131,3971,902132,361
 Antigua and Barbuda110,0894,128110,531
 El Salvador90,96216,852112,003
 Trinidad and Tobago74,19925,28479,329
 East Timor70,32625,64885,200
 United Arab Emirates58,21857,474141,818
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines36,3021,56136,691
 Congo, Republic of the31,0177,982373,017
 The Gambia23,1125,58134,407
 Saint Lucia15,61754416,156
 Saint Kitts and Nevis9,97465310,235
 Democratic Republic of the Congo1,6061,5932,346,464
 Bosnia and Herzegovina505051,259
 Central African Republic622,984
 South Sudan619,745
 Burkina Faso274,222
 Czech Republic78,867
 Republic of Macedonia25,713
 San Marino61
  Vatican City0.44

See also

Notes and references


a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received recognition as an independent state from 110 out of 193 United Nations member states.
  1. The reference gives an approximate figure of 2 million square kilometres for the EEZ claimed by Australia as part of its Antarctic Territory. This is in addition to the 8 million square kilometre total given in the reference. This EEZ is also distinct from the 2.56 million square kilometres of additional continental shelf mentioned in the reference.


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  3. William R. Slomanson, 2006. Fundamental Perspectives on International Law, 5th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 294.
  4. UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  5. 1982 UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  6. The Exclusive Economic Zone: A Historical Perspective. Fao.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  7. "Spratlys. Black type is used for islands, and for those reefs and shoals that have portions above water at hight tide. Blue type is used for submerged features". CIA. Retrieved May 2016. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  8. Russia and Norway Reach Accord on Barents Sea, New York Times, 28 April 2010, Accessed 28 April 2010
  9. Russia and Norway resolve Arctic border dispute, Guardian, 15 September 2010, Accessed 21 September 2010
  10. Washington Institute
  11. Greek Reporter
  12. The Legal Status of Ice in the Antarctic Region
  13. FAO: The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2006 Part3: highlights of Special studies Rome. ISBN 978-92-5-105568-7
  14. FAO (2007) Report of the FAO workshop on vulnerable ecosystems and destructive fishing in deep sea fisheries Rome, Fisheries Report No. 829.
  15. Comlaw.gov.au
  16. Geoscience Australia. 2005. Maritime Boundary Definitions.
  17. UN confirms Australia’s rights over extra 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed. Minister for Resources and Energy, The Hon Martin Ferguson AM MP, Media Release, 21 April 2008."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-08-27. Retrieved 2008-11-13.
  18. 1 2 3 4 Geoscience Australia, 2012. Education: Oceans and Seas
  19. Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea. Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, Submission by Australia
  20. See Around Us Project (n.d.). "Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)". Retrieved 3 June 2015. EEZ waters of: Brazil 2,400,917 km², Fernando de Noronha 363,362 km², St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago 413,636 km², Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl. 468,599 km²
  21. UN Continental Shelf and UNCLOS Article 76: Brazilian Submission
  22. Wildlife Habitat Canada. Canada's Marine Waters: Integrating the Boundaries of Politics and Nature.
  23. See Around Us Project (n.d.). "Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)". Retrieved 3 June 2015. EEZ waters of: Chile 1,975,760 km², Desventuradas Isl. 449,836 km², Easter Isl. 720,412 km², J. Fernandez, Felix and Ambrosio Isl. 502,524 km²
  24. Γραφείο Τύπου και Πληροφοριών - About us. Cyprus.gov.cy. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  25. (PDF) http://www.cyprusgasconference.com/pdf/George%20Pamboridis.pdf. Retrieved December 29, 2012. Missing or empty |title= (help)
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  27. Danish foreign ministry
  28. Indirect Proclamation of EEZ - Greece Gives Coordinates Of Continental Shelf To UN ~ HellasFrappe. Hellasfrappe.blogspot.com.es (2013-02-21). Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  29. Israel Recognizes Greek Exclusive Economic Zone | News from Greeks in Africa, Asia, and South America. World.greekreporter.com (2011-02-23). Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  30. Israel defends energy exploration deal with Cyprus | ICEJ UK. Uk.icej.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  31. http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-hopes-to-double-its-eez/article2096905.ece
  32. Israel-Cyprus exclusive economic zone set
  33. Japan (main islands) The Sea Around Us Project
  34. Japan (outer islands) The Sea Around Us Project
  35. Geographic location
  36. New Zealand Sea Around Us Project
  37. Kermadec Islands (New Zealand) The Sea Around Us Project
  38. New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (2007). Improving Regulation of Environmental Effects in New Zealand’s Exclusive Economic Zone: Discussion Paper - Introduction. Published August 2007, Publication number ME824. ISBN 0-978-478-30160-1 Accessed 2006-01-07.
  39. Statistisk årbok 2007 Accessed January 2008
  40. UN backs Norway claim to Arctic seabed extension, Canwest News Service, 15 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
  41. Exclusive Economic Zones - Sea Around Us Project - Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity - Data and Visualization.
  42. Exploration and Extraction of sand and gravel resources in the Polis exclusive economical zone of the Baltic Sea, European marine sand and gravel – shaping the future, EMSAGG Conference 20–21 February 2003, Delft University, Netherlands
  43. Task Group for the Extension of the Portuguese Continental Shelf
  44. Portugal applies to UN to Extend Its Continental Shelf Zone. Accessed 3 July 2011
  45. Lacleta Muñoz, José Manuel: "Las fronteras de España en el mar". Documentos de trabajo 34-2004, Real Instituto Elcano
  46. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Part VIII, Article 121
  47. Sea Around Us Project – Data and Visualization
  48. Sea around us project
  49. 10 Downing Street. "Countries within a country". Archived from the original on 2010-04-16. Retrieved 2010-01-16.
  50. "The Exclusive Economic Zone Order 2013" http://www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  51. 1 2 Seaaroundus.org
  52. Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) Archived January 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. Seaaroundus.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
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