Battle of Valmy
|The Battle of Valmy|
|Part of the French Revolutionary Wars|
Painting of the battle of Valmy by Horace Vernet from 1826. The white-uniformed infantry to the right are regulars while the blue-coated ranks to the left represent the citizen volunteers of 1791.
|Kingdom of France||
Holy Roman Empire
|Commanders and leaders|
Charles François Dumouriez|
François Christophe Kellermann
Duke of Brunswick|
Prince of Hohenlohe
Count of Clerfayt
|Casualties and losses|
The Battle of Valmy was the first major victory by the army of France during the Revolutionary Wars that followed the French Revolution. The action took place on 20 September 1792 as Prussian troops commanded by the Duke of Brunswick attempted to march on Paris. Generals François Kellermann and Charles Dumouriez stopped the advance near the northern village of Valmy in Champagne-Ardenne.
In this early part of the Revolutionary Wars—known as the War of the First Coalition—the new French government was in almost every way unproven, and thus the small, localized victory at Valmy became a huge psychological victory for the Revolution at large. The battle was considered by contemporary observers a miraculous event and a "decisive defeat" for the vaunted Prussian army. The French victory emboldened the newly assembled National Convention to formally declare the end of monarchy in France and to establish (22 September 1792) the First French Republic. Valmy permitted the development of the Revolution and all its resultant ripple-effects, and for that it is regarded by historians as one of the most significant battles of all time.
As the French Revolution continued, the monarchies of Europe became concerned that revolutionary fervor would spread to their countries. The War of the First Coalition was an effort to stop the revolution, or at least contain it to France. In the war's early encounters, French troops did not distinguish themselves, and enemy forces advanced dangerously deep into France intending to pacify the country, restore the traditional monarchy, and end the Revolution. King Frederick William II of Prussia had the support of Great Britain and the Austrian Empire to send the Duke of Brunswick towards Paris with a large army. Brunswick's allied invasion force of veteran Prussian and Austrian troops was augmented by large complements of Hessians and the French royalist Army of Condé. The French commander Dumouriez, meanwhile, had been marching his army northeast to attack the Austrian Netherlands, but this plan was abandoned because of the more immediate threat to Paris.
Just over half of the infantry of Dumouriez's army were regulars of the old Royal Army, as were nearly all of the cavalry and, most importantly, the artillery. These provided a professional core to steady the enthusiastic volunteer battalions raised in June and July 1791.
The invading army handily captured Longwy on 23 August and Verdun on 2 September, then moved on toward Paris through the defiles of the Forest of Argonne. In response, Dumouriez halted his advance to the Netherlands and reversed course, approaching the enemy army from its rear. From Metz, Kellermann moved to his assistance, joining him at the village of Sainte-Menehould on 19 September. The French forces were now east of the Prussians, behind their lines. Theoretically the Prussians could have marched straight towards Paris unopposed, but this course was never seriously considered: the threat to their lines of supply and communication was too great to be ignored. The unfavorable situation was compounded by bad weather and an alarming increase in sickness among the troops. With few other options available, Brunswick turned back and prepared to do battle.
The troops trudged laboriously through a heavy downpour – "rain as of the days of Noah", in the words of Thomas Carlyle. Brunswick headed through the northern woods believing he could cut off Dumouriez. At the moment when the Prussian manœuvre was nearly completed, Kellermann advanced his left wing and took up a position on the slopes between Sainte-Menehould and Valmy. His command centered around an old windmill, and his veteran artillerists were well-placed upon its accommodating rise to begin the so-called "Cannonade of Valmy". As the Prussians emerged from the woods, a long-range gunnery duel ensued and the French batteries proved superior. The Prussian infantry made a cautious, and fruitless, effort to advance under fire across the open ground. The French infantry and Prussian infantry exchanged fire.
As the Prussians wavered, a pivotal moment was reached when Kellermann raised his hat and made his famous cry of "Vive la Nation". The cry was repeated again and again by all the French army, and had a crushing effect upon Prussian morale. The French troops sang "La Marseillaise" and "Ça Ira", and a cheer went up from the French line. To the surprise of nearly everyone, Brunswick broke off the action and retired from the field. The Prussians rounded the French positions at a great distance and commenced a rapid retreat eastward. The two forces had been essentially equal in size, Kellermann with approximately 36,000 troops and 40 cannon, and Brunswick with 34,000 and 54 cannon. Yet by the time Brunswick retreated, casualties had risen no higher than three hundred French and two hundred Prussians.
The precipitous end to the action provoked elation among the French. The question of exactly why the Prussians withdrew has never been definitively answered. Most historians ascribe the retreat to some combination of the following factors: the highly defensible French position together with the rapidly growing numbers of reinforcements and citizen volunteers with their discouraging and thoroughly unexpected élan persuaded the cautious Brunswick to spare himself a dangerous loss of manpower, particularly when the Russian invasion of Poland had already raised concerns for Prussia's defensibility in the east. Others have put forward more shadowy motives for the decision, including a secret plea by Louis XVI to avoid an action which might cost him his life, and even bribery of the Prussians, allegedly paid for with the Bourbon crown jewels. Brunswick had actually been offered command of the French armies prior to the outbreak of war and emigre factions subsequently used this as a basis to allege treachery on his part. However no proof of this charge exists and the more likely explanation remains that, having initially adopted an aggressive strategy, he lacked the will to carry it through when confronted by an unexpectedly determined and disciplined opposition. In any case, the battle ended decisively, the French pursuit was not seriously pressed, and Brunswick's troops managed a safe if inglorious eastward retreat.
This engagement was the turning point of the Prussians' campaign. Beset with food shortages and dysentery, their retreat continued well past the Rhine river. French troops soon struck forward into Germany, taking Mainz in October. Dumouriez once again moved against the Austrian Netherlands and Kellermann ably secured the front at Metz.
Dumouriez would bear a harsh change of fortune: after one more influential success in November 1792 at Jemappes, he was by the following year a broken man. His army had suffered such catastrophic losses that he defected to the royalist side for the rest of his life.
Kellermann, however, continued in a long and distinguished military career. In 1808 he was ennobled by Napoleon and became Duke of Valmy.
In the varied historiography of the French Revolution, the battle of Valmy is often portrayed as the first victory of a citizen army, inspired by liberty and nationalism. Many thousands of volunteers did indeed swell the ranks, but at least half of the French forces were professional regulars, particularly among Kellermann's critical artillery units which were widely regarded as the best in Europe at the time. The French artillery also held a tactical advantage in its modern Gribeauval gun system which proved highly successful on the battlefield. But in popular conception, Valmy was a victory of citizen-soldiers: the battle was emblemized by Kellermann's cry, augmented by the troops' singing of the "Marseillaise" and the "Ça Ira" while under fire.
On the very day of the battle, the Legislative Assembly had duly transferred its power to the National Convention. Over the next two days, flush with the news from Valmy, the new Convention deputies abolished the monarchy and proclaimed the French Republic.
The Prussians themselves recognized the importance of the battle, not merely as a setback to one of the most effective armies in Europe but as a crucial buttress to the revolutionary French state. The German writer and poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who was present at the battle with the Prussian army, later wrote that he was approached by some of his comrades in a state of dejection. He had previously cheered them up with memorable and clever quotes but his only consolation this time was, "From this place, and from this day forth begins a new era in the history of the world, and you can all say that you were present at its birth."
- Soboul, p.269.
- Horne, p. 197.
- Creasy, p.328ff.
- Lann, p. 145.
- Creasy, p.330.
- Creasy, p.334.
- Schama, p.640.
- Price, p. 311.
- Crowdy, pp. 8, 24.
- Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol. 11 (1910), p.171.
- Carlyle, p. 39.
- Soboul, p.589.
- Doyle, p.198.
- Esdaile, p. 161.
- Webster, pp. 348–352.
- Price, pp. 311–312.
- Soboul, p.270.
- Schama, p.641.
- Thiers, pp. 298ff.
- Dunn-Pattinson, p. 321.
- Doyle, p. 193.
- Blanning (1996), pp. 78–79.
- Blanning, T. C. W. (1996). The French Revolutionary Wars 1787–1802. London: Arnold. ISBN 0-340-64533-4.
- Carlyle, Thomas (1800s) . The French Revolution: A History. 3. London: George Routledge and Sons, Ltd. OCLC 461166553.
- Chisholm, Hugh (1910). Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 11. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. OCLC 490852439. Retrieved 2013-01-29.
- Creasy, Edward Shepherd (1851). The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World, from Marathon to Waterloo. New York: Harper & Brothers. OCLC 5026550. Retrieved 2013-01-29.
- Crowdy, Terry. French Revolutionary Infantryman, 1791–1802. Warrior series. 63. Oxford: Osprey. pp. 8, 24. ISBN 1-84176-552-X.
- Doyle, William (2002). The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-925298-5.
- Dunn-Pattinson, Richard P. (2010) . Napoleon's Marshals. Bremen, Germany: Europaeischer Hochschulverlag GmbH & Co. ISBN 9783867414296. Retrieved 2013-01-29.
- Esdaile, Charles (2009). Napoleon's Wars: An International History, 1803–1815. New York: Penguin. p. 161. ISBN 0-14-311628-2. Retrieved 2013-01-29.
- Horne, Alistair (2004). La Belle France. USA: Vintage. ISBN 978-1-4000-3487-1.
- Lanning, Michael Lee (2005). The Battle 100: The Stories Behind History's Most Influential Battles. Chicago: Sourcebooks, Inc. ISBN 1-4022-0263-6. Retrieved 2013-01-29.
- Price, Munro (2002). The Fall of the French Monarchy. London: Pan Macmillan Ltd. ISBN 0-330-48827-9.
- Schama, Simon (1989). Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-679-72610-1.
- Soboul, Albert (1975). The French Revolution 1787–1799. New York: Vintage. p. 269. ISBN 0-394-71220-X.
- Thiers, Adolphe (1838). The History of the French Revolution. II. London: Richard Bentley. OCLC 2949605. Retrieved 2013-01-29.
- Webster, Nesta Helen (1919). The French Revolution: A Study in Democracy. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. ISBN 0-7661-7996-6.
- HTML version of The Battle of Valmy from Edward Shepherd Creasy's The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World
- Arthur Chuquet, Les Guerres de la Révolution : 2. Valmy, 1887
- Campagne du Duc de Brunswick contre les Français en 1792, publiée en allemand par un officier prussien témoin oculaire et traduite en français sur la quatrième édition à Paris chez A.Cl.FORGET rue du Four-Honoré No 487 An III de la République.