Short chronology timeline

The short chronology is one of the chronologies of the Near Eastern Bronze and Early Iron Age, which fixes the reign of Hammurabi to 1728–1686 BC and the sack of Babylon to 1531 BC.

The absolute 2nd millennium BC dates resulting from this decision have very little support in academia, particularly after more recent research. The middle chronology (reign of Hammurabi 1792–1750 BC) is commonly encountered in literature and early twenty-first century dendrochronology has essentially disproved the short chronology.[1][2] For much of the period in question, middle chronology dates can be calculated by adding 64 years to the corresponding short chronology date (e.g. 1728 BC in short chronology corresponds to 1792 in middle chronology).

After the so-called "dark age" between the fall of Babylon and the rise of the Kassite dynasty in Babylonia, absolute dating becomes less uncertain.[3] While exact dates are still not agreed upon, the 64-year middle/short chronology dichotomy no longer applies from the beginning of the Third Babylon Dynasty onward.

Early Bronze Age

Estimation of absolute dates becomes possible for the second half of the 3rd millennium BC. For the first half of the 3rd millennium, only very rough chronological matching of archaeological dates with written records is possible.

Kings of Ebla

Main article: Ebla

The city-states of Ebla and Mari (in modern Syria) competed for power at this time. Eventually, under Irkab-Damu, Ebla defeated Mari for control of the region just in time to face the rise of Uruk and Akkad. After years of back and forth, Ebla was destroyed by the Akkadian Empire. Pottery seals of the Egyptian pharaoh Pepi I have been found in the wreckage of the city. [4]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Igrish-Halam circa 2300 BC
Irkab-Damu Contemporary of Iblul-Il of Mari
Ar-Ennum or Reshi-Ennum
Ibrium or Ebrium Contemporary of Tudiya of Assyria (treaty)
Ibbi-Sipish or Ibbi-Zikir Son of Ibrium
Dubuhu-Ada Ebla destroyed by Naram-Sin of Akkad or Sargon of Akkad


Further information: Sumerian king list
Third Dynasty of Uruk
Further information: Uruk

Lugal-zage-si of Umma rules from Uruk after defeating Lagash, eventually falling to the emerging Akkadian Empire.[5]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Lugal-zage-si 2295–2271 BC Defeats Urukagina of Lagash and is in turn defeated by Sargon of Akkad
Dynasty of Akkad
Further information: Akkad

Since Akkad (or Agade), the capital of the Akkadian Empire, has not yet been found, available chronological data comes from outlying locations like Ebla, Tell Brak, Nippur, Susa and Tell Leilan. Clearly, the expansion of Akkad came under the rules of Sargon and Naram-sin. The last king of the empire, Shar-kali-sharri managed to mostly hold things together but upon his death, the empire fragmented. Finally, the city of Akkad itself was destroyed by the Guti.[6][7][8]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Sargon 2270–2215 BC
Rimush 2214–2206 BC Son of Sargon
Man-ishtishu 2205–2191 BC Son of Sargon
Naram-sin 2190–2154 BC Grandson of Sargon
Shar-kali-sharri 2153–2129 BC Son of Naram-sin
Dudu 2125–2104 BC
Shu-Durul 2104–2083 BC City of Akkad falls to the Guti
Gutian Kings
Further information: Gutian dynasty of Sumer

First appearing in the area during the reign of Sargon of Akkad, the Guti became a regional power after the decline of the Akkadian Empire following Shar-kali-sharri. The dynasty ends with the defeat of the last king, Tirigan, by Uruk.

Only a handful of the Guti kings are attested to by inscriptions, aside from the Sumerian king list.[9]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Erridupizir 2141–2138 BC Royal inscription at Nippur
Imta or Nibia (There is no kings for 3 or 5 years) 2138–2135 BC
Inkishush 2135–2129 BC First Gutian ruler on the Sumerian king list
Sarlagab 2129–2126 BC
Shulme 2126–2120 BC
Elulmesh or Silulumesh 2120–2114 BC
Inimabakesh 2114–2109 BC
Igeshaush or Igeaus 2109–2103 BC
Yarlagab or Yarlaqaba 2103–2088 BC
Ibate 2088–2085 BC
Yarlangab or Yarla 2085–2082 BC
Kurum 2082–2081 BC
Apilkin or Habil-kin or Apil-kin 2081–2078 BC
La-erabum 2078–2076 BC Mace head inscription
Irarum 2076–2074 BC
Ibranum 2074–2073 BC
Hablum 2073–2071 BC
Puzur-Suen 2071–2064 BC Son of Hablum
Yarlaganda 2064–2057 BC Foundation inscription at Umma
Si-um or Si-u 2057–2050 BC Foundation inscription at Umma
Tirigan 2050–2050 BC Contemporary of Utu-hengal of Uruk
Second Dynasty of Lagash
Further information: Lagash

Following the collapse of the Akkadian Empire after Shar-kali-sharri of Akkad under pressure from the invading Gutians, Lagash gradually regained prominence. As a client state to the Gutian Kings, Lagash was extremely successful, peaking under the rule of Gudea. After the last Gutian king, Tirigan, was defeated, by Utu-hengal, Lagash came under the control of Ur under Ur-Namma.[10] Note that there is some indication that the order of the last two rulers of Lagash should be reversed. [11]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Lugalushumgal ca. 2140 ruled under Gutian kings
Kaku or Kakug ended 2093
Ur-Bau or Ur-baba 2093–2080 BC
Gudea 2080–2060 BC Son-in-law of Ur-baba
Ur-Ningirsu 2060–2055 BC Son of Gudea
Pirigme or Ugme 2055–2053 BC Grandson of Gudea
Ur-gar 2053–2049 BC
Nammahani 2049–2046 BC Grandson of Kaku, defeated by Ur-Namma
Fifth Dynasty of Uruk
Further information: Uruk

Uniting various Sumerian city-states, Utu-hengal frees the region from the Gutians. Note that the Sumerian king list records a preceding 4th Dynasty of Uruk which is as yet unattested. [12]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Utu-hengal 2055–2048 BC Appoints Ur-Namma as governor of Ur
Third Dynasty of Ur (Sumerian Renaissance)
Main article: Third Dynasty of Ur

In an apparently peaceful transition, Ur came to power after the end of the reign of Utu-hengal of Uruk, with the first king, Ur-Namma, solidifying his power with the defeat of Lagash. By the dynasty's end with the destruction of Ur by Elamites and Shimashki, the dynasty included little more than the area around Ur.[13] [14] [15]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Ur-Namma or Ur-Engur 2047–2030 BC Defeated Nammahani of Lagash; Contemporary of Utu-hengal of Uruk
Shulgi 2029–1982 BC Possible lunar/solar eclipse 2005 BC[16]
Amar-Suena 1981–1973 BC Son of Shulgi
Shu-Suen 1972–1964 BC
Ibbi-Suen 1963–1940 BC Son of Shu-Suen

Middle Bronze Age

The Old Assyrian / Old Babylonian period (20th to 15th centuries)

First Dynasty of Isin
Further information: Isin

After Ishbi-Erra of Isin breaks away from the declining Third Dynasty of Ur under Ibbi-Suen, Isin reaches its peak under Ishme-Dagan. Weakened by attacks from the upstart Babylonians, Isin eventually falls to its rival Larsa under Rim-Sin I.[17][18]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Ishbi-Erra 1953–1921 BC Contemporary of Ibbi-Suen of Ur III
Šu-ilišu 1920–1911 BC Son of Ishbi-Erra
Iddin-Dagan 1910–1890 BC Son of Shu-ilishu
Ishme-Dagan 1889–1871 BC Son of Iddin-Dagan
Lipit-Eshtar 1870–1860 BC Contemporary of Gungunum of Larsa
Ur-Ninurta 1859–1832 BC Contemporary of Abisare of Larsa
Bur-Suen 1831–1811 BC Son of Ur-Ninurta
Lipit-Enlil 1810–1806 BC Son of Bur-Suen
Erra-Imittī or Ura-imitti 1805–1799 BC
Enlil-bāni 1798–1775 BC Contemporary of Sumu-la-El of Babylon
Zambīia 1774–1772 BC Contemporary of Sin-Iqisham of Larsa
Iter-piša 1771–1768 BC
Ur-du-kuga 1767–1764 BC
Suen-magir 1763–1753 BC
Damiq-ilishu 1752–1730 BC Son of Suen-magir
Kings of Larsa
Further information: Larsa

The chronology of the Kingdom of Larsa is based mainly on the Larsa King List (Larsa Dynastic List), the Larsa Date Lists, and a number of royal inscriptions and commercial records. The Larsa King List was compiled in Babylon during the reign of Hammurabi, conqueror of Larsa. It is suspected that the list elevated the first several Amorite Isinite governors of Larsa to kingship so as to legitimize the rule of the Amorite Babylonians over Larsa. After a period of Babylonian occupation, Larsa briefly breaks free in a revolt ended by the death of the last king, Rim-Sin II.[19] [20] [21]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Naplanum 1961–1940 BC Contemporary of Ibbi-Suen of Ur III
Emisum 1940–1912 BC
Samium 1912–1877 BC
Zabaia 1877–1868 BC Son of Samium, First royal inscription
Gungunum 1868–1841 BC Gained independence from Lipit-Eshtar of Isin
Abisare 1841–1830 BC
Sumuel 1830–1801 BC
Nur-Adad 1801–1785 BC Contemporary of Sumu-la-El of Babylon
Sin-Iddinam 1785–1778 BC Son of Nur-Adad
Sin-Eribam 1778–1776 BC
Sin-Iqisham 1776–1771 BC Contemporary of Zambiya of Isin, Son of Sin-Eribam
Silli-Adad 1771–1770 BC
Warad-Sin 1770–1758 BC Possible co-regency with Kudur-Mabuk his father
Rim-Sin I 1758–1699 BC Contemporary of Irdanene of Uruk, Defeated by Hammurabi of Babylon, Brother of Warad-Sin
Hammurabi of Babylon 1699–1686 BC Official Babylonian rule
Samsu-iluna of Babylon 1686–1678 BC Official Babylonian rule
Rim-Sin II 1678–1674 BC Killed in revolt against Babylon
First Babylonian Dynasty (Dynasty I)

Following the fall of the Ur III Dynasty, the resultant power vacuum was contested by Isin and Larsa, with Babylon and Assyria later joining the fray. In the second half of the reign of Hammurabi, Babylon became the preeminent power, a position it largely maintained until the sack by Mursili I in 1531 BC. Note that there are no contemporary accounts of the sack of Babylon. It is inferred from much later documents.[22][23]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Sumu-abum or Su-abu 1830–1817 BC Contemporary of Ilushuma of Assyria
Sumu-la-El 1817–1781 BC Contemporary of Erishum I of Assyria
Sabium or Sabum 1781–1767 BC Son of Sumu-la-El
Apil-Sin 1767–1749 BC Son of Sabium
Sin-muballit 1748–1729 BC Son of Apil-Sin
Hammurabi 1728–1686 BC Contemporary of Zimri-Lim of Mari, Siwe-palar-huppak of Elam and Shamshi-Adad I
Samsu-iluna 1686–1648 BC Son of Hammurabi
Abi-eshuh or Abieshu 1648–1620 BC Son of Samsu-iluna
Ammi-ditana 1620–1583 BC Son of Abi-eshuh
Ammi-saduqa or Ammisaduqa 1582–1562 BC Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa
Samsu-Ditana 1562–1531 BC Sack of Babylon
1st Sealand Dynasty (2nd Dynasty of Babylon)
Main article: Sealand Dynasty

When the names of Sealand Dynasty kings were found on cuneiform records like the Babylonian Kings Lists, Chronicle 20, Chronicle of the Early Kings, and the Synchronistic King List, it was assumed that the dynasty slotted in between the First Dynasty of Babylon and the Kassites.[24] Later discoveries changed this to the assumption that the dynasty ran entirely in parallel to the others. Modern scholarship has made it clear that the Sealand Dynasty did in fact control Babylon and the remnants of its empire for a time after its sack by the Hittites in 1531 BC.[25][26]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Ilumael or Ilum-ma-ilī circa 1700 BC Contemporary of Samsu-iluna and Abi-eshuh of the First Dynasty of Babylon
Damqi-ilišu II
mDIŠ+U-EN (reading unknown)
Pešgaldarameš Son of Gulkishar
Ayadaragalama Son (=descendant) of Gulkishar
Ea-gâmil ca. 1460 BC Contemporary of Ulamburiash of the Kassite dynasty of Babylon
Hittite Old Kingdom
Main article: Hittites

The absolute chronology of the Hittite Old Kingdom hinges entirely on the date of the sack of Babylon. In 1531 BC, for reasons that are still extremely unclear, Mursili I marched roughly 500 miles from Aleppo to Babylon, sacked it, and then promptly returned home, never to return. Other than that event, all the available chronological synchronisms are local to the region in and near Anatolia.

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Labarna I
Hattusili I or Labarna II 1586–1556 BC Grandfather of Mursili I
Mursili I 1556–1526 BC Sacked Babylon in reign of Samsu-Ditana of Babylon
Hantili I 1526–1496 BC
Zidanta I 1496–1486 BC
Ammuna 1486–1466 BC Son of Hantili I
Huzziya I 1466–1461 BC Son of Ammuna

Late Bronze Age

Further information: Bronze Age collapse

The Middle Assyrian period (14th to 12th centuries)

Third Babylon Dynasty (Kassite)
Main article: Kassites

The Kassites first appeared during the reign of Samsu-iluna of the First Babylonian Dynasty and after being defeated by Babylon, moved to control the city-state of Mari. Some undetermined amount of time after the fall of Babylon, the Kassites established a new Babylonian dynasty. The Babylonian king list identifies 36 kings reigning 576 years, however, only about 18 names are legible. A few more were identified by inscriptions. There is some confusion in the middle part of the dynasty because of conflicts between the Synchronistic Chronicle and Chronicle P. The later kings are well attested from kudurru steles. Relative dating is from sychronisms with Egypt, Assyria and the Hittites. The dynasty ends with the defeat of Enlil-nadin-ahi by Elam.[27][28][29][30]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Agum II or Agum-Kakrime
Burnaburiash I Treaty with Puzur-Ashur III of Assyria
Kashtiliash III
Ulamburiash Conquers the first Sealand dynasty
Agum III
Karaindash Treaty with Ashur-bel-nisheshu of Assyria
Kadashman-harbe I Campaign against the Sutû
Kurigalzu I Founder of Dur-Kurigalzu and contemporary of Thutmose IV
Kadashman-Enlil I 1374–1360 BC Contemporary of Amenophis III of the Egyptian Amarna letters
Burnaburiash II 1359–1333 BC Contemporary of Akhenaten and Ashur-uballit I
Kara-hardash 1333 BC Grandson of Ashur-uballit I of Assyria
Nazi-Bugash or Shuzigash 1333 BC Usurper "son of a nobody"
Kurigalzu II 1332–1308 BC Son of Burnaburiash II, Fought Battle of Sugagi with Enlil-nirari of Assyria
Nazi-Maruttash 1307–1282 BC Contemporary of Adad-nirari I of Assyria
Kadashman-Turgu 1281–1264 BC Contemporary of Hattusili III of the Hittites
Kadashman-Enlil II 1263–1255 BC Contemporary of Hattusili III of the Hittites
Kudur-Enlil 1254–1246 BC Time of Nippur renaissance
Shagarakti-Shuriash 1245–1233 BC "Non-son of Kudur-Enlil" according to Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria
Kashtiliashu IV 1232–1225 BC Contemporary of Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria
Enlil-nadin-shumi 1224 BC Assyria installed vassal king
Kadashman-Harbe II 1223 BC Assyria installed vassal king
Adad-shuma-iddina 1222–1217 BC Assyria installed vassal king
Adad-shuma-usur 1216–1187 BC Contemporary of Ashur-nirari III of Assyria
Meli-Shipak II 1186–1172 BC Correspondence with Ninurta-apal-Ekur confirming foundation of Near East chronology
Marduk-apla-iddina I 1171–1159 BC
Zababa-shuma-iddin 1158 BC Defeated by Shutruk-Nahhunte of Elam
Enlil-nadin-ahi 1157–1155 BC Defeated by Kutir-Nahhunte of Elam
Main article: Mitanni

Perhaps because the capital of Mitanni, Washukanni, has not yet been found, there are no available king lists, year lists, or royal inscriptions. Fortunately, a fair amount of diplomatic, Hittite, and Assyrian sources exist to firm up the chronology. Having become powerful under Shaushtatar, Mitanni eventually falls into the traditional trap of dynasties, the contest for succession. Tushratta and Artatama II both claim the kingship and the Hittites and Assyrians take advantage of the situation. After that, Mitanni was no longer a factor in the region.[31][32]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Kirta ca. 1500 BC
Parshatatar or Parrattarna Son of Kirta
Shaushtatar Contemporary of Idrimi of Alalakh, Sacks Ashur
Artatama I Treaty with Pharaoh Thutmose IV of Egypt, Contemporary of Pharaoh Amenhotep II of Egypt
Shuttarna II Daughter marries Pharaoh Amenhotep III of Egypt in his year 10
Artashumara Son of Shutarna II, brief reign
Tushratta ca. 1350 BC Contemporary of Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites and Pharaohs Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV of Egypt, Amarna letters
Artatama II Treaty with Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites, ruled same time as Tushratta
Shuttarna III Contemporary of Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites
Shattiwaza Mitanni becomes vassal of the Hittite Empire
Shattuara I Mittani becomes vassal of Assyria under Adad-nirari I
Wasashatta Son of Shattuara I
Assyrian Middle Kingdom
Main article: Assyria

Long a minor player, after the defeat of its neighbor Mitanni by the Hittites, Assyria rises to the ranks of a major power under Ashur-uballit I. The period is marked by conflict with rivals Babylon and the Hittites as well as diplomatic exchanges with Egypt, in the Amarna letters. Note that after the excavation, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, of various Neo-Assyrian documents, such as the Assyrian king list, scholars assumed that the chronological data for earlier Assyrian periods could be taken as accurate history. That view has changed over the years and the early Assyrian chronology is being re-assessed. Since there is yet no consensus, the traditional order and regnal lengths will be followed.[33][34][35]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Eriba-Adad I 1380–1353 BC
Ashur-uballit I 1353–1318 BC Contemporary of Burnaburiash II of Babylon and Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites
Enlil-nirari 1317–1308 BC Fought Battle of Sugagi with Kurigalzu II of Babylon, Son of Ashur-uballit I
Arik-den-ili 1307–1296 BC
Adad-nirari I 1295–1264 BC Contemporary of Shattuara I and Wasashatta of Mitanni
Shalmaneser I 1263–1234 BC Son of Adad-nirari I
Tukulti-Ninurta I 1233–1197 BC Contemporary of Kashtiliashu IV of Babylon
Ashur-nadin-apli 1196–1194 BC Son of Tukulti-Ninurta I
Ashur-nirari III 1193–1188 BC Contemporary of Adad-shuma-usur of Babylon and Son of Ashur-nadin-apli
Enlil-kudurri-usur 1187–1183 BC Son of Tukulti-Ninurta I
Ninurta-apal-Ekur 1182–1180 BC
Hittite New Kingdom
Main article: Hittites

Beginning under his father, Suppiluliuma I brought the Hittites from obscurity into an empire that lasts for almost 150 years. The Hittite New Kingdom reaches its height after the defeat of Mitanni, an event which ironically leads to the rise of Assyria. The dynasty ends with the destruction of Hattusa by parties undetermined but which may have included the Sea People and the Kaskians.[36][37][38][39]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Tudhaliya III 1360–1344 BC Son of Tudhaliya II
Suppiluliuma I 1344–1322 BC Son of Tudhaliya III, Contemporary of Tushratta of Mitanni
Arnuwanda II 1322–1321 BC Son of Suppiluliuma I
Mursili II 1321–1295 BC Son of Suppiluliuma I; Mursili's eclipse
Muwatalli II 1295–1272 BC Son of Mursili II, Battle of Kadesh in year 5 of Ramses II of Egypt,
Mursili III or Urhi-Teshub 1272–1267 BC Son of Muwatalli II
Hattusili III 1267–1237 BC Son of Mursili II, Treaty in year 21 of Ramses II of Egypt, Contemporary of Shalmaneser I of Assyria & Kadashman-Turgu of Babylon
Tudhaliya IV 1237–1209 BC Son of Hattusili III, Battle of Nihriya
Arnuwanda III 1209–1207 BC Son of Tudhaliya IV
Suppiluliuma II 1207–1178 BC Son of Tudhaliya IV, Fall of Hattusa
Kings of Ugarit
Further information: Ugarit

A client state of Mitanni and later the Hittites, Ugarit was nonetheless a significant player in the region. While regnal lengths and an absolute chronology for Ugarit are not yet available, the known order of kings and some firm synchronisms make it reasonably placeable in time. The fall of Ugarit has been narrowed down to the range from the reign of Pharaoh Merneptah to the 8th year of Pharaoh Rameses III of Egypt. This is roughly the same time that Hattusa is destroyed.[40][41]

Ruler Proposed reign Notes
Ammittamru I ca. 1350 BC
Niqmaddu II Contemporary of Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites
Niqmepa Treaty with Mursili II of the Hittites, Son of Niqmadu II,
Ammittamru II Contemporary of Bentisina of Amurru, Son of Niqmepa
Niqmaddu III
Ammurapi ca. 1200 BC Contemporary of Chancellor Bay of Egypt, Ugarit is destroyed

Iron Age

Further information: Neo-Hittite

The Early Iron Age (12th to 7th centuries BC). While not subject to the long versus short dating issue, chronology in the Ancient Near East is not on a firm footing until the rise of the Neo-Babylonian and Neo-Assyrian rulers in their respective regions. The dates, regnal lengths, and even the names of a number of rulers from that interim period are still unknown. To make matters worse, the few surviving records, such as the Synchronistic Chronicle, give conflicting data.[42]

Second Dynasty of Isin
Further information: Kings of Babylon

After the fall of the Kassite dynasty of Babylon to Elam, power in the region, and control of Babylon, swung to the city-state of Isin. Assyria at this time was extremely weak, except during the reign of the powerful Assyrian ruler Tiglath-Pileser I. Other polities in the area had yet to recover from the Bronze Age collapse.[43][44]

Ruler Reign Notes
Marduk-kabit-aḫḫēšu 1157–1140 BC
Itti-Marduk-balāṭu 1139–1132 BC
Ninurta-nādin-šumi 1131–1126 BC Contemporary of Ashur-resh-ishi I of Assyria
Nebuchadnezzar I 1125–1104 BC Orig. Nabu-kudurri-usur, Contemporary of Ashur-resh-ishi I
Enlil-nadin-apli 1103–1100 BC Son of Nebuchadnezzar I
Marduk-nadin-ahhe 1099–1082 BC Contemporary of Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria
Marduk-šāpik-zēri 1081–1069 BC Contemporary of Ashur-bel-kala of Assyria
Adad-apla-iddina 1168–1147 BC Contemporary of Ashur-bel-kala
Marduk-aḫḫē-erība 1046 BC
Marduk-zer-X 1045–1034 BC
Nabû-šuma-libūr 1033–1026 BC
Middle-Assyrian period
Further information: Assyria

After the Middle Assyrian Kingdom there is an uncertain period in Assyrian history. The current cornerstone of chronology for this time is the Assyrian King List which, unfortuneately, conflicts with other records such as the Synchronised King List and the Babylonian King List. In any event, the rulers of Assyria in this time were all fairly weak, except for Tiglath-Pileser I. Note too that this chronology is based on assumed synchronisms with Egypt in the previous period.

Ruler Reign Notes
Ashur-Dan I 1179–1133 BC Son of Ninurta-apal-Ekur
Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur 1133 BC
Mutakkil-nusku 1133 BC
Ashur-resh-ishi I 1133–1115 BC
Tiglath-Pileser I 1115–1076 BC
Asharid-apal-Ekur 1076–1074 BC
Ashur-bel-kala 1074–1056 BC
Eriba-Adad II 1056–1054 BC
Shamshi-Adad IV 1054–1050 BC
Ashur-nasir-pal I 1050–1031 BC
Shalmaneser II 1031–1019 BC
Ashur-nirari IV 1019–1013 BC
Ashur-rabi II 1013–972 BC
Ashur-resh-ishi II 972–967 BC
Tiglath-Pileser II 967–935 BC
Ashur-dan II 935–912 BC
Further information: Kings of Babylon

Dynasties V to IX of Babylon (post-Kassite):

Ruler Reign Notes
Simbar-šipak 1025–1008 BC Dynasty V – Second Sealand Dynasty
Ea-mukin-zēri 1008 BC
Kaššu-nādin-aḫi 1008–1004 BC
Eulmaš-šākin-šumi 1004–987 BC Dynasty VI – Bῑt-Bazi Dynasty
Ninurta-kudurrῑ-uṣur I 987–985 BC
Širikti-šuqamuna 985 BC
Mâr-bîti-apla-uṣur 985–979 BC Dynasty VII – Dynasty of "Elam"
Nabû-mukin-apli 979–943 BC Dynasty VIII – Dynasty of E
Ninurta-kudurri-usur II 943 BC Dynasty IX
Mar-biti-ahhe-iddina 943–920 BC
Šamaš-mudammiq circa 900 BC
Nabû-šuma-ukin I
Marduk-zakir-šumi I
5 unnamed kings circa 800 BC
Eriba-Marduk 769–761 BC
Nabu-šuma-iškun 761–748 BC
Nabonassar (Nabu-nasir) 748–734 BC Contemporary of Tiglath-Pileser III
Nabu-nadin-zeri 734–732 BC
Nabu-šuma-ukin II 732 BC
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Main article: Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Assyrian empire rises to become the dominant power in the ancient Near East for over two centuries. This occurs despite the efforts of various other strong groups that existed in this period, including Babylon, Urartu, Damascus, Elam, and Egypt.[45][46][47]

Ruler Reign Notes
Adad-nirari II 912–891 BC
Tukulti-Ninurta II 890–884 BC Son of Adad-nirari II
Assur-nasir-pal II 883–859 BC Son of Tukulti-Ninurta II
Shalmaneser III 858–824 BC Battle of Qarqar
Shamshi-Adad V 823–811 BC Treaty with Marduk-zakir-sumi I of Babylon
Adad-nirari III 810–783 BC Regent Shammu-ramat
Shalmaneser IV 782–773 BC Son of Adad-nirari III
Ashur-Dan III 772–755 BC Eclipse on June 15 763 BC
Ashur-nirari V 754–745 BC
Tiglath-Pileser III 744–727 BC Contemporary of Nabonassar of Babylon
Shalmaneser V 726–722 BC Contemporary of Rusas I of Urartu
Sargon II 721–705 BC Contemporary of Marduk-apla-iddina II of Babylon
Sennacherib 704–681 BC Contemporary of Shutruk-Nahhunte II of Elam
Esarhaddon 680–669 BC Contemporary of Pharaoh Taharqa of Egypt
Assurbanipal 668–631 BC
Further information: Kings of Babylon

Dynasties X of Babylon (Assyrian):

Babylon was under the direct control of Neo-Assyrian rulers or their appointed governors for much of this period.

Ruler Reign Notes
Nabu-mukin-zeri of Assyria 732–729 BC
Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria 729–727 BC
Shalmaneser V of Assyria 727–722 BC
Marduk-apla-iddina II 722–710 BC
Sargon II of Assyria 710–705 BC
Sennacherib of Assyria 705–703 BC
Marduk-zakir-shumi II 703 BC
Marduk-apla-iddina II 703 BC
Bel-ibni 703–700 BC Assyrian appointed governor
Ashur-nadin-shumi 700–694 BC Son of Sennacherib of Assyria
Nergal-ushezib 694–693 BC
Mushezib-Marduk 693–689 BC
Sennacherib of Assyria 689–681 BC
Esarhaddon of Assyria 681–669 BC
Shamash-shum-ukin 668–648 BC Son of Esarhaddon of Assyria
Kandalanu 648–627 BC
Sin-shumu-lishir 626 BC
Sinsharishkun ca. 627–620 BC Son of Assurbanipal of Assyria
Classical Antiquity

For times after Assurbanipal (died 627 BC), see:

The Hellenistic period begins with the conquests of Alexander the Great in 330 BC.

See also


  1. Manning, S. W.; Kromer, B.; Kuniholm, P. I.; and Newton, M. W. 2001 Anatolian tree-rings and a new chronology for the east Mediterranean Bronze-Iron Ages. Science 294: 2532-35.
  2. Sturt W. Manning et al., Integrated Tree-Ring-Radiocarbon High-Resolution Timeframe to Resolve Earlier Second Millennium BCE Mesopotamian Chronology, PlosONE July 13 2016
  3. , Schwartz, Glenn, 2008. "Problems of Chronology: Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and the Syro-Levantine Region." In Beyond Babylon: Art, Trade, and Diplomacy in the Second Millennium B.C., edited by Joan Aruz, Kim Benzel, and Jean M. Evans: 450-452.
  4. A Victory over Mari and the Fall of Ebla, Alfonso Archi, Maria Giovanna Biga, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vol. 55, 2003, pp. 1-44
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  6. The Genesis and Collapse of Third Millennium North Mesopotamian Civilization, H. Weiss et al., Science, Aug 20, pp. 995-1004, 1993
  7. Historical Perception in the Sargonic Literary Tradition. The Implication of Copied Texts, Rosetta 1, pp 1-9, 2006
  8. The Sargonic and Gutian Periods (2334-2113), Douglas R. Frayne, University of Toronto Press, 1993, ISBN 0-8020-0593-4
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  10. Gudea and His Dynasty, Dietz Otto Edzard, 1997, University of Toronto Press ISBN 0-8020-4187-6
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  17. Kings of Isin Year Names
  18. The Old Babylonian Period (2003-1595), Douglas R. Frayne, University Of Toronto Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8020-5873-6
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  22. Chronicle of early kings at
  23. The Proclamation of Telipinu
  24. Albert Kirk Grayson, Assyrian and Babylonian chronicles, Eisenbrauns, 2000 ISBN 1-57506-049-3
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  26. Stephanie Dalley, Babylonian Tablets from The First Sealand Dynasty in the Schoyen Collection, CDL Press, 2009 ISBN 1-934309-08-7
  27. The Collapse of a Complex State, A Reappraisal of the End of the First Dynasty of Babylon 1683–1597 B.C., Seth Richardson, dissertation, Columbia University, 2002
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  31. Pharaoh and his Brothers, S Jakob
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  33. "Comments on the Nassouhi Kinglist and the Assyrian Kinglist Tradition," J.A. Brinkman, Orientalia N.S 42, 1973
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  36. Bryce, T., 'The 'Eternal Treaty' from the Hittite perspective', BMSAES 6 (2006), 1–11
  37. Sürenhagen, D., 'Forerunners of the Hattusili-Ramesses treaty', BMSAES 6 (2006), 59–67
  38. Hittite Studies in Honor of Harry A. Hoffner Jr. on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday. Eisenbrauns, 2003, ISBN 1-57506-079-5
  39. Hittite Diplomatic Texts, G Brinkman, Scholars Press, 1999, ISBN 0-7885-0551-3
  40. Handbook of Ugaritic Studies, edited by Wilfred G. E. Watson and Nicolas Wyatt, Brill, 1999, ISBN 90-04-10988-9
  41. The City of Ugarit at Tell Ras Shamra, Marguerite Yon, Eisenbrauns, 2006, ISBN 1-57506-029-9
  42. John Anthony Brinkman, A Political History of Post-Kassite Babylonia, 1158–722 B.C., Biblical Institute Press, 1968, ISBN 88-7653-243-9
  43. A Poebel, "The Second Dynasty of Isin According to a New King-List Tablet," Assyriological Studies 15, Oriental Institute of Chicago, 1955
  44. J. A. Brinkman, "Foreign Relations of Babylonia from 1600 to 624 B. C.: The Documentary Evidence," American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 271–281, 1972
  45. "Landscape and Settlement in the Neo-Assyrian Empire," T. J. Wilkinson, E. B. Wilkinson, J. Ur, M. Altaweel, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Nov 2005
  46. Neo-Assyrian Eponym List
  47. Empires and Exploitation: The Neo-Assyrian Empire, P Bedford, WA Perth, 2001


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