Spanish people of Filipino ancestry
(439,000 (2007) with "native knowledge" cited 1990 census)|
|Latin (Spanish alphabet)|
Official language in
|Regulated by||Academia Filipina de la Lengua Española|
Philippine Spanish (Spanish: Español filipino, Castellano filipino) is a variant of standard Spanish spoken in the Philippines mostly by Spanish Filipinos. Since the independence of the Philippines from Spain (1898), the dialect has lost most of its speakers and it might be now close to disappearing.
Philippine Spanish is a Spanish dialect of the Spanish language in the Philippines. The variant is very similar to Mexican Spanish, because of Mexican and Latin American emigration to the Spanish East Indies over the years.
Philippine Spanish is spoken mostly among Spanish Filipinos.
From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines which were a part of the Spanish East Indies, were governed by the Captaincy General of the Philippines as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain centered in Mexico. It was only administered directly from Spain in 1821 after Mexico gained its independence that same year. Since the Philippines was a former territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain for most of the Spanish colonial period, Spanish as was spoken in the Philippines had a greater affinity to American Spanish rather than to Peninsular Spanish.
Philippine Spanish has the following characteristics. Some of these have been passed on the manner of everyday speech of Filipinos; such as /x/ being [h] and seseo.
As in some dialects in northern Spain and in some bilingual zones in Latin America, there is a distinction between ll /ʎ/ and y /ʝ/. For example, "silla" /ˈsiʎa/ and not /ˈsiʝa/ (Tagalog "silya"). However, yeísmo occurs in some words like "cebollas" /seˈboʝas/ (Tagalog "sibuyas") and "caballo" /kaˈbaʝo/ (Tagalog "kabayo").
As in Latin American Spanish, the /θ/ and /s/ phonemes merge into [s]. For example, cerveza /seɾˈbesa/ (Tagalog "serbesa").
Retraction of /x/ to [h]
The velar jota sound /x/ is retracted to glottal [h]. This also occurs in Andalusian, Caribbean, and Canarian Spanish. For example, "Jorge" [ˈhoɾhe ~ ˈholhe].
Confusion between /d/ and /ɾ/, /p/ and /f/ and non-open vowels
As a Malayo-Polynesian country (such countries often interchange /d/ and /ɾ/, /p/ and /f/, /e/ and /i/ as well as /o/ and /u/) this could be observed in Philippine Spanish. For example, "pared" [paˈdeɾ] (Tagalog "pader"), Filipinas [piliˈpinas] (Tagalog "Pilipinas"), entender [intinˈdiɾ] (Tagalog "intindi") and ojal [uˈhal] (Tagalog "uhal").
No aspiration of /s/
Retention of [h] of words originating from Latin f-
Words like "hacer" [aˈseɾ], "hablar" [aˈblaɾ] come from the Latin words facere and fabulare, respectively. However, in Philippine Spanish, the h- initial is pronounced as [h], not silent nor [x] Therefore, the pronunciations would be [haˈseɾ] and [haˈblaɾ] (Tagalog "habla"). Because /x/ in Philippine Spanish is glottal [h], it is best to consider those words to phonemically be /xaˈseɾ/ and /xaˈblaɾ/, rather than to postulate a marginal phoneme /h/. The same thing occurs sometimes in Andalusian and Caribbean Spanish.
[ɾ–l] shift at the end of syllables
At the end of a syllable of a word or a word itself, if the syllable/word ends with an l or r, /l/ becomes [ɾ] and /ɾ/ becomes [l] often. For instance, almíbar [aɾˈnibal] (Tagalog "arnibal), rezar [daˈsal] (Tagalog "dasal"). This also occurs in Andalusian and Caribbean Spanish.
From Latin American Spanish
The following American Spanish words are also used in Philippine Spanish, thanks to the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade.
Words Present in the RAE Dictionary:
- camote, camotal "a sweet potato",
- champurrado "Mexican chocolate porridge",
- chile "pimiento",
- chongo "monkey" (from chango),
- jícama "Mexican turnip",
- mecate "whip",
- zacate, zacatal "grass"
- achuete "annotto" (from achiote)
- arete "earring",
- banqueta "sidewalk",
- bejuco "liana",
- chayote "pear-shaped vegetable",
- corrido "a Mexican ballad",
- manejar "to drive",
- maní "nut" (cacahuate is also used),
- tiangue "flea market" (from tianguis),
From Peninsular Spanish
Peninsular Spanish started to influence the vocabulary of Philippine languages after the Philippines was administered directly from Spain. For instance, Philippine Spanish uses "patata" (potato} instead of "papa", "gamba" (shrimp) instead of "camarón", "vosotros" (you, informal plural) instead of "ustedes", "melocotón" (peach) instead of "durazno", etc.
- aparador "cabinet"
- barcada "group of friends"
- bata "child"
- juramentado "demented"
- lanceta "dagger"
- lampasear "to clean the floor through a coconut husk"
- mamón "fluffy cake"
- puto "circle-shaped rice cake"
- tapa "beef eaten in breakfast"
Diacritic marks are almost always left out, save for the tilde on the ñ, because of the use of American standard machines and because of the disallowance of using these marks by English-language media companies. Typewriters sometimes include the ñ, but they do not include accented vowels. Computer keyboards have always used the US standard layout, which includes neither ñ nor combining diacritics. Spanish words, however, are vocally stressed as they would be by Spanish speakers. Yet, the absence of these diacritic marks makes Filipinos studying Spanish liable to put the accent on the wrong syllable of loanwords in Philippine languages, as those words are pronounced as in their mother languages.
As of 2012, of the younger generation of Filipino Hispanophones are following the Spanish orthographic convention of typing letters with diacritic marks (acute accents and diaeresis) as well as the inverted question and exclamation marks and the rest of the special characters and symbols found in Spanish orthography on their US standard layout computer keyboards by using the AltGr key, Modifier key, Code page 437, Code page 850, Microsoft Windows Alt Key Numeric Codes for character shortcuts, or the US-International keyboard layout.
|NUMERIC CODE||CHARACTER DISPLAYED||NAME||NUMERIC CODE||CHARACTER DISPLAYED||NAME|
||uppercase A with accute accent||
||lowercase a with acute accent|
||uppercase E with acute accent||
||lowercase e with acute accent|
||uppercase I with acute accent||
||lowercase i with acute accent|
||uppercase O with acute accent||
||lowercase o with acute accent|
||uppercase U with acute accent||
||lowercase u with acute accent|
||uppercase U with umlaut||
||lowercase u with umlaut|
||uppercase N with tilde or eñe||
||lowercase n with tilde or eñe|
||masculine ordinal indicator||
||feminine ordinal indicator|
||inverted question mark||
||inverted exclamation mark|
||left angle quote or left guillemet||
||right angle quote or right guillemet|
||pesetas (out of circulation)|
For the numero signs such as n.o and N.os, superior ordinal letters such as 1.o, 2.a and 3.er, superior letters such as F.ca, D.a, F.co, M.a and f.do, and superior numbers such as €850, you may use the superscript (hold down the Ctrl, the Shift and the =) and underline (highlight the text then hold down the Ctrl and the letter U) keyboard shortcuts.
Spanish was the language of government, education and trade throughout the three centuries (333 years) of the Philippines being part of the Spanish Empire and continued to serve as a lingua franca until the first half of the 20th century. In the last decades its use has declined. New developments in the Philippines are slowly reversing this trend.
The presidential decision had immediate results. The Under-Secretary of the Department of Education, Vilma L. Labrador, circulated a Memorandum (17/XII/2007), on the "Restoration of the Spanish language in Philippine Education". In it, the Department mandates secondary schools to offer basic and advanced Spanish.
There has been a resurgence of learning Spanish among Filipinos.
The main reason is not even cultural, it is economic.
Due to the huge demand for Spanish speakers among business process outsourcing companies in the Philippines, Filipinos are flocking to Instituto Cervantes and other language centers in order to learn Spanish.
- realinstitutoelcano.org, 2007
- Spanish at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Ocampo, Ambeth. "Spanish on comeback trail in Philippines". Archived from the original on July 14, 2010. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
- Woolfson, Tim. "Alt Codes Reference Sheet". Archived from the original (PDF) on July 14, 2010. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
- "Windows – Alt Key Numeric Codes". Archived from the original on July 14, 2010. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
- "List of keyboard shortcuts for Word 2002, Word 2003, and Word 2007". Archived from the original on July 14, 2010. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
- "Nuevas perspectivas para la lengua española en Filipinas (ARI)".
- "Spanish in Philippine Public High School".
- "Hola! Asian Call Centers Lure Back Spanish". YaleGlobal - Yale University.
- The Teaching of Spanish in the Philippines, UNESCO, February 1968
- List of Tagalog words of Spanish origin, self-published, tripod.com
- Semanario de Filipinas, Philippine Weekly news blog
- E-Dyario Filipinas, online newspaper
- Alas Filipinas, the first and only Spanish blog in the Philippines
- Revista Filipina, online magazine
- Cohen, Margot. Filipinos Learning Not to Scorn Spanish. Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, Yale University. April 2010.
- Asociacion Cultural Galeon de Manila, Spanish-Philippine cultural research group based in Madrid (in Spanish and English).
- Círculo Hispano-Filipino (in Spanish and English)
- Website of Kaibigan Kastila
- Spanish Made Easy and Practical For Filipinos
- Spanish Program for Cultural Cooperation
- Casino Español de Manila
- Casino Español de Cebú
- Instituto Cervantes de Manila
- Documentary "El Idioma Español en Filipinas" (Spanish)