Marriageable age

Campaign against child marriage

Marriageable age (or marriage age) is the minimum age at which a person is allowed by law to marry, either as a right or subject to parental or other forms of consent. Age and other prerequisites to marriage vary between jurisdictions, but marriage age is often set at 18. Until recently, the marriageable age for women was lower in many jurisdictions than for men, but in many places has now been raised to those of men. Most jurisdictions allow marriage at a younger age with parental or judicial approval, and some also allow younger people to marry if the woman is pregnant. The marriage age should not be confused with the age of majority or the age of consent, though in some places they may be the same. In many developing countries, the official age prescriptions stand as mere guidelines. In some societies, a marriage by a person (usually a woman) below the age of 18 is regarded as a child marriage.

The 55 parties to the 1962 Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage, and Registration of Marriages have agreed to specify a minimum marriage age by statute law‚ to override customary, religious, and tribal laws. When the marriageable age under a law of a religious community is lower than that under the law of the land, the state law prevails. However, some religious communities do not accept the supremacy of state law in this respect, which may lead to child marriage or forced marriage. The 123 parties to the 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery have agreed to adopt a minimum age for marriage.

History and social attitudes

Ancient times

Historically, the age of consent for a sexual union was determined by tribal custom, or was a matter for families to decide. In most cases, this coincided with signs of puberty: such as menstruation for a girl and pubic hair for a boy.[1]

In Ancient Rome, it was very common for girls to marry and have children shortly after the onset of puberty. Roman law required brides to be at least 12 years old. In Roman law, first marriages to brides from 12 to 24 required the consent of the bride and her father; by the late antique period, Roman law permitted women over 25 to marry without parental consent.[2] The Catholic canon law followed the Roman law. In the 12th century, the Catholic Church drastically changed legal standards for marital consent by allowing daughters over 12 and sons over 14 to marry without their parents' approval, even if their marriage was made clandestinely.[3] Parish studies have confirmed that late medieval women did sometimes marry without their parents' approval.[4]

In western Europe, the rise of Christianity and manorialism had both created incentives to keep families nuclear, and thus the age of marriage increased; the Western Church instituted marriage laws and practices that undermined large kinship groups. The Church prohibited consanguineous marriages, a marriage pattern that had been a means to maintain clans (and thus their power) throughout history.[5] The church also forbade marriages in which the bride did not clearly agree to the union.[6]

Middle Ages

After the Fall of Rome, manorialism also helped weaken the ties of kinship and thus the power of clans; as early as the 9th century in northwestern France, families that worked on manors were small, consisting of parents and children and occasionally a grandparent. The Church and State had become allies in erasing the solidarity and thus the political power of the clans; the Church sought to replace traditional religion, whose vehicle was the kin group, and substitute the authority of the elders of the kin group with that of a religious elder; at the same time, the king's rule was undermined by revolts by the most powerful kin groups, clans or sections, whose conspiracies and murders threatened the power of the state and also the demands by manorial lords for obedient, compliant workers.[7] As the peasants and serfs lived and worked on farms that they rented from the lord of the manor, they also needed the permission of the lord to marry. Couples therefore had to comply with the lord and wait until a small farm became available before they could marry and thus produce children; those who could and did delay marriage were presumably rewarded by the landlord and those who did not were presumably denied that reward.[8] For example, marriage ages in Medieval England varied depending on economic circumstances, with couples delaying marriage until their early twenties when times were bad, but might marry in their late teens after the Black Death, when there was a severe labour shortage;[9] by appearances, marriage of adolescents was not the norm in England.[10]

In medieval Eastern Europe, on the other hand, the Slavic traditions of patrilocality of early and universal marriage (usually of a bride aged 12–15 years, with menarche occurring on average at 14) lingered;[11] the manorial system had yet to penetrate into eastern Europe and had generally had less effect on clan systems there; and the bans on cross-cousin marriages had not been firmly enforced.[12]

The first recorded age-of-consent law dates back 800 years. In 1275, in England, as part of the rape law, the Statute of Westminster 1275, made it a misdemeanour to "ravish" a "maiden within age", whether with or without her consent. The phrase "within age" was interpreted by jurist Sir Edward Coke as meaning the age of marriage, which at the time was 12 years.[13] In the 12th century, the jurist Gratian, an influential founder of Canon law in medieval Europe, accepted the age of puberty for marriage to be between 12 and 14, but acknowledged consent to be meaningful if the children were older than 7. Some authorities claimed that consent could take place earlier. Marriage would then be valid as long as neither of the two parties annulled the marital agreement before reaching puberty, and the marriage had not already been consummated. Gratian noted that "If one over the age of seven takes a prepubescent wife of less than seven and transfers her to his house, such a contract gives rise to the impediment of public propriety".[14] In spite of this, there are recorded marriages of 2 and 3 year olds.[1]

Modern times

The policy of the Roman Catholic Church, and later various protestant churches, of considering clandestine marriages and marriages made without parental consent to be valid was controversial, and in the 16th century both the French monarchy and the Lutheran Church sought to end these practices, with limited success.[15] Before 1929, Scots law followed Roman law in allowing a girl to marry at twelve years of age and a boy at fourteen, without any requirement for parental consent. However, marriage in Scotland at such young ages was in practice almost unknown.[16] In England and Wales, the Marriage Act 1753 required a marriage to be covered by a licence (requiring parental consent for those under 21) or the publication of banns (which parents of those under 21 could forbid).

In most of Northwestern Europe, marriage at very early ages was rare. One thousand marriage certificates from 1619 to 1660 in the Archdiocese of Canterbury show that only one bride was 13 years old, four were 15, twelve were 16, and seventeen were 17 years old; while the other 966 brides were at least 19 years old. Additionally, the Church dictated that both the bride and groom must be at least 21 years of age to marry without the consent of their families; in the certificates, the most common age for the brides is 22 years. For the grooms 24 years was the most common age, with average ages of 24 years for the brides and 27 for the grooms.[17] While European noblewomen often married early, they were a small minority of the population,[18] and the marriage certificates from Canterbury show that even among nobility it was very rare to marry women off at very early ages.[17]

The American colonies followed the English tradition, but the law was more of a guide. For example, Mary Hathaway (Virginia, 1689) was only 9 when she was married to William Williams. Sir Edward Coke (England, 17th century) made it clear that "the marriage of girls under 12 was normal, and the age at which a girl who was a wife was eligible for a dower from her husband's estate was 9 even though her husband be only four years old".[1] Reliable data for when people would actually marry are very difficult to find. In England, for example, the only reliable data on age at marriage in the early modern period come from records relating only to those who left property after their death. Not only were the records relatively rare, but not all bothered to record the participants' ages, and it seems that the more complete the records are, the more likely they are to reveal young marriages, giving a biased sample. Additionally, 20th- and 21st-century historians have sometimes shown reluctance to accept data regarding a young age of marriage, and would instead explain the data away as a misreading by a later copier of the records.[1]

In France, until the French Revolution, the marriageable age was 12 years for girls and 14 for boys. Revolutionary legislation in 1792 increased the age to 13 years for girls and 15 for boys. Under the Napoleonic Code in 1804, the marriageable age was set at 15 years for girls and 18 for boys.[19] In 2006, the marriageable age for women was increased to 18, the same as for men.

In jurisdictions where the ages are not the same, the marriageable age for girls is more commonly two or three years lower than that for boys.

Marriageable age as a right vs exceptions

In the majority of countries the marriageable age as a right is 18. However, most of these countries have exceptions for minors, usually requiring parental and/or judicial authorization. These exceptions vary considerably by country. The United Nations Population Fund stated the following:[20]

In 2010, 158 countries reported that 18 years was the minimum legal age for marriage for women without parental consent or approval by a pertinent authority. However, in 146 countries, state or customary law allows girls younger than 18 to marry with the consent of parents or other authorities; in 52 countries, girls under age 15 can marry with parental consent. In contrast, 18 is the legal age for marriage without consent among males in 180 countries. Additionally, in 105 countries, boys can marry with the consent of a parent or a pertinent authority, and in 23 countries, boys under age 15 can marry with parental consent.

In Western countries, marriages of teenagers have become rare in recent years, with their frequency having rapidly declined during the past few decades. For instance, in Finland, where underage youth can obtain a special judicial authorization to marry, there are only 30–40 such marriages per year in the early 21st century (with most of the spouses being aged 17), while in the early 1990s, more than 100 underage marriages were registered each year.[21]

By country


Country Male consent Female consent Notes
Algeria 19under 19 with judicial consent (Article 7 of the Family Code[22])
Angola 18 16 with parental consent males, 15 with parental consent females.[23]
Benin 18 [24]
Botswana 21 18 with parental consent.[25]
Burkina Faso 20 17 18 with parental consent males, 15 with parental consent females.[24]
Burundi 21 18 [26]
Cameroon 15 18 [27]
Central African Republic 22 18 [28]
Chad 18 15 [29]
Democratic Republic of Congo 18 15 [30]
Djibouti 18 [31]
Egypt 21 18 with parental consent.[32]
Equatorial Guinea 12 [33]
Eritrea 18 [34]
Ethiopia 18 [35]
Gabon 21 18 with parental consent males, 15 with parental consent females.[36]
Guinea-Bissau 18 [37]
Guinea-Conakry 18 [38]
Ivory Coast 20 18 [39]
Kenya 18 16 with parental consent males.[40]
Lesotho 21 18 with parental consent males, 16 with parental consent females.[41]
Liberia 21 18 18 with parental consent males, 16 with parental consent females[42]
Libya 20 But lower with judicial permission on grounds of benefit or necessity and with wali's agreement.[43]
Mauritius 18 16 with parental consent[44]
Madagascar 18 17 [45]
Mali 18 16 [46]
Mauritania 18 [47]
Morocco 18 [48]
Mozambique 18 16 with parental consent[49]
Namibia 21 18 with parental consent[50]
Niger 18 15 under with parental consent[51]
Nigeria 18 [52]
Republic of the Congo 21 18 under with parental consent[53]
Rwanda 21 under with parental consent[54]
São Tomé and Príncipe 18 16 with parental consent males, 14 with parental consent females.[55]
Senegal 18 16 [56]
Sierra Leone 18 [57]
Somalia 18 16 with parental consent females[58]
South Africa 18
Sudan Puberty With requirement for willing consent of both parties.[63]
South Sudan 18 [64]
Swaziland 21 18 with parental consent males, 16 with parental consent females.[65]
Tanzania 18 14 with parental consent[66]
Togo 20 17 [67]
Tunisia 18 [68]
Uganda 18 [69]
Zambia 21 [70]
Zimbabwe 18 16 with parental consent.[71]


The sign painted on a building in a village in Hubei, China, informs of the marriageable age in the country (22 for men, 20 for women).
Country Male consent Female consent Notes
Afghanistan 18 16 15 for females with the consent of the father or with judicial approval. Under the Civil Code, Article 70 sets the marriageable age at 18 for males and 16 for females. However, Article 71 creates an exception to the above, stating: "(1) Where the girl does not complete the age provided under Article 70 of this law, the marriage may be concluded only through her father or the competent court. (2) The marriage of a minor girl whose age is less then [sic] 15 shall never be permissible."[72] In practice, however, marriage often occurs at much younger ages, as different ethnic groups in Afghanistan have various traditions, many accepting marriage at young ages.[73]
Bangladesh 21 18 (under 18 for special cases, with parental consent and permission of court) Bangladeshi law provides penal sanctions for the contraction of under-age marriages, although such unions are not considered invalid.[74] Despite the law, child marriage rates in Bangladesh are among the highest in the world. Every 2 out of 3 marriages involve child marriages.[75]
Bhutan 18 [76]
Brunei 18 Minimum legal age for marriage without parental consent varies across states/provinces, ethnic groups, religious groups or forms of marriage.[77]
Cambodia 18 [78]
China 22 20 [79]
Hong Kong 21 16 with parental consent.[80][81]
India 21 18 If any partner(s) engages in marriage at a younger age, (s)he can ask for the marriage to be declared void. A recent recommendation by the Law Commission aims to equalize the marriage age for males and females to 16.[82] Official policy automatically declares marriages under 15 as "null and void", while marriages at the age of 14 or 15 are "voidable". In 2012, the high court declared that Muslim women can marry at 15.[82] Additionally, the report declares that "In spite of these legal provisions, child marriage is still widely practiced and a marriage solemnized in contravention of these provisions is not void even under the new PCMA, 1929, the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 and also under the Muslim Law."[82]
Indonesia 18 16 Marriage at younger ages is legal with parental consent and judicial approval.[83]
Iran 18 15 15 for males and 13 for females with parental consent and judicial approval.[84][85]
Iraq 18 15 with judicial permission if fitness, physical capacity and guardian's consent (or unreasonable objection on part of guardian) are established. (These rules may have been revised after Saddam Hussein's fall.)[86]
Israel 18 Minimum marriageable age increased from 17 to 18 in November 2013. Family courts able to recognise marriage for 16 and above in special cases.[87]
Japan 20 18 for males and 16 for females with parental consent.[88]
Jordan 18 [89]
Kazakhstan 18 17 16 with parental consent.[90]
South Korea 19 18 with parental consent
Kuwait 17 15 [91]
Kyrgyzstan 18 Local self-government agencies may, at the request of the parties entering the marriage, provided that justifiable reasons exist, lower the marriage age. The marriage age may not be lowered by more than 1 year.[92]
Laos 18 15 with parental consent.[93]
Lebanon 18 17 15, or 9 with judicial permission for Shi'a. 18 or 17 and 16 or 15 with judicial permission for Druze.[94]
Malaysia 21 18 with parental consent. Muslim girls under 16 can marry with the permission of sharia authorities.[95]
Maldives 18 According to custom, the minimum age for marriage is 15. The Law on the Protection of the Rights of the Child discourages marriage before the age of 16.[96]
Myanmar 20 14 with parental consent females.[97]
Nepal 20 18 with parental consent.[98]
North Korea 18 17 [99]
Oman 18 While the legal minimum age is 18, "custom still recognises marriages below the age of 18".[100]
Pakistan 18 16 (18 in Sindh and Punjab[101])[102] Despite the law[103] against child marriage, the practice is widespread. According to two 2013 reports, nearly 50% of all marriages in Pakistan involve girls less than 18 years old.[104][105] However, in Punjab and Sindh, severe punishments are given for marriages before the age of 18.[106][107]
Palestine 16 15 with parent consent.
Mongolia 18 [108]
Philippines 21 18 with parent consent.[109]
Qatar 18 16 Under with parental consent. No minimum age for marriage with parental consent, and permitted only when in conformity with religious and cultural norms and with permission of a competent court.[110]
Russia 18 16 in special circumstances; may vary in different regions.
Saudi Arabia None [111]
Singapore 21 18 with parental consent; below 18 with special marriage license.
Sri Lanka 18 However, the parties must have a Qadi's permission to marry before contracting into marriage if they are Muslims.[112]
Syria 18 Thomson Reuters Foundation notes that child marriage occurs from 13 years.[113]
Republic of ChinaTaiwan 20 18 for males and 16 for females with statutory agent's consent.[114][115]
Tajikistan 18 17 with parental consent.[116]
Thailand 20 17 with parental consent.[117]
Timor-Leste 17 16 with parental consent.[118]
Turkmenistan 16 [119]
United Arab Emirates 18 While UAE is based on Sharia law, a minimum age for marriage exists.[120]
Uzbekistan 17 [121]
Vietnam 20 18 [122]
Yemen 15 HRW notes no legal minimum age for marriage under Sharia law, and UNSD notes that child marriage is permitted where "such marriage will entail some clear benefit."[123]


The marriageable age as a right is 18 in all European countries, with the exception of Andorra and Scotland where it is 16 (for both sexes). Existing exceptions to this general rule (usually requiring special judicial and/or parental consent) are discussed below. In both the European Union and the Council of Europe the marriageable age falls within the jurisdiction of individual member states. The Istanbul convention, the first legally binding instrument in Europe in the field of violence against women and domestic violence,[124] only requires countries which ratify it to prohibit forced marriage (Article 37) and to ensure that forced marriages can be easily voided without further victimization (Article 32), but does not make any reference to a minimum age of marriage.

Country Male consent Female consent Notes
Albania 18 [125][126]
Andorra 16 14 with judicial authority[127]
Armenia 18 The age was set at 18 for both sexes in 2012,[128] prior to that date it was 17 for females and 18 for males.[129] However, marriage at age 17 is allowed with parental consent, and at age 16 with parental consent and the condition that the other intending spouse is at least 18.[130]
Austria 18 16 with parental consent but the other partner must be 18 or older.[131]
Azerbaijan 18 17 in special cases with judicial authorization. (Article 10 of the Family Code[132]). The marriageable age for females was raised in 2011 to 18, equalizing it to that of males; prior to that date it was 17.[133]
Belarus 18 [134]
Belgium 18 Younger with judicial consent (with no strict minimum age). With parental consent, serious reasons are required for a minor to marry; without parental consent, the unwillingness of the parents has to constitute an abuse.[135]
Bulgaria 18 The new 2009 Family Code fixes the age at 18, but allows for an exception for 16 years olds, stating that "Upon exception, in case that important reasons impose this, matrimony may be concluded by a person at the age of 16 with permission by the regional judge". It further states that both persons wanting to marry, as well as the parents/guardians of the minor, must be consulted by the judge. (Chapter 2, Article 6)[136]
Croatia 18 16 with court permission.
Cyprus 18 16 with parental consent, if there are serious reasons for the marriage.[137][138]
Czech Republic 18 Article 672 of Act No. 89/2012 Coll. the Civil Code (which came into force in 2014) states that the court may, in exceptional cases, allow a marriage of a 16 year old, if there are serious reasons for it.[139]
Denmark 18 15 with an exemption named "Kongebrev" (which is a "letter from the king [granting an exemption]").
Estonia 18 15 with court permission.[140][141]
Finland 18 Under 18 with the consent of the ministry of justice in extraordinary circumstances, in which case parents or other guardian must be heard, but actual parental consent is not required.
France 18 Under 18 permission from a court and both parents.
Georgia 18 16 with parental consent.[142]
Germany 18 16 with court permission and parental consent.
Gibraltar 18
Greece 18 Under 18 requires court permission, which may be given if there are serious reasons for such a marriage[137][143]
Hungary 18 16 with authorization from the guardianship authority[144]
Iceland 18 Under 18 with parental consent and permission of the Ministry of the Interior.
Ireland 18 Under 18 with the permission of the Circuit Family Court or High Court.[145][146] In December 2015, the government announced its intention to remove this exception.[147]
Italy 18 16 with court consent.
Latvia 18 16 with court and/or parental permission.
Liechtenstein 18 Required court decision to marry people who are under 18 years old.[148]
Lithuania 18 15 with court permission, minors can only marry below 15 if they are pregnant females with court permission.[149]
Luxembourg 18 New laws of 2014 fixed the marriageable at 18 for both sexes; prior to these regulations the age was 16 for females and 18 for males. The new laws still allow both sexes to obtain judicial consent to get married under 18.[150]
Macedonia 18 possible with age of 16 and court approval for male and female, their consent and their parents consent is needed
Malta 18 16 with parental consent, specifically for "a person who is subject to paternal authority or to tutorship". (However if this is unattainable, the court can provide the consent.)[151]
Netherlands 18 Under 18 with permission from the Minister of Justice; 16 with parental consent in case of pregnancy.[137][152]
Norway 18 16 with consent from parents (guardian) and permission from the County Governor. The County Governor may only give permission when there are 'special reasons for contracting a marriage'.[153][154]
Poland 18 16 for women with judicial approval.
Portugal 18 16 with parental consent (or if this is unattainable, the court can provide the consent).
Romania 18 16 with permission from the district's administrative board.[155]
Russia 18 16 in special circumstances, but different rules apply in some regions.[156]
Serbia 18 16 with court consent.
Slovakia 18 16 with court consent, with a serious reason such as pregnancy.[157]
Slovenia 18 15 with parental consent.
Spain 18 16 with court consent[158]
Sweden 18 Not possible to marry under the age of 18 since July 1st 2014.[159]
Switzerland 18 [160]
Turkey 18 17 with parental consent, 16 in special circumstances with court approval.
Ukraine 18 Age was equalized at 18 for both sexes in 2012, but courts may still grant permission from age 16 if there are special reasons.[161]
United Kingdom 18 (16 in Scotland)

England and Wales: 16 with parental consent or the permission of the court.[162]

Scotland: 16[163]

Northern Ireland: 16 with parental consent (with the court able to give consent in some cases).[164]

North America

Country Male consent Female consent Notes
Antigua & Barbuda 18 15 with parental consent.[165] Section 25 of The Marriage Act reads: "A marriage solemnized between persons either of whom is under the age of fifteen shall be null and void."[166]
Bahamas 18 The Marriage Act (1908) provides no minimum age with parental consent or with a Supreme Court ruling.[167]
Barbados 18 16 with parental consent.[168]
Belize 18 14 with parental consent.[169] Section 4.-(1) of the Marriage Act reads: A marriage solemnised between persons either of whom is under the age of fourteen shall be void.[170]
Canada 18/19 Marriage in Canada is governed by both federal and provincial law. The minimum age to marry is set at 16 by a federal statute, the Civil Marriage Act, which states: "No person who is under the age of 16 years may contract marriage."[171] In addition, the provinces may impose procedural requirements for the marriage of a minor who is over 16 but under the age of majority (18 or 19), such as requiring parental consent or permission from a judge. The Criminal Code also prohibits marriage under the age of 16: "Everyone who celebrates, aids or participates in a marriage rite or ceremony knowing that one of the persons being married is under the age of 16 years is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years."[172]
Costa Rica 18 15 with parental consent.[173]
Cuba 18 16 16 with parental consent males, 14 with parental consent females.[174]
Dominica 18 16 with parental consent.[175]
Dominican Republic 18 16 with parental consent.[176]
El Salvador 18 15 with parental consent males, 14 with parental consent females.[177]
Grenada 21 16 with parental consent.[178]
Guatemala 18 16 with judicial consent.[179][180]
Haiti 18 15 with parental consent females.[181]
Honduras 21 18 with parental consent males, 16 with parental consent females.[182]
Jamaica 18 16 with parental consent.[183]
Mexico 18 16 with parental consent males, 14 with parental consent females[184]
Nicaragua 18 16 with parental consent (under the new 2014 Código de Familia, Articles 54, 57(a) and 58(c))[185]
Panama 18 16 with parental consent males, 14 with parental consent females[186]
Puerto Rico 21 (Younger parties may obtain license in case of pregnancy or birth of child), and 18 with parental consent.[187]
Saint Kitts and Nevis 16 [188]
Saint Lucia 18 16 with parental consent[189]
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 16 15 [190]
Trinidad & Tobago 18 14 with parental consent males, 12 with parental consent females. For marriage with parental consent, ages differ depending on religion, with minimums as low as 14 years for males and 12 years for females.[191]
United States 18 (19 for Nebraska, 21 for Mississippi) Generally 18, but varies by state. Most states allow minors to marry with judicial and/or parental consent.


Country Male consent Female consent Notes
Australia 18 16 with permission from a court and both parents (only granted in exceptional circumstances).[192]
Fiji 18 16 with parental consent[193]
Kiribati 21 18 with parental consent.[194]
Micronesia 18 16 [195]
Nauru 18 16 [196]
New Zealand 18 16 with parental consent.[197]
Niue 21 19 18 with parental consent males, 15 with parental consent females.[198]
Palau 18 16 [199]
Papua New Guinea 21 [200]
Samoa 21 19 18 with parental consent males, 16 with parental consent females.[201]
Solomon Islands 18 15 with parental consent.[202]
Tonga 18 16 for females with parental consent.[203]
Tokelau 21 19 18 with parental consent males, 16 with parental consent females.[204]
Tuvalu 21 16 with parental consent.[205]
Vanuatu 21 18 with parental consent.[206]

South America

Country Male consent Female consent Notes
Argentina 18 16 with parental consent, lower with judicial consent in exceptional cases (Art 403 and 404 of Código Civil y Comercial de la Nación).[207]
Brazil 18 16 with parental or guardian consent.[208]
Bolivia 21 Males can marry at 16 and females at 14 with permission from parents or guardians. Exceptions can be made for pregnant minors.[209]
Chile 18 16 with parental consent.[210]
Colombia 18 14 with parental consent[211]
Ecuador 18 under with parental consent[212]
Guyana 18 16 with parental consent[213]
Paraguay 20 16 with parental consent[214]
Peru 18 16 with parental consent[215]
Suriname 21 17 with parental consent males, 15 with parental consent females.[216]
Uruguay 18 16 with parental consent[217]
Venezuela 18 14 for females and 16 for males with parental consent.[218]

By religion

Catholic Church

Male consent Female consent Notes
Catholic Church 16 14 Diriment impediment (can. 1083 § 1).[219] Conferences of Bishops can adopt a higher age for liceity[220] (§ 2). Marriage against the worldly power's directive need permission by the ordinary for liceity (can. 1071 § 1 no. 2), which in case of sensible and equal laws regarding marriage age is regularly not granted. The permission by the ordinary is also required in case of a marriage of a minor child (i.e. under 18 years old) when his parents are unaware of his marriage or if his parents reasonably oppose his marriage (can. 1071 § 1 no. 6).

Higher ages set by Conferences of Bishops

Male consent Female consent Notes
Canada 18 18 [221]
England and Wales 16 16 [222]
Gambia 18 16 [223]
Liberia 18 16 [223]
New Zealand 18 18 [221]
Nigeria see note Each bishop has the authority to set a higher prohibitive minimum age.[224]
Philippines 21 18 [225]
Sierra Leone 18 16 [223]


Quran [4:19] forbids marriage without consent. Puberty is the requirement for consent. The bride's consent is required for the marriage along with the consent of her parents. There is no exact minimum age for the bride or groom, it is left according to the practices of the culture, however the Quran establishes clear principles that maturity must first be achieved for marriage [2:221],[4:25]. After the marriage, the husband may have sex with her (if she is fit physically for sex) but the bride must give full consent. Quran [30:21] Among His proofs is that He created for you spouses from among yourselves, in order to have tranquility and contentment with each other, and He placed in your hearts love and care towards your spouses. In this, there are sufficient proofs for people who think.

See also


  1. Anti Arjava, Women and Law in Late Antiquity Oxford, 1996, pp. 29–37.
  2. John Noonan, "The Power to Choose" Viator 4 (1973) 419–34.
  3. J. Sheehan, "The formation and stability of marriage in fourteenth century England" Medieval Studies 33 (1971) 228–63.
  4. Bouchard, Constance B., 'Consanguinity and Noble Marriages in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries', Speculum, Vol. 56, No. 2 (Apr., 1981), pp. 269-70
  5. Greif, Avner (December 4, 2011). "Family Structure, Institutions, and Growth: The Origin and Implications of Western Corporatism" (PDF). Stanford University. pp. 2–3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-04. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  6. Heather, Peter. 1999. The Visigoths from the Migration Period to the Seventh Century: An Ethnographic Perspective. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. Pgs 142-148
  7. "medieval manoralism and the hajnal line". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  8. Hanawalt, Barbara A. 1986. The Ties That Bound: Peasant Families in Medieval England Oxford University Press, Inc. Pg 96
  9. Hanawalt, p. 98-100
  10. Levin, Eve. 1995. Sex and Society in the World of the Orthodox Slavs, 900-1700. Cornell University Press. pgs 96-98
  11. Mitterauer, Michael. 2010. Why Europe?: The Medieval Origins of Its Special Path. University of Chicago Press. Pg. 45-48, 77
  12. Stephen Robertson, University of Sydney, Australia. "Children and Youth in History | Age of Consent Laws". Retrieved 2010-06-30.
  13. Noonan, John (1967). "MARRIAGE CANONS from THE DECRETUM OF GRATIAN - BOOK FOUR - TITLE I - Betrothals and Marriages - C3". Archived from the original on 2016-01-17.
  14. Beatrice Gottlieb, The family in the Western World from the Black Death to the Industrial Age Oxford, 1993, pp. 55–56.
  15. "What Was and Is The Minimum Age For Marriage in Scotland?", National Records of Scotland
  16. 1 2 Laslett, Peter. 1965. The World We Have Lost. New York, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p 82
  17. Coontz, Stephanie. 2005. Marriage, a History: From Obedience to Intimacy, or How Love Conquered Marriage. New York, New York: Viking Press, Penguin Group Inc. p 125-129.
  18. Art. 144 of the Civil Code
  19. "Marrying Too Young : UNFPA Report" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  20. Aleksi Teivainen. "UN urges Finland to prohibit child marriage". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  21. "Republique Algerienne Democratique et Populaire" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  22. "Angola - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  23. 1 2 "Benin | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  24. "Botswana | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  25. "Burundi | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  26. "Cameroon - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  27. "Central African Republic | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  28. "Chad | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  29. "Congo-Kinshasa | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  30. "Djibouti | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  31. "Egypt - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  32. "Equatorial Guinea | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  33. "Eritrea | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  34. Do African Children Have Rights?. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  35. "Gabon | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  36. "Guinea-Bissau | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  37. "Guinea-Conakry | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  38. "Ivory Coast | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  39. "Kenya - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  40. "Lesotho - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  41. "Liberia - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  42. "Libya". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  43. "Mauritius - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  44. Archived October 20, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.
  45. "Mali - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  46. "Mauritania | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  47. "Morocco | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  48. "Mozambique - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  49. "Namibia - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  50. "Niger - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  51. "Nigeria | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  52. "Congo-Brazzaville (Republic of the Congo) | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  53. "Rwanda | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  54. "São Tomé and Príncipe - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  55. "Senegal - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  56. "Sierra Leone | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  57. "Somalia | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  58. Marriage Act, No. 25 of 1961, section 24.
  59. Marriage Act, No. 25 of 1961, section 26.
  60. Civil Union Act, No. 17 of 2006, section 1.
  61. Recognition of Customary Marriages Act, No. 120 of 1998, section 3.
  62. "Sudan, Republic of". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  63. Archived November 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
  64. "Swaziland - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  65. "Tanzania - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  66. "Togo - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  68. "Uganda | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  69. "Zambia - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  70. "Zimbabwe - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  71. "Civil Law of the Republic of Afghanistan (Civil Code) - Official Gazette No. 353, published 1977/01/05 (1355/10/15 A.P.)". 1977-01-05. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  72. "Afghanistan Marriage : Report" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  73. "Bangladesh". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  74. "Child Marriage is a Death Sentence for Many Young Girls" (PDF). UNICEF. 2012. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  75. "Bhutan - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  76. "Brunei - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  77. "Cambodia | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  78. 中华人民共和国婚姻法 (in Chinese). 中国法制出版社. 2006. p. 2. ISBN 978-7-80226-403-8. Retrieved 2012-03-06.
  79. "Department of Justice: Bilingual Laws Information System". Retrieved 2013-01-14.
  80. "Special Requirements and Supporting Documents". Giving of a Notice of Intended Marriage. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government. January 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
  81. 1 2 3 "See Chapter VI, Conclusions and Recommendations, Proposal To Amend The Prohibition Of Child Marriage Act, 2006 & Other Allied Laws (Govt of India)" (PDF). February 2008. p. 37. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  82. "Indonesia". 1997-02-12. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
  83. Curtis, Glen E.; Hooglund, Eric (2008). Iran: a country study (PDF). Library of Congress, Federal Research Division. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-8444-1187-3. Retrieved 2014-10-15.
  84. Abrahamian, History of Modern Iran, (2008), p. 190
  85. "Iraq, Republic of". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  86. "Israel - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  87. "American Citizen Services | Embassy of the United States Tokyo, Japan". 2012-10-17. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
  88. "Jordan - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  89. "Kazakhstan - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  90. "Kuwait, State of". 1962-11-11. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
  91. "Kyrgyzstan - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  92. "Laos | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  93. "Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im". 2015-09-27. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  94. "Marriage - Knowledge Base". Lawyerment. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  95. "Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im". 2015-09-27. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  96. "Myanmar | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  97. "Nepal - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  98. "North Korea - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  99. "Oman - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  101. Sindh Child Marriage Restraint Act 2013
  102. Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929
  103. Nasrullah M et al., Bielefeld University, Germany, Girl Child Marriage and Its Effect on Fertility in Pakistan: Findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, Matern Child Health J., 12 April 2013, PMID 23580067
  104. Social customs: ‘Nearly half of Pakistani women are married before the age of 18’ Tribune / IHT (The New York Times), August 31, 2013
  107. "Gender Equality in Mongolia | Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI)". Retrieved 2013-01-14.
  108. "Philippines | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  109. "Qatar - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  110. "Laws fail to stop child marriage". Al Jazeera America. Al Jazeera. 19 January 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  111. "Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im". 2015-09-27. Archived from the original on November 30, 2013. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  112. "Syria - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  113. "Article Content". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  114. "Article Content". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  115. "Tajikistan - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  116. "Thailand - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  117. "Timor-Leste | Factsheets". 2014-06-06. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  118. "Turkmenistan | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  119. "United Arab Emirates - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  120. "Uzbekistan - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  121. "Vietnam | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  122. "Yemen - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  123. "The Convention of Belem do Para and the Istanbul Convention : A response to violence against women worldwide" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  124. "Gender Equality in Albania | Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI)". Retrieved 2013-01-14.
  125. "Albania - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  126. "Children of Andorra". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  127. "Armenia Raises Minimum Marriage Age to 18". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  128. "UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: Second Periodic Reports of States Parties Due in 2000, Armenia". UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC). See section 48
  129. "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2014". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  130. "Austrian Foreign Ministry -> Embassy -> Canberra -> Marriage in Austria". Retrieved 2013-01-14.
  131. "Семейный кодекс Азербайджанской Республики (утвержден Законом Азербайджанской Республики от 28 декабря 1999 года № 781-IQ) (с изменениями и дополнениями по состоянию на 17.10.2014 г.) - ПАРАГРАФ-WWW". 2014-10-17. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  132. "Child Marriage in Azerbaijan (Overview)" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  133. "Youth Policy Fact Sheet : Belarus" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  134. Articles 144, 145 and 148 of the Civil Code of Belgium.
  135. "Family Code : General Provisions" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  136. 1 2 3 "Council of Europe Family Policy Database : 4. Social Policy and family Law : Marriage, Divorce and Parenthood" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-10-10. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  137. "Youth Policy Fact Sheet : Cyprus" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  138. "Občanský zákoník (nový) - č. 89/2012 Sb. - Aktuální znění". Zákony pro lidi. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  139. Riigi Infosüsteemi Amet. "Formalizing a marriage". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  140. "Contraction of marriage". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  141. "Getting Married in Greece". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  142. "Current Legal Framework: Marriage or Child Marriage in Hungary". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  143. "Legal prerequisites for marriage". Ireland: Citizens Information Board. 30 September 2014. Age requirement. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
  144. "Family Law Act 1995 (revised and annotated)". Revised Acts. Ireland: Law Reform Commission. 22 April 2015. p. Sections 31, 33, 38. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
  145. "Govt agrees to close marriage loophole for minors -". RTÉ News. Ireland: RTÉ. 15 December 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  147. "Powered by Google Docs" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-01-14.
  148. "Mariage et adoption s'ouvrent aux couples de personnes du même sexe". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  149. "Marriage Act, Section 3 "Restrictions on Marriage"". Retrieved 2016-04-08.
  150. "free online translation Dutch Civil Code Book 1 family law". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  151. "LOV 1991-07-04 nr 47: Lov om ekteskap". Retrieved 2008-10-27.
  152. "The Marriage Act" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-10-27.
  153. "Art. 272 Noul cod civil Vârsta matrimonială Condiţiile de fond pentru încheierea căsătoriei Încheierea căsătoriei | Noul Cod Civil actualizat 2015 - Legea 287/2009". 2011-10-29. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  154. helplinelaw. "Russia Marriage Procedure In Russia, Lawyers, Law Firms Lawyer, Injury, Attorney in Russia". Retrieved 2013-01-14.
  155. "Slovakia - Marriage - Cohabitation, Family, Rights, and Law - JRank Articles". Retrieved 2013-01-14.
  156. "Spain raises marrying age from 14 to 16". BBC News. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  158. "SR 210 Art. 94 A. Capacity to marry (Swiss Civil Code)". Retrieved 2013-01-14.
  159. "New Ukrainian law raises marriage age for women - News - Society - The Voice of Russia: News, Breaking news, Politics, Economics, Business, Russia, International current events, Expert opinion, podcasts, Video". 2012-04-08. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  160. Archived April 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  161. "National Records of Scotland - Getting Married in Scotland - What Was and Is The Minimum Age For Marriage in Scotland?". Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  162. Archived September 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  163. "Antigua & Barbuda - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  164. "Chapter 261 : The Marriage Act : Antigua and Barbuda" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  165. "Bahamas - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  166. "Barbados - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  167. "Belize - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  168. "Marriage Act Chapter 174 : Belize" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  169. "Civil Marriage Act". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  170. "Criminal Code". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  171. "Costa Rica - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  172. "Cuba - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  173. "Dominica - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  174. "Dominican Republic - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  175. "El Salvador - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  176. "Grenada - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  177. "Guatemala ups marriage age to 18 – Latin Correspondent". 2015-11-09. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  178. "Guatemalan congress raises minimum age for marriage to 18". 2015-11-05. Archived from the original on 2015-11-21. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  179. "Haiti - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  180. "Honduras - Marriage Information, Embassy of the United States Tegucigalpa Honduras". Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  181. "Jamaica - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  182. "Mexico - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  183. "Codigo de la Ninez y la Adolescencia" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  184. "Panama - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  185. "Marriage Laws of the Fifty States, District of Columbia and Puerto Rico". * Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 2009-11-10.
  186. "Saint Kitts and Nevis | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  187. "Saint Lucia | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  188. "Saint Vincent and the Grenadines | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  189. "Trinidad & Tobago - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  190. Commonwealth Marriage Act 1961 s.10-21
  191. "Fiji legal marriage age now 18". 2009-07-17. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  192. "Kiribati | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  193. "Micronesia | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  194. "Nauru | Oceania". Archived from the original on 2016-01-06. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  195. "How to Get a Marriage Licence -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  196. "Niue | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  197. . Factsheets; Factsheets Check |url= value (help). Retrieved 2016-02-23. Missing or empty |title= (help); External link in |publisher= (help)
  198. "Child laws less known - The National". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  199. "Samoa | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  200. "Solomon Islands | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  201. "Tonga | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  202. Marriage Regulations 1986, ss. 6,7.
  203. "Tuvalu | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  204. "Vanuatu | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  205. "Ministerio de Economía y Finanzas Públicas - Argentina". InfoLEG. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  206. "Brazil | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  207. "Getting Married in Bolivia". Embassy of the United States, La Pas, Bolivia. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  208. "Chile - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  209. "Colombia - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  210. "Ecuador - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  211. "Guyana | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  212. "Paraguay - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  213. "Peru - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  214. "Suriname | Factsheets". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  215. "Uruguay - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  216. "Venezuela - Factsheets -". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  217. "Code of Canon Law - IntraText". Retrieved 2015-11-20.
  218. While a diriment impediment invalidates a marriage, here the marriage if contracted nevertheless will be valid but illicit.
  219. 1 2 Canon Law Annotated, Caparros, et al., pp. 1669 and 1717.
  220. Canon Law Annotated, Caparros, et al., p. 1677, and Canon Law Digest, v. 11 (1983–1985), p. 263.
  221. 1 2 3 Canon Law Annotated, Caparros, et al., p. 1689
  222. Canon Law Annotated, Caparros, et al., p. 1741.
  223. Canon Law Annotated, Caparros, et al., p. 1762, and Canon Law Digest, v. 11 (1983–1985), p. 264.

External links

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/30/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.