List of Catholic liturgical rites and particular churches
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The liturgical rites and particular churches of the Catholic Church are closely related yet distinct. The term church refers to a hierarchically ordered assembly of the faithful, whereas the term rite refers to a liturgical, theological, and spiritual heritage. Therefore, even though particular churches and liturgical rites are often closely interrelated, churches and rites must for the sake of clarity be listed separately.
In Catholic teachings a church is an assembly of the faithful, hierarchically ordered, both in the entire world – the Catholic Church, or in a certain territory – a particular Church. To be a sacrament (a sign) of the Mystical Body of Christ in the world, a Church must have both a head and members (Col. 1:18). The sacramental sign of Christ the Head is the sacred hierarchy – the bishops, priests and deacons. More specifically, it is the local bishop, with his priests and deacons gathered around and assisting him in his office of teaching, sanctifying and governing (Mt. 28:19–20; Titus 1:4–9). The sacramental sign of the Mystical Body is the Christian faithful. Thus the Church of Christ is fully present sacramentally (by way of a sign) wherever there is a sign of Christ the Head, a bishop and those who assist him, and a sign of Christ's Body, Christian faithful. Each diocese is therefore a particular Church. On the worldwide level the sign of Christ the Head is the Pope and, to be Catholic, particular churches, whether local churches or autonomous ritual churches must be in communion with this sign of Christ the Head, Through this communion with Peter and his successors the Church becomes a universal sacrament of salvation in all times and places, even to the end of the age (Mt. 28:20).
The word "church" is applied to the Catholic Church as a whole, which is seen as a single church: the multiplicity of peoples and cultures within the Church and the great diversity of gifts, offices, conditions and ways of life of its members are not opposed to the Church's unity. In this sense of "church", the list of churches in the Catholic Church has only one member, the Catholic Church itself (comprising Roman and Eastern Churches).
Within the Catholic Church there are local particular churches, of which dioceses are the most familiar form. Other forms include territorial abbacies, apostolic vicariates and apostolic prefectures. The Code of Canon Law states: "Particular Churches, in which and from which the one and only Catholic Church exists, are principally dioceses. Unless the contrary is clear, the following are equivalent to a diocese: a territorial prelature, a territorial abbacy, a vicariate apostolic, a prefecture apostolic and a permanently established apostolic administration." A list of Catholic dioceses, of which on 31 December 2011 there were 2,834, is given at List of Catholic dioceses (alphabetical).
Within the Catholic Church there are also aggregations of local particular churches that share a specific liturgical, theological, spiritual, and canonical heritage, distinguished from other heritages on the basis of culture and historical circumstances. These are known as autonomous ("sui iuris") churches. The 1990 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches defines such a church as follows: "A group of Christ's faithful hierarchically linked in accordance with law and given express or tacit recognition by the supreme authority of the Church is in this Code called an autonomous Church." There are 24 such autonomous Catholic churches, one "Western" and 23 "Eastern", a distinction by now more historical than geographical. Although each of them has its own specific heritage, they are all in communion with the Pope in Rome. See the article on the Eastern Catholic Churches for a list of the 23 such churches. The total number of 24 is obtained by adding to these the Latin Church.
Particular churches sui iuris
- Latin liturgical tradition:
- Alexandrian liturgical tradition:
- Antiochian liturgical tradition:
- Armenian liturgical tradition:
- Chaldean or East Syrian liturgical tradition:
- Byzantine liturgical tradition:
- Albanian Byzantine Catholic Church
- Belarusian Greek Catholic Church
- Bulgarian Greek Catholic Church
- Byzantine Catholic Church of Croatia and Serbia
- Greek Byzantine Catholic Church
- Hungarian Greek Catholic Church
- Italo-Albanian Catholic Church
- Macedonian Greek Catholic Church
- Melkite Greek Catholic Church
- Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic
- Russian Greek Catholic Church
- Ruthenian Catholic Church
- Slovak Greek Catholic Church
- Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
The Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches defines "rite" as follows: "Rite is the liturgical, theological, spiritual and disciplinary heritage, distinguished according to peoples' culture and historical circumstances, that finds expression in each autonomous church's way of living the faith."
In this sense of the word "rite", the list of rites within the Catholic Church is identical with that of the autonomous churches, each of which has its own heritage, which distinguishes that church from others, and membership of a church involves participation in its liturgical, theological, spiritual and disciplinary heritage. However, "church" refers to the people, and "rite" to their heritage.
The Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches states that the rites with which it is concerned (but which it does not list) spring from the following five traditions: Alexandrian, Antiochian, Armenian, Chaldean, and Constantinopolitan. Since it covers only Eastern Catholic churches and rites, it does not mention those of Western (Latin) tradition.
The word "rite" is sometimes used with reference only to liturgy, ignoring the theological, spiritual and disciplinary elements in the heritage of the churches. In this sense, "rite" has been defined as "the whole complex of the (liturgical) services of any Church or group of Churches".
Between "rites" in this exclusively liturgical sense and the autonomous churches there is no strict correspondence, such as there is when "rite" is understood as in the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches. The 14 autonomous churches of Byzantine tradition have a single liturgical rite, but vary mainly in liturgal language, while on the contrary the single Latin Church has several distinct liturgical rites, whose universal main form, the Roman Rite, is practised in the local vernacular or in Latin, as in the Tridentine use).
Latin (Western) rites
- Roman Rite
- Gallican rites
- Catholic Order Rites
- Benedictine Rite
- Carmelite Rite (only by some communities or members of the order)
- Carthusian Rite (a Western rite of the Gallican family)
- Cistercian Rite
- Dominican Rite (only by some communities or members of the order)
- Premonstratensian (Norbertine) Rite
- Rites in a broad sense (not distinct from the Roman Rite)
- Pre-Tridentine Mass (the various pre-1570 ordinary forms of the Roman Rite)
- Gallican Rite ('Gaul', i.e. France)
- Celtic Rite (British Isles)
- African Rite
- Local Latin Rites or Uses
- "Catholic Culture Church Definition". CatholicCulture.org. Retrieved 2011-02-14.
- "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hierarchy". NewAdvent.org. Retrieved 2011-02-15.
- "The Hierarchy of the Catholic Church". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. Retrieved 2011-02-14.
- "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Mystical Body of the Church". NewAdvent.org. Retrieved 2011-02-14.
- "CATHOLIC RITES AND CHURCHES". EWTN. Retrieved 2011-02-14.
- "Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on some aspects of the Church understood as communion". Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger. Retrieved 2011-02-14.
- Catechism of the Catholic Church, 814
- Code of Canon Law, canon 638
- Vatican, Annuario Pontificio 2012, p. 1142.
- Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 27
- Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 28 §1
- Lonappan Arangassery, A Handbook on Catholic Eastern Churches 1999, p. 52
- Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 28 §2
- Griffin, Patrick (1912). "Rites". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 2011-02-14.