Temperate coniferous forest
Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. In most temperate coniferous forests, evergreen conifers predominate, while some are a mix of conifers and broadleaf evergreen trees and/or broadleaf deciduous trees. Temperate evergreen forests are common in the coastal areas of regions that have mild winters and heavy rainfall, or inland in drier climates or mountain areas. Coniferous forests can be found in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Asia. Many species of tree inhabit these forests including cedar, cypress, Douglas fir, fir, juniper, pine, podocarpus, spruce, redwood and yew. The understory also contains a wide variety of herbaceous and shrub species.
Structurally, these forests are rather simple, generally consisting of two layers: an overstory and understory. Some forests may support an intermediate layer of shrubs. Pine forests support a herbaceous understory that is generally dominated by grasses and herbaceous perennials, and are often subject to ecologically important wildfires.
Temperate rain forests occur only in seven regions around the world: the Pacific temperate rain forests of the Pacific Northwest, the Valdivian temperate rain forests of southwestern South America, the rain forests of New Zealand and Tasmania, northwest Europe (small pockets in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Iceland and a somewhat larger area in Norway), southern Japan, and the eastern Black Sea-Caspian Sea region of Turkey and Georgia to northern Iran. The moist conditions of temperate rain forests generally support an understory of mosses, ferns and some shrubs. Temperate rain forests can be temperate coniferous forests or temperate broadleaf and mixed forests.
The temperate coniferous rain forests around the world sustain the highest levels of biomass in any terrestrial ecosystem and are notable for trees of massive proportions, including coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), Alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides) and kauri (Agathis australis). These forests are quite rare, occurring in small areas of North America, southwestern South America and northern New Zealand. The Klamath-Siskiyou forests of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon is known for its rich variety of plant and animal species, including many endemic species.
Temperate coniferous forest ecoregions
|Alps conifer and mixed forests||Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia, Switzerland|
|Altai montane forest and forest steppe||China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia|
|Caledon conifer forests||United Kingdom|
|Carpathian montane conifer forests||Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine|
|Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests||China, Russia|
|East Afghan montane conifer forests||Afghanistan, Pakistan|
|Elburz Range forest steppe||Iran|
|Helanshan montane conifer forests||China|
|Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests||China|
|Hokkaido montane conifer forests||Japan|
|Honshu alpine conifer forests||Japan|
|Khangai Mountains conifer forests||Mongolia, Russia|
|Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests||Algeria, Morocco, Spain, Tunisia|
|Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests||China, India, Bhutan|
|Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests||Turkey|
|Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests||China|
|Qilian Mountains conifer forests||China|
|Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests||China|
|Sayan montane conifer forests||Mongolia, Russia|
|Scandinavian coastal conifer forests||Norway|
|Tian Shan montane conifer forests||China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan|
|Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests||Bhutan, India, Nepal|
|Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests||India, Nepal, Pakistan|
|Araucaria montane forests||Argentina, Chile|
|Austrocedrus forests||Argentina, Chile|
|Fitzroya forests||Argentina, Chile|
|Araucaria moist forest||Brazil, Argentina|
In Russia, a coniferous forest, specifically pine or spruce forest is known as bor (Russian: бор). Bors typically grow on well-drained sandy soils, sandy clay soils and mild loams. The names of several Russian historical buildings and localities refer to the word "bor" as the original place where they were built, such as Borovitskaya Tower or Church of the Savior on Bor.
- Waring, Richard H. 2002. Temperate coniferous forest. Pages 560–565. In: Volume 2, The Earth system: biological and ecological dimensions of global environmental change. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester. (Accessed: April 18, 2012)
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