Solun-Voden dialect

Classification of Slavic dialects in Macedonia (region) according to the point of view, prevalent in the Republic of Macedonia
Yat border in the Bulgarian language, splitting the Solun-Voden dialect in two

The Solun-Voden dialect,[1] Lower Vardar dialect,[2] or Kukush-Voden dialect[3] is a South Slavic dialect spoken in parts of the Greek periphery of Central Macedonia, and the vicinity of Gevgelija and Dojran in the Republic of Macedonia. It has been treated as part of both Macedonian[4] and Bulgarian[3] dialectology.

Dialect area

The dialect is named after Slavic toponyms for the cities of Thessaloniki (Solun), Edessa (Voden) and Kilkis (Kukush), or after the river Vardar. In terms of Macedonian dialectology, the dialect is classified as a member of the south-eastern subgroup of the Eastern and Southern group of Macedonian dialects,[5] spoken in an area that also covers Veria, Giannitsa,[6] and the towns of Dojran and Gevgelija in the Republic of Macedonia.[5]

In terms of Bulgarian dialectology,[3] Solun dialect is a separate Eastern Bulgarian dialect, spoken in the northern part of today's Thessaloniki regional unit in Greece. Solun and Drama-Ser dialects are grouped as western Rup dialects, part of the large Rup dialect massif of Rhodopes and Thrace which are transitional between the Western and Eastern Bulgarian dialects.[3] The dialect spoken around Voden and Kukush as well as in the region of the Lower Vardar to the west of Thessaloniki is characterized as Western Bulgarian Kukush-Voden dialect,[3] which shows some connections with Eastern Bulgarian dialects like the reduction and absorption of unstressed vowels and retention of the sound x /x/.[7]

Suho-Visoka sub-dialect

The Suho-Visoka sub-dialect is spoken in and around the city of Salonika. The dialect is also found in the town of Lagkadas. The dialect is best preserved in the villages of Sochos (Сухо, Suho), Osa (Висока, Visoka), Nikopoli (Зарово, Zarovo), Xylopoli (Негован, Negovan), Levchohori (Клепе, Klepe), Klisali (Клисали, Klisali) and Assiros (Гвоздово, Gvozdovo). The subdialect has been referred to as Bogdanski Govor (Macedonian: Богдански говор), in reference to its position on the "Bogdan" mountain.

One of the first researchers of the Slavic dialects in this part of Macedonia, Slovenian linguist Vatroslav Oblak described the historical development of the Bulgarian phonology and morphology, based mainly on the dialect of Suho and the adjoining area. He noted that the villages Suho, Zarovo and Visoka formed a center of nasalization.[8]

Phonological characteristics

Civil War experiences
Man from Cakoni, Voden region (today Chrysa, Almopia) speaking in the Solun-Voden dialect

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Morphological characteristic

Other specific characteristics

Comparison of the Solun-Voden dialect with Standard Bulgarian and Standard Macedonian
Parameter Solun-Voden dialect Standard Bulgarian (based on Eastern Bulgarian) Standard Macedonian Dupnitsa dialect Samokov dialect English
Proto-Slavic *tʲ/*dʲ – Old Church Slavonic щ/жд (ʃt/ʒd) mixed, predominantly ќ/ѓ (c/ɟ), but also щ/жд (ʃt/ʒd)леща/меѓу щ/жд (ʃt/ʒd)леща/между ќ/ѓ (c/ɟ)леќа/меѓу щ/жд (ʃt/ʒd)леща/между щ/жд (ʃt/ʒd)леща/между lentils/between
Proto-Slavic *ɡt/kt – Old Church Slavonic щ (ʃt) ќ (c)ноќ щ (ʃt)нощ ќ (c)ноќ щ (ʃt)нощ щ (ʃt)нощ night
Old Church Slavonic ѣ (yat) mixed, я/е (ʲa/ɛ)бял/бели in the east, е (ɛ)бел/бели in the west я/е (ʲa/ɛ)бял/бели е (ɛ)бел/бели е (ɛ)бел/бели е (ɛ)бел/бели white
Old Church Slavonic ѫ (yus), approx. ɔ̃ ъ (ə)мъж, rarely у (u) - пупка ъ (ə)мъж а (a)маж а (a)маж а (a)маж man
Old Church Slavonic ъ (ə) о (ɔ)сон ъ (ə)сън о (ɔ)сон о (ɔ)сон а (a)сан dream
Old Church Slavonic лъ/ль ъл (əl)сълза лъ/ъл (/əl)сълза oл (ɔl)солза vocalic l/ъ (ə)слза/съза depending on region у (u)суза tear
Old Church Slavonic x /x/ Preservedбях, but often omitted in the beginning of words - убаво Preservedбях, хубаво Lost or replaced by ф/в (f/v)бев, убаво Preservedбех, хубаво Preservedбех, хубаво was, nice
Vowel reduction Yes Yes No No No
Definite article Single definite article – момчето Single definite article – момчето Triple definite article – момчето, момчево, момчено Single definite article – момчето Single definite article – момчето the boy
Ending of verbs in 1st person sing. present time only амчитам, пишувам а (я) – 1st and 2nd conjugation, ам (ям) – 3rd – чета, пиша only амчитам, пишувам а – 1st and 2nd conjugation, ам – 3rd – чета, пиша only (и/е)мчетем, пишем (I) read, (I) write
Formation of past perfect tense бех/бях + past participle – бех писал, бях молил бях + past participle – бях писал, бях молил имам + past passive aorist participle – имам пишано, имам молено бeх + past participle – бех писал, бех молил бех + past participle – бех писал, бeх молил (I) had read, (I) had written
Word stress Dynamic - доби́ток, пера́м Dynamic - доби́тък, пера́ Fixed antepenultimate - до́биток, пе́рам Dynamicдоби́ток, пера́ Dynamicдоби́ток, пере́м cattle, (I) wash

Typical Words


  1. [author missing] Фонолошкиот и прозодискиот систем на говорот на селото Негован (Солунско). ПрилОЛЛН, МАНУ, 1991, XVI, 2, стр. 15-32.
  2. Romanski, St. Долновардарският говор. — Мак. преглед, 1932, № 1, 99—140
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Стойков (Stoykov), Стойко (2002) [1962]. Българска диалектология (Bulgarian dialectology) (in Bulgarian). София: Акад. изд. "Проф. Марин Дринов". ISBN 954-430-846-6. OCLC 53429452.
  4. Božidar Vidoeski, Фонолошкиот систем на говорот на селото Чеган (Воденско): инвентар на фонолошките единици. МЈ, 1978, XXIX, стр. 61-73.
  5. 1 2 Бојковска, Стојка; Лилјана Минова - Ѓуркова, Димитар Пандев, Живко Цветковски (December 2008). Саветка Димитрова, ed. Општа граматика на македонскиот јазик (in Macedonian). Скопје: АД Просветно Дело. OCLC 888018507. Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  6. [author missing]. Акцентските системи во македонските дијалекти во Грција (Еѓејска Македонија) и Јужна Албанија. МЈ, 1985-1986, XXXVI-XXXVII, стр. 19-45.
  7. Mladenov, Stefan. Geschichte der bulgarischen Sprache, Berlin-Leipzig, 1929, § 209.
  8. Облакъ, Ватрославъ (1894). "Приносъ къмъ българската граматика" (PDF). Сборникъ за народни умотворения, наука и книжнина. XI: 517–519. Retrieved 2016-08-05.
  9. All examples are in IPA transcription, see Ternes, Elmar; Tatjana Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999). "Bulgarian". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 55–57. ISBN 0-521-63751-1. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
  10. Шклифов, Благой и Екатерина Шклифова, Български диалектни текстове от Егейска Македония, София 2003, с. 18 (Shklifov, Blagoy and Ekaterina Shklifova. Bulgarian dialect texts from Aegean Macedonia Sofia 2003, p. 18)
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