Olympic Stadium (London)

London Stadium
Olympic Stadium

The stadium in July 2015
Former names London 2012 Olympic Stadium
The Stadium
Location Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park
London, E20
Coordinates 51°32′19″N 0°00′59″W / 51.53861°N 0.01639°W / 51.53861; -0.01639Coordinates: 51°32′19″N 0°00′59″W / 51.53861°N 0.01639°W / 51.53861; -0.01639
Public transit London Underground London Overground Crossrail Docklands Light Railway National Rail Stratford
Docklands Light Railway National Rail Stratford International
Owner Greater London Authority
Operator London Stadium 185
Capacity Athletics layout: 60,000
Football layout: 60,000
Cricket layout: 60,000
Rugby layout: 60,000
Concert layout (and olympics 2012): 80,000[1]
Field size 115 by 74 yards (105 by 68 m)
Surface Grass (Desso GrassMaster)
Track (Mondo)[2]
Broke ground 2007
Built 2008–2011
Opened 2011
Renovated 2013–2016
Construction cost £486 million[3]
(£534 million in 2016 pounds[4])
Architect Populous
Structural engineer Buro Happold
Services engineer Buro Happold
Main contractors Sir Robert McAlpine, Balfour Beatty (Conversion)
West Ham United (2016–)
British Athletics (2015–)

London Stadium,[5] commonly known as the Olympic Stadium, is a stadium in Stratford, London, England, at Marshgate Lane in the Lower Lea Valley. It was constructed to serve as the home stadium for the 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics, hosting the track and field events and opening and closing ceremonies. It was subsequently renovated as a multi-purpose stadium, with its primary tenants being West Ham United Football Club and British Athletics. The stadium is 6 12 miles (10.5 km) from Central London.

Land preparation for the stadium began in mid-2007, with the official construction start date on 22 May 2008, although piling works for the foundation began four weeks before. The stadium held its first public event in March 2012, serving as the finish line for a celebrity running event organised by the National Lottery.[6] Following the Paralympics the stadium was used intermittently whilst under renovation, before re-opening in July 2016 with a capacity of 60,000.[7] The decision to make West Ham United the main tenants was controversial, with the initial tenancy process having to be rerun.

As well as its regular tenants, the stadium will continue to be used for a series of special events. The stadium hosted several 2015 Rugby World Cup matches, one test match of a tri-series between England Rugby League and New Zealand Rugby League in November 2015, and will host both the 2017 IAAF World Championships in Athletics and the 2017 World ParaAthletics Championships, the first time both events have been held in the same location consecutively. The stadium can also hold concerts with up to 80,000 spectators, and due to its oval shape and relocatable seating, it is suitable to host other sporting events such as Cricket or Baseball.

Design and construction

The Stadium in 2012, just before the Olympic Games

Olympic design

Design Brief

During London's bid for the games, promotional materials featured a main stadium with a roof "designed to wrap itself around the venue like muscles supporting the body.",[8] however at that time there had been no formal design brief agreed. While the bidding process was ongoing West Ham had talks[9] with the ODA about contributing to the development of a multi-purpose stadium, should London win the bid.[10] The government preferred to produce a brief for an athletics only stadium which would be largely disassembled after the games with the lower tier remaining in place as a permanent athletics facility to replace the Crystal Palace National Sports Centre. With the original Olympic design finalised and being built, the government had a change of heart and a bidding process for a multi-sport post-Olympic legacy was launched.

On 13 October 2006, London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games confirmed that it had selected Sir Robert McAlpine and Populous to start exclusive negotiations with, to fulfil the eventual design and build contract of the new Olympic Stadium after no other organisations met the bidding criteria.[11][12] The stadium design was launched on 7 November 2007.

Structure details

The construction of the stadium commenced three months early in May 2008 after the bowl of the stadium had been dug out and the area cleared.[13][14] The building of the stadium was completed in March 2011 reportedly on time and under budget,[15] with the athletics track laid in October 2011.[3]

Exploded view of the stadium's layers

The stadium's track and field arena is excavated out of the soft clay found on the site, around which is permanent seating for 25,000, built using concrete "rakers". The natural slope of the land is incorporated into the design, with warm-up and changing areas dug into a semi-basement position at the lower end. Spectators enter the stadium via a podium level, which is level with the top of the permanent seating bowl. A demountable lightweight steel and pre-cast concrete upper tier is built up from this "bowl" to accommodate a further 55,000 spectators.[16]

The Olympic Stadium interior

The stadium is made up of different tiers; during the Games the stadium was able to hold 80,000 spectators. The base tier, which allows for 25,000 seats, is a sunken elliptical bowl that is made up of low-carbon-dioxide concrete; this contains 40 percent less embodied carbon than conventional concrete.[17] The foundation of the base level is 5,000 piles reaching up to 20 metres (66 ft) deep. From there, there is a mixture of driven cast in situ piles, continuous flight auger piles, and vibro concrete columns. The second tier, which holds 55,000 seats, is 315 m (1,033 ft) long, 256 m (840 ft) wide, and 60 m (197 ft) high.[18] The stadium contains just under a quarter of the steel as the Olympic Stadium in Beijing for the 2008 Summer Olympics, approximately 10,700 tonnes (11,800 short tons). In addition to the minimal use of steel, which makes it 75 percent lighter, the stadium also uses high-yield large diameter pipes which were surplus on completion of North Sea Gas pipeline projects, recycled granite, and many of the building products were transported using trains and barges rather than by lorry.[19]

The Olympic Stadium during the 2012 Summer Olympics

A wrap, funded by Dow Chemical Company in return for being able to advertise on the wrap until 26 June 2012, covered the exterior during the Olympics. The wrap was made from polyester and polyethylene, and printed using UV curable inks.[20] The wrap was made of pieces of material that covered 20 metres (66 ft) high and 900 metres (1,000 yd) in length. The final design for the wrap consisted of 2.5-metre-wide (8 ft) fabric panels, twisted at 90-degree angles to allow entry to the stadium at the bottom of the structure, and held in place with tensioned cables.[21][22]

To allow for fast on-site assembly, compression truss and roof column connections were bolted; this enabled easy disassembling of the roof structure after the closing ceremonies.[23] The cable-supported roof structure covers approximately two-thirds of the stadium's seating.[24] Reaching 70 metres (230 ft) above the field of play, the stadium roof held 14 lighting towers, or paddles, that collectively contained a total of 532 individual 2 kW floodlight lamps. The lights were first officially switched on in December 2010 by Prime Minister David Cameron and London Mayor Boris Johnson.[25] During the games, the towers were fitted with additional ceremony lighting, and 4 of the 14 towers held large temporary video screens.[26]

Stadium interior

Lighting paddle which was connected to every seat (left) and what it can create (right).

The stadium was equipped with a nine lane Mondo 400 metres (1,300 feet) athletics track.[27] The turf in the stadium was grown in Scunthorpe and was a mix of perennial ryegrass, smooth stalk meadow grass and fescue grass seeds. It took 360 rolls of grass to cover the infield and was laid in March 2011.[28] The track was designed by Italian company Mondo, and was their latest version of the Mondotrack FTX.[2][27][29]


The stadium's 80,000 seats had a black and white 'fragment' theme that matched the overall branding design used by LOCOG for London 2012. The lines all centred on the finish line in the stadium.[22] The seats were made in Luton and were fitted between May and December 2010.[31] During the Games, the Stadium's grandstands contained a lighting system developed by Tait Technologies that allowed them to function as a giant video screen. Individual "paddles" containing nine LED pixels each were installed between each seat of the stadium, which were controlled via a central system to display video content wrapped around the stadium. The system was primarily intended for use during the ceremonies of the Olympics and Paralympics – over 70 minutes of animated content were used during the Olympics' opening ceremony.[32]


The stadium design received a mixed response from the media, with reviews ranging from "magnificent" to a "bowl of blancmange".[33] The design was promoted as example of "sustainable development", but some architecture critics have questioned both its aesthetic value and suitability as a national icon – especially when compared to Beijing National Stadium. For example, Ellis Woodman, Building Design's architecture critic, said of the design: "The principle of it being dismountable is most welcome... it demonstrates an obvious interest in establishing an economy of means and as such is the antithesis of the 2008 Olympic stadium in Beijing. But while that's an achievement, it's not an architectural achievement. In design terms what we're looking at is pretty underwhelming." He went on to criticise the procurement and design processes – stating of the latter that it should have been subject to an architectural competition.[34] This view was echoed by Tom Dyckhoff, The Times's architecture critic, who described the design as "tragically underwhelming" and commented that the "architecture of the 2008 and 2012 Olympics will, in years to come, be seen by historians as a "cunning indicator of the decline of the West and the rise of the East".[35] Despite the criticism the Olympic Stadium was nominated for the 2012 Stirling Prize in architecture losing out to the Sainsbury Laboratory at the University of Cambridge.[36][37]

Amanda Baillieu writing in Building Design challenged the designer's claims that the stadium is environmentally sustainable and good value for money. Instead, it is asserted that the reality will be the opposite. In particular, she claimed that:

Stadium island

The Olympic Stadium site under construction in October 2009

The stadium site is on former industrial land between the River Lea (which rejoins the Navigation below Old Ford Lock), the City Mill River, and the Old Pudding Mill River; parts of the Bow Back Rivers.[40] Another branch of this system, St Thomas' Creek, 200 metres (660 feet) to the south, completes an "island" surrounded by water.[22][41] 200 metres (660 feet) to the east is the Waterworks River; with the London Aquatics Centre on its eastern bank. This "island" site for the stadium lies at the southern end of the Olympic Park.[22] To make room for the stadium, the already partially obstructed Pudding Mill River, a short channel of the Lea which ran from the west side of the stadium south-eastwards across the stadium site, was filled in.

Post-Olympic redevelopment

Dennis Hone, chief executive of the LLDC, revealed in November 2012 that the stadium would not meet its reopening deadline of 2014. Instead the stadium would reopen in August 2015 with the stadium retaining a capacity of around 50,000 for athletics.[42] Following the granting, in March 2013, of a 99-year tenancy to West Ham United, the E20 LLP, a joint organisation by the London Legacy Development Corporation and Newham Council were specifically set-up to oversee redevelopment of the stadium into a UEFA Category 4 venue seating 60,000 spectators. The reconfiguration saw work on a new roof, corporate areas, toilets, concessions and retractable seating. West Ham contributed £15 million and Newham Council £40 million for the work to be carried out with the LLDC and the British Government making up the rest.[43][44] Approval was granted for the installation of retractable seating on all sides of the stadium and an 84 metres (92 yd) transparent roof.[45][46]

The Olympic Stadium during its renovation minus a roof and floodlights and a crane visible.

Balfour Beatty were initially contracted to construct the new roof for £41 million; in January 2014 they were awarded a £154 million tender, which includes the earlier contract for the roof, to complete the stadium's transformation works.[47][48][49] Imtech G&H were awarded a £25 million contract to carry out electrical and plumbing work.[50][51] Paul Kelso, working for Sky News, discovered in September 2014 that the cost of the conversion of the stadium may rise by £15 million, due to additional work to strengthen the structure, to allow it to support the new roof.[52] It was revealed neither West Ham United nor the taxpayer would have to meet the additional cost as Balfour Beatty would contribute with the remainder funded from the existing LLDC transformation budget of the Olympic Park.[53] In October 2014, the LLDC contributed a further £35.9 million towards the project with the funding coming from reserves and income generated by other means.[54]

Work commenced on 13 August 2013 with the removal of 25,000 seats and the grass from the field of play.[55][56] The athletics track was covered with a 75 cm (30 in) layer of recycled concrete to protect it during the heavy lifting.[57] In November 2013 work commenced to remove the fourteen floodlight panels as part of the £200 million conversion of the stadium.[58] In March 2015 work began on installing the new floodlights. Each floodlight panel is 18 metres (59 ft) tall and weighs 45 tonnes (50 short tons), and will sit 30 metres (98 ft) above the stadium's floor, suspended from the roof rather than sitting on top; in total there are 14 panels. As the floodlight work began, work on a steel halo structure that encircles the stadium, containing 96 turnstiles, catering and toilet facilities, concluded.[59]

The black and white seating design from the Olympics, was replaced with a white, blue and claret design. The new design includes West Ham's name on the East Kop Stand and symbolic crossed hammers on all lower tier stands, and the retention of the 2012 shard design on the upper tier, albeit in new colouring to match the Stadium's anchor tenant.[60] Work continued through 2016 to transform the stadium into a home for West Ham, with the club's colours and giant model West Ham shirts added to the stadium concourse.[61] A West Ham store and coffee shop was opened on 23 June.[62]

Playing surface

The red Mondo 400-metre athletics track used for the London 2012 games was laid in August 2011 and is 13.5 mm (0.5 in) thick. It uses two vulcanised rubber layers, one of which is a cushioning underside with elongated diamond-shaped cells, which allows them to flex in any direction.[63] During the four London 2012 ceremonies, the track was protected via synthetic covering. For the stadium's transformation, the track was protected from construction work for the 2015 events by covering it with a plastic sheet layer and burying it under 75 cm (30 in) of soil. The surface was removed in early 2016 and a new surface, using MondoTrack W/S was laid that May for the stadium's long term use. Some of the original running track was kept so that it could be sold and auctioned to the public to raise money to reinvest into operating the Stadium and it's neighbouring community track. The grass playing field was lengthened by several metres at either end for the 2015 rugby matches to fit a suitably-sized rugby pitch, and was reseeded with a Desso GrassMaster artificial-natural hybrid pitch approved for Premier league matches of 105 by 68 metres (115 by 74 yd), ready for West Ham, complete with undersoil heating.[64]

Community track

Following the demolition of the 2012 warm up track and to comply with IAAF rules requiring a warm up track at Construction Category 1 facilities a new 6 lane community track (8 lanes on the straights) has been created immediately adjacent to the south of the Olympic Stadium. The track will be home to Newham and Essex Beagles Athletic Club from 2017 and will be open for around 250 days of the year.[65][66][67] The construction of the track was funded by a grant from the London Marathon Trust.[68]

London 2012

David Rudisha of Kenya setting a World Record for the 800 metres in the Olympic final.

The Olympic Stadium hosted its first public event on 31 March 2012, serving as the finish line for the National Lottery Olympic Park Run. Five thousand participants (including celebrities, British athletes, and members of the public who won a draw organised by the National Lottery) took part in a five-mile run around Olympic Park, entering Olympic Stadium to the theme from Chariots of Fire to run the final 300 metres on its track.[6] The stadium hosted two warm-up events for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games as part of the London Prepares series. The venue hosted the British Universities Athletics Championships and the London Disability Grand Prix in May 2012.[69][70] On 6 May around 40,000 people attended an event entitled "2,012 hours to go: an evening of athletics and entertainment".[71] The evening was hosted by Gabby Logan and Vernon Kay, and Jon Culshaw, Mel C, Hugh Bonneville, Chipmunk and Jack Whitehall appeared. Niamh Clarke-Willis, a nine-year-old, was chosen to open the stadium ceremonially.[72] During the London Disability Grand Prix, Paul Blake (T36, 1500 metres), Hannah Cockroft (T34, 100 metres), Michael McKillop (T37, 1500 metres) and Richard Whitehead (T42, 200 metres) all set new world records.[73] The stadium also hosted the athletics events of the British school games.[74][75]

The stadium hosted both the opening and closing ceremonies at the 2012 Olympic Games.[76] During the Athletics events of the Olympic Games David Rudisha broke his own world record for the 800 metres to become the first man to run the distance in under 1 minute 41 seconds.[77] In the 4 × 100 metres relay the team from Jamaica also broke their own world record from the 2011 World Championships by two-tenths of a second.[78] The United States women's 4 by 100 metres team beat the previous best set by East Germany in 1985, recording a time of 40.82 seconds to set a new world record.[79][80] Olympic records were set by Usain Bolt, who ran the second fastest 100 metres,[81] Renaud Lavillenie in the Pole vault by 1 cm,[82] Sally Pearson recorded a record time in the 100 metres hurdles and Tatyana Lysenko set a new mark in the Hammer.[83][84]

The stadium also hosted both the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2012 Paralympic Games.[85][86] Over the course of the Paralympic Games athletics events, world records were set on the track by; Oxana Boturchuk[87] Martina Caironi,[88] Chen Junfei,[89] El Amin Chentouf,[90] China,[91] Libby Clegg,[87] Arnu Fourie,[92] Marie-Amelie le Fur,[89] Terezinha Guilhermina,[88] Mahmoud Khaldi,[89] Samwel Mushai Kimani,[90] Walid Ktila.[93] Liang Yongbin,[91] Rosemary Little,[94] Liu Ping,[95] Liu Wenjun,[91] Gunther Matzinger,[91] Michael McKillop,[92] Mateusz Michalski,[91] Yohansson Nascimento,[96] Oscar Pistorius,[92] David Prince,[91] Evgenii Shvetcov[93] South Africa,[88] Leo Pekka Tahti,[87] Abraham Tarbei,[93] Iurii Tsaruk,[89] Richard Whitehead,[87] Abderrahim Zhiou,[93] Zhu Daqing and Zhou Guohua.[87] Multiple World Records on the track were set by Yunidis Castillo,[91][92] Assia El Hannouni,[89][97] Evan O'Hanlon,[92][98] Jason Smyth,[92][95][99] Fanie van der Merwe and Marlou van Rhijn.[89][91][92][98][100]

In the field events, World records were set by Hani Alnakhli,[95] Alexey Ashapatov,[99] Aigars Apinis[101] Lahouari Bahlaz,[95] Mohamed Berrahal,[101] Kelly Cartwright,[102] Yanlong Fu,[103] Leonardo Diaz,[100] Zeljko Dimitrijevic,[94] Tanja Dragic,[102] Najat El Garraa,[99] Javad Hardani,[95] Todd Hodgetts,[95] Jun Wang,[102] Maroua Ibrahmi,[87] Juan Yao,[104] Mohsen Kaedi,[92] Mohammad Khalvandi,[91] Gocha Khugaev,[88] Karolina Kucharczyk,[90] Assunta Legnante,[100] Maciej Lepiato,[91] Liu Fuliang,[92] Drazenko Mitrovic,[100] Azeddine Nouiri,[93] Katarzyna Piekart,[92] Mariia Pomazan,[102] Nikita Prokhorov,[89] Qing Wu,[102] Markus Rehm,[99] Raoua Tlili,[91] Wang Yanzhang (athlete),[95] Zhu Pengkai,[88] Oksana Zubkovska.[103] Multiple records were set in the field by Dong Xia,[95][100] Birgit Kober,[89][90] Na Mi,[101] Yang Liwan,[88][92] and Wang Zhiming.[93][103]

Post-Olympics use

The decision on how to use the Stadium after the Olympics went through two rounds of bidding: the first was rejected on 11 October 2011, after concerns had emerged about European Union competition law and particularly the risk of illegal state aid.[105][106][107][108]

First tenancy process

The Olympic Park Legacy Company (OPLC) set five criteria: that the new tenant should produce a viable long-term solution that provided value for money, secured a partner with the expertise to operate a legacy solution, reopened the stadium as quickly as possible, made the stadium a distinctive physical symbol that supported regeneration, and allowed flexible usage.[109] After receiving and pre-screening over 100 expressions of interest, the formal bidding process of selecting the post-Olympics user of the stadium opened on 18 August 2010. It ran until 30 September, after which the OPLC drew up a shortlist, with a view to selecting a tenant by the end of the financial year (31 March 2011).[110]

On 12 November 2010, it was announced that two bids had been shortlisted for the stadium post-Olympics. They were a joint bid from Tottenham Hotspur F.C. and Anschutz Entertainment Group (AEG), and a second bid from West Ham United F.C. and Newham Council.[111]


The legacy plan for the stadium had involved converting it into a 25,000- to 30,000-seat athletics stadium with a sports training, science and medicine centre after the 2012 Paralympics. Media reports, however, suggested that several potential tenants were interested in moving to the stadium after the games. Media speculation and expressions of interest which did not result in bids included: the England and Wales Cricket Board and Kent County Cricket Club;[112] Middlesex County Cricket Club,[113] Essex County Cricket Club:[114] Wasps RFC;[115][116] Saracens R.F.C.;[117] London Skolars R.L.F.C.; Major League Baseball;[118] the National Football League, which had been looking at the potential of a franchise in London;[119] and Leyton Orient F.C..[120]

Bid 1 – AEG and Tottenham Hotspur
Artist's impression of the proposed new stadium by AEG and Tottenham Hotspur

These joint bidders had each separately expressed interest in the venue, but submitted a joint bid. AEG is the company that redeveloped the loss-making Millennium Dome exhibition venue in South East London into the profitable music venue The O2.[121] On 26 July 2010, it was rumoured that Tottenham might be interested in taking over the stadium after the Games. The club had plans to build a new stadium adjacent to their current stadium as part of the Northumberland Development Project, but the planning application and funding were proving difficult, making the Olympic Stadium a viable option.[122][123]

Bid 2 – Newham Council and West Ham United
Artist's impression of the proposed redeveloped stadium by West Ham United and Newham Council

After the acquisition of West Ham United in 2010 by David Gold and David Sullivan, the new owners expressed their desire to make the stadium the club's new home. With Boris Johnson expressing his desire for a football team to take over the stadium after the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics, this seemed the most likely option.[124] At the opening of the formal bid process, West Ham United were considered favourites once they withdrew their initial opposition to keeping the running track, as well as planning a £100 million conversion to create a 60,000 capacity venue, which would also host international football, international athletics, as well as Essex County Cricket Club, international Twenty20 cricket matches, NFL games, and Live Nation events.[125]

Decision, Review and Cancellation

On 11 February 2011, the Olympic Park Legacy Company (OPLC) unanimously selected West Ham United and Newham Council as the preferred bidders to take over the stadium after the 2012 Games.[126] But Leyton Orient complained that the stadium was too close to their ground and would breach FA rules. They claimed that West Ham's plans could force them into bankruptcy.[127] On 3 March 2011, West Ham United's proposed move to the stadium was approved by the British Government and London Mayor Boris Johnson.[128]

Tottenham Hotspur F.C. and Leyton Orient F.C. applied for a judicial review to overturn the Olympic Park Legacy Company's (OPLC) decision; however, this appeal was rejected in June 2011.[129] Tottenham Hotspur appealed the decision not to have a review on 29 June 2011.[130] The OPLC announced on 5 July 2011 that an independent review into the awarding of the Olympic Park Stadium to West Ham United was to be carried out following the discovery on 30 June 2011 that an employee, Dionne Knight had been engaged by West Ham United to carry out consultancy work relating to the stadium without permission of the OPLC. Knight had already declared to the OPLC that she was in a personal relationship with a director of West Ham United, and was suspended whilst a possible conflict of interest was investigated.[131] On 22 August 2011, the independent investigation ruled that the process was not compromised and thus the bid process will not be reopened.[132] On 23 August, the day before Tottenham Hotspur were due in court, they staged "intense negotiations" with the office of the Mayor of London, and looked set to drop all claims for a review and be offered funding for their own stadium.[133] However, the next day Tottenham did attend court despite being close to striking a deal about their own stadium. Tottenham and Leyton Orient won a review of the decision, being told that they had an arguable case.[134] The review was scheduled to take place on 18 October 2011. Even if Tottenham abandoned the review, due to being granted a new stadium as part of their Northumberland Development Project, Orient were expected to continue, with its owner Barry Hearn calling the decision to grant a review "a great day for the little man".[135] However, the bid was later cancelled before the review was completed, due to a series of concerns regarding EU laws.[108]

Second tenancy process

Once the original deal collapsed a new process to select a tenant was begun. The athletics legacy clause was clarified to ensure that a track remained in the stadium.[136] West Ham immediately announced plans to become tenants of the stadium.[137][138] On 17 October 2011, a day before they were due in court for the judicial review to start into the original bidding process, Tottenham Hotspur ended their legal challenge about the original decision to award the stadium to West Ham.[139] This marked Spurs' end to their interest in the stadium. On 18 October, Leyton Orient submitted an application to the Football League for permission for a move to the stadium. Chairman Barry Hearn said, "We are asking for a 25,000-seater stadium and we want to see if we can get around the athletics track. It has to stay, we know that. But can we build up, if not down, and see if it's possible to get it covered while we play?".[140]

In February 2012, 16 parties were interested in the stadium.[141] In July 2012, four bidders were announced:[142][143]

In April 2012, the Olympic Park Legacy Company was dismantled and responsibilities transferred to the newly constituted London Legacy Development Corporation (LLDC).[145] Daniel Moylan, chairman of the LLDC, was removed by Mayor Boris Johnson on 12 September 2012, after having made changes to the leadership of the organisation that annoyed some Board members. Johnson took on the chairmanship of the co-operation himself.[146]

In December 2012, West Ham were named as the preferred bidder for the stadium with a separate operator co-ordinating community and sporting use, as well as concerts and events.[147] Leyton Orient's bid was rejected due to its commercial viability and the bid from Intelligent Transport Services, in conjunction with Formula One, was rejected for having too much speculation and uncertainty in their business plan.[148] However, with so much public money going into the stadium and its redevelopment, the BBC learned that David Gold and David Sullivan must share any profits they make if they sell the club.[149][150] West Ham were given three months to improve the terms of their deal or lose the stadium; with Johnson going with plan B without football.[148] The two parties seemed to find common ground in February 2013, with West Ham, reportedly, agreeing to paying £2.5 million in rent per year. They additionally promised to pay back any extra cost for the roof and seats within ten years.[151][152] Gold stated at the beginning of March that a deal could be complete by the middle of the month.[153] On 22 March 2013, West Ham United secured a 99-year lease deal, with the stadium planned to be used as their home ground from the 2016–2017 season.[154] In July 2013, UK Athletics received a 50-year deal for the use of the stadium.[155] UK Athletics will have access to the stadium every year from the last Friday in June until the end of July.[156]

On 6 March, Barry Hearn of Leyton Orient stated that he would mount another legal challenge as he believed the rules set out by the LLDC had not been followed. Hearn also said he felt Leyton Orient's proposed ground share had been ignored and not properly explored.[157][158][159] In April 2013, he was informed that his call for a judicial review had been rejected.[160][161] An oral application was submitted in June 2013.[162] On 19 September 2013, Leyton Orient lost their bid to win a judicial review into the decision to grant West Ham the tenancy of the Olympic Stadium. At the High Court, Mr Justice Lewis said the LLDC was entitled to make the decision which was not "irrational".[163] In November 2013 it was the House of Lords' opinion that Leyton Orient should be allowed occasional use of the stadium, with Lord Harris telling Orient and West Ham to "stop squabbling like children."[164][165][166] Dennis Hone stated that he was in talks with Barry Hearn over occasional usage, but that it would not mean a permanent groundshare.[167] In early December, the LLDC said that there was nothing to stop Orient from negotiating a rental agreement with whichever firm ends up running the stadium. Orient, however, would not be able to negotiate a 99-year deal like West Ham and would only have usage of the stadium when the Hammers are not playing.[168][169] On 1 July 2014, Leyton Orient brought an end to their dispute with the Premier League regarding the future use of the stadium, after a confidential agreement between the two parties was reached.[170][171]

Supporters of various rival clubs pressed for an inquiry into the LLDC's granting of West Ham's tenancy, arguing that West Ham were being given an unfair advantage by the arrangement. However, in September 2015 the government rejected holding such an inquiry.[172] In October 2015, the LLDC released a 207-page document with redacted sections. West Ham's annual rent was not revealed as this was seen to be commercially sensitive information.[173] On 14 April 2016 it was revealed that West Ham will pay £2.5 million per year during a 99-year lease of the stadium but will not have to fund police, stewarding, heating, pitch maintenance, or corner flags. Barry Hearn described the deal as one his dog could have bettered.[174]

Stadium operator

In October 2014 The Evening Standard reported that French company Vinci SA were favourites to be given a contract to run the stadium for ten years. The company which already operates several other stadiums, including the Stade de France in Paris, had reportedly beaten off competition from other companies including Anschutz Entertainment Group who run The O2.[175] In February 2015, Vinci Stadium, a subsidiary of Vinci Concessions, were appointed to manage the stadium starting in April 2015 for a 25-year period. The company will also be responsible for the London Marathon Charitable Trust Community Track and events on the south park lawn. This is the first stadium outside France to be managed by Vinci.[176][177][178][179]


Although West Ham United and UK Athletics are the primary tenants, the stadium operators arrange many other events for the stadium.


Anniversary Games

David Weir broke the World Record in the men's T54 mile

Charles Sale reported in the Daily Mail during December 2012 that the London Legacy Development Corporation were keen to take financial advantage by hosting events in the stadium due to the work to convert the stadium not starting until autumn 2013.[180] On 24 January 2013, it was confirmed that the London Athletics Grand Prix, a Diamond League event, would be switched to the stadium.[181] In February 2013, it was announced that after the stadium would also hold a Paralympic athletics event on 28 July.[182] In April Sainsbury's were announced as sponsors and the event was renamed the "Anniversary Games".[183][184]

The London Grand Prix was scheduled to move permanently to the stadium in 2016. However, due to the 2015 Rugby World Cup taking place in the stadium, using the original seating configuration, the opportunity came to move the Grand Prix to the stadium a year early, again under the name of the Anniversary Games.[185][186][187][188][189] During the 2015 events national records were set by Dafne Schippers (100 m), Dina Asher-Smith (100 m),[190] Shara Proctor(long jump),[191] while Georgina Hermitage (400 m T37) and Sophie Hahn (100 m T38) set world records.[192]

The fourth Anniversary Games took place in the stadium on 22–23 July 2016. The IPC Grand Prix events were incorporated alongside Diamond League events on the second day of the meet. The London meet is the only Diamond League meeting to date to span two consecutive days.

2017 World Athletics and World ParaAthletics Championships

London had bid to host the 2015 World Athletics Championships using the Olympic Stadium. It went up against Beijing's Olympic Stadium and the Polish city of Chorzów. However, the stadium had to withdraw their bid due to uncertainties arising out of the timing of the announcement of who would operate the stadium after the Olympics, thus gifting Beijing the championships.[193] With issues resolved over the stadium's future, London again used the stadium to bid for the 2017 World Athletics Championships.[194] The bid was made official in August with Lord Coe personally submitting the bid a few weeks later at the 2011 World Athletic Championships in Daegu which was supported by London's Mayor Boris Johnson and the British Government.[195] On 11 November 2011, the IAAF officially awarded the 2017 World Championships to London.[196] The World ParaAthletics Championships (formerly the IPC Athletics World Championships) are scheduled to take place a month before the able-bodied event[197] and were formally confirmed for the stadium in December 2012.[198]


The players of West Ham and NK Domzale before the game

West Ham United play at the stadium, having moved from their former Upton Park in August 2016.[199][200] The club announced in March 2013 that the stands behind the goals will be named after former players Bobby Moore and Trevor Brooking; there were stands at Upton Park named after them.[44] West Ham sold out the 50,000 season ticket allocation for the stadium by May 2016 for the 2016–17 season.[201]

The opening game for West Ham was a Europa League match against NK Domzale on 4 August 2016,[202] which West Ham won 3–0 with the stadium sold out, albeit with a reduced capacity of 54,000 as conversion works were still being finished.[203] The official opening match was a friendly with Juventus on 7 August with a 2-3 defeat.[204] West Ham's first Premier League match at the stadium was against Bournemouth with an attendance of 56,977.[205] Watford were the first Premier League side to beat West Ham at the London Stadium, overcoming a two-goal deficit to beat West Ham 4-2.[206][207]

Crowd control

Stewards (in yellow jackets) within a group of West Ham United supporters

At the beginning of the 2016-17 season, West Ham's games were marked by instances of crowd trouble. Against Bournemouth on 21 August some fans arrived with tickets for seats that did not exist. Fighting also occurred between rival supporters outside the stadium.[208] On 26 August during a Europa League game against FC Astra Giurgiu fighting broke out in the stadium with a supporter being arrested on suspicion of causing ABH.[209] Against Watford, rival fans fought following poor crowd segregation. On 1 October 2016, against Middlesbrough three people were arrested as violent clashes occurred.[210] On 22 October 2016, against Sunderland rival fans confronted each other as Sunderland fans returned to transport taking them home.[211] By 25 October 2016, 23 banning orders had been issued to fans with nine arrests.[212] There was further crowd trouble on 26 October 2016 during West Ham's EFL Cup fourth-round game against London rivals, Chelsea. Seven people were arrested as police introduced a ban on the sale of alcohol. Plastic bottles, seats and coins were thrown during West Ham's 2-1 victory. Hundreds of supporters clashed and riot police entered the concourse.[213][214] West Ham vice-chairman Karren Brady said any supporter identified as having taken part in the violence would receive a lifetime ban. MP Mark Field called for West Ham to play behind closed doors should any further violence occur.[215] In October 2016, football stadium design expert, Paul Fletcher said that the stadium should be pulled down and rebuilt as in its current design it was not right for football fans as they were too far from the pitch.[216]

Other sports

The racing circuit inside the stadium for the 2015 Race of Champions

In May 2014 it was announced that Essex had agreed a deal in principle to play Twenty20 matches at the stadium.[217] Major League Baseball (MLB) are also in advance talks to bring a league game to Europe for the first time. It was touted that an similar agreement to the NFL's could begin in 2017.[218]

In November 2015 the stadium hosted the 2015 Race of Champions event. It was the first occasion since 2008 that Great Britain hosted the event, with Wembley Stadium last staging the contest in 2008.[219] The English team of Andy Priaulx and Jason Plato won the nations cup whilst Sebastian Vettel took the Champion of Champions crown.[220][221]

Rugby league

The first Rugby league match at the stadium was played between England and New Zealand on 7 November 2015. The match was the second of a three-game series between the sides.[222][223] The venue will also host the match between England and Australia as part of the 2016 Rugby League Four Nations. In June 2016, it was announced that the Stadium will form part of England's bid to host the 2021 Rugby League World Cup.[224]

List of rugby league matches at the Olympic stadium
Date Winner Score Runner up Tournament
7 November 2015 New Zealand New Zealand 9–2 England England 2015 Baskerville Shield
13 November 2016 Australia Australia 36–18 England England 2016 Four Nations

Rugby Union World Cup

Further information: 2015 Rugby World Cup
France playing Romania at the Olympic Stadium during the 2015 Rugby World Cup

In July 2012 the Olympic Park Legacy Company submitted a bid to England Rugby 2015 to host some matches of the 2015 Rugby World Cup. On 2 May 2013, it was officially announced that the Olympic Stadium was due to host four Pool matches during the World Cup and the Bronze final.[225] The first Rugby union match at the stadium took place on 29 August 2015 as part of a testing programme ahead of the World Cup. The match featured the first ever game between the invitational Barbarians side and Samoa.[226][227][228] The Barbarians won 27–24, with Samoa having Kane Thompson sent off for punching. The game was delayed when pitch sprinklers came on during the first half.[229]

List of rugby union matches at the Olympic stadium
Date Country Score Country Use
29 August 2015 Barbarians 27–24  Samoa 2015 RWC Warm-up
23 September 2015 France  38–11  Romania 2015 Rugby World Cup
24 September 2015 New Zealand  58–14  Namibia
4 October 2015 Ireland  16–9  Italy
7 October 2015 South Africa  64–0  United States
30 October 2015 South Africa  24–13  Argentina


AC/DC with Axl Rose performing the first concert at the Olympic Stadium, 4 June 2016

In January 2013 music concert promoter Live Nation won the right to stage shows at the stadium and in the surrounding Park.[230] Hard Rock Calling, Wireless Festival and Electric Daisy Carnival were held in July but in the Park and not the stadium itself. On 4 June 2016, AC/DC, featuring Axl Rose, performed the first concert inside the stadium since its redevelopment as part of their Rock or Bust World Tour.[231]



The stadium is located in the south of Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park. Stratford and Stratford International railway stations are the main stations nearest to the Olympic Park, and are roughly a 20-minute walk to the stadium.[232] Stratford International is served by trains on High Speed 1 offering 4 trains per hour to St. Pancras International, as well as other services to Kent, while Stratford station has London Overground services to North, West and South London, and is on the Great Eastern Main Line to East London and East Anglia.[232] Stratford is on London Underground's Jubilee and Central lines to Central London and the Docklands Light Railway (DLR).[232] The DLR offers a direct service to London City Airport. In addition, Hackney Wick (London Overground) and Pudding Mill Lane (DLR) serve the stadium, but may be closed during bigger events due to capacity limitations. From 2018 the stadium will be served by Crossrail.

Stations nearby:

Service Station(s) Lines
London Overground London OvergroundHackney Wick
London Overground North London Line
Docklands Light Railway Docklands Light RailwayPudding Mill Lane
Stratford International
Docklands Light Railway Lewisham/Canary Wharf-Stratford
Docklands Light Railway Stratford International–Beckton/Woolwich Arsenal
London Underground London Underground Stratford
Central line
National Rail National RailStratford Great Eastern Main Line
Lea Valley Lines
Stratford InternationalHigh Speed 1


Travellers by car are advised to use the public car parks at Westfield Stratford City, Stratford International station and the Stratford Centre.[233] The Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park also has several docking stations for London's Santander Cycles bike-hire programme.[232]

Bus and Coach

Buses serve the Olympic Park directly, or the nearby Stratford bus station and Stratford City bus station. The following routes serve the Olympic Park and Stadium directly:[233][234]

Route Start End Areas
308 Wanstead Clapton North-East London
388 Blackfriars Station Stratford City bus station Central London, East London
339 Shadwell Station Leytonstone Station East London
D8 Isle of Dogs Stratford International Centre London Docklands

A further 17 services use the Stratford bus stations, which offer a network of services across East London. In addition, route 25 from Oxford Street serves Central London.[233]

The following services operate through the night and provide the area with a 24-hour public transport service:

Route Start End Areas
25 Oxford Street Ilford Central London, East London
N8 Soho Hainault Central London, East London
N86 Stratford Bus Station Harold Wood East London, Romford, M25
N205 Paddington Leyton Central London, City of London, London Docklands

National Express coach services to Stratford bus station provide a direct connection to Stansted Airport[235] and several other routes to Essex and East Anglia.[236]


  1. Whetstone, Sean (15 February 2014). "The Black and White Seated Olympic Stadium". West Ham Till I Die. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  2. 1 2 "London 2012: Inside track on Olympic running surface". BBC News. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  3. 1 2 "London 2012 Olympic Stadium Athletics Track Completed". BBC Sport. 3 October 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
  4. UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2016), "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  5. "About". Vinci Stadiums. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  6. 1 2 "London 2012: Olympic Park runners finish race". BBC News. 31 March 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  7. "New Stadium capacity increased to 60,000". West Ham United F.C. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  8. "London reveals Olympic Park Plans". BBC News. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  9. "Hammers keen on Olympic move". BBC News. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  10. "Eggert targets top four – and life away from Upton Park". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  11. "Negotiations Start with Arsenal Stadium Team". London 2012 Official Website. Retrieved 19 December 2007.
  12. Kernon, Sophie; McGee, Brian (16 October 2006). "Sir Robert McAlpine Chosen to Build London's Olympic Stadium". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  13. "Olympic stadium work starts early". BBC News. 22 May 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  14. "Olympic Stadium work starts early". BBC News. 11 March 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  15. Pearce, Nick (29 March 2011). "London 2012 Olympics: Olympic Stadium completed 'on time and under budget'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  16. Spring, Martin (5 September 2008). "On Your Marks: Countdown to 2012, London's Olympic Stadium". Building. Retrieved 19 October 2008.
  17. "Olympic Stadium 2012". London Olympic Stadium. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012.
  18. "PVC at Olympics destined for reuse or recycling". waste recycling news. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  19. Radnedge, Aidan. "Why Plymouth Argyle and Dartford FC Are Top of Eco-Friendly League Table". Metro. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  20. (registration required) Kortekaas, Vanessa (4 August 2011). "Dow Chemical Wraps Up Olympic Deal". Financial Times. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
  21. (registration required) Olcayto, Rory (29 May 2008). "Olympic Stadium's Latest Design Unveiled". Bdonline.co.uk. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
  22. 1 2 3 4 "London 2012: Ten facts about the Olympic Stadium". BBC News. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  23. "Delivering London 2012: the Olympic Stadium". Institution of Civil Engineering. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  24. "London Unveils 2012 Stadium Plan". BBC News. 7 November 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
  25. "London 2012 Olympic stadium floodlights switched on – BBC News". BBC. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  26. 27 November 2013 at (27 November 2013). "Olympic stadium floodlights finally lose their dazzle | London – ITV News". Itv.com. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  27. 1 2 "The Stadium | London Legacy Development Corporation". Londonlegacy.co.uk. Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
  28. "Final turf laid at London Olympic 2012 Stadium". BBC News. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  29. "MONDO News". Mondotrack.com. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  30. "MONDO News". Mondotrack.com. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  31. mirror Administrator. "London 2012: Olympics stadium facts and figures". mirror. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  32. Prigg, Mark (31 July 2012). "The lights fantastic: How Danny Boyle used 'paddles' with tiny bulbs to turn Olympics audience into a giant video screen". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  33. London Olympic Stadium Divides Opinion". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
  34. HOK's 2012 "Olympic Stadium Design Revealed – Images and Slideshow. Building Design. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
  35. "Olympic Stadium Is Deflated Architecture at an Inflated Price". The Times. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
  36. Thorpe, Vanessa (22 July 2012). "Olympic Stadium is in the running for Stirling prize gold". The Observer. London. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  37. Youngs, Ian (14 October 2012). "Sainsbury Laboratory wins Stirling architecture prize". BBC News. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
  38. "Stadium Disappoints All Round". Building Design. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
  39. "Education | Inflation Calculator". Bank of England. Archived from the original on 24 March 2009. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
  40. "Boaters Preview Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park's Waterways". Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  41. Oliver Wainwright (6 April 2011). "London 2012 Olympic stadium by Populous". Building Design. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  42. "Olympic Stadium will not reopen until August 2015 at the earliest". BBC News. 7 November 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
  43. "Olympic Stadium's feature secured in historic deal between Mayor's Legacy Corporation, Newham Council and West Ham United football club". London Legacy Development Corporation. 22 March 2013. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  44. 1 2 Bryan, Lee (29 March 2013). "So what are West Ham going to do to change the Olympic Stadium? New plans are revealed here". Daily Mail.
  45. William, Helen (29 May 2013). "Green light for Olympic Stadium makeover". The Independent. London. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  46. "Stadium conversion approved". West Ham United F.C. 28 May 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  47. "Balfour Beatty awarded £154 million Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park Stadium transformation contract". Balfour Beatty. 6 January 2014.
  48. "Balfour Beatty lands £154m London Olympic Stadium conversion contract". The Independent. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  49. "Construction Manager". Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  50. "Olympic Stadium contracts awarded in a major legacy milestone". London Legacy Development Corporation. 25 July 2013. Archived from the original on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  51. Rossingh, Danielle (25 July 2013). "Boris Johnson Awards $103Mln in Olympic Stadium Contracts". Bloomberg. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  52. "Exclusive: Olympic Stadium Bill May Rise £15m". Sky News. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  53. Owen Gibson. "Olympic Stadium costs soar to more than £600m after roof complications". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  54. "Olympic Stadium cost soars beyond £600m as LLDC agrees to pay further £35.9m". SkySports. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  55. "Transformation work begins for iconic Stadium on Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park". London Legacy Development Corporation. 13 August 2013. Archived from the original on 17 August 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  56. Atwal, Kay (14 August 2013). "Transformation of Stadium at Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park begins". Newham Recorder. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  57. "New chapter for Olympic Stadium as preparations for its multi use future begin". Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  58. "Olympic Stadium to have roof fitted before West Ham move in". The Independent. London. 20 November 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
  59. Mark Shales. "Work starts on 14 new floodlight towers at former Olympic Stadium". Newham Recorder. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  60. "Your Claret and Blue seats are coming! - West Ham United". Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  61. "New Stadium progress report". West Ham United FC. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  62. "Mark Noble shows West Ham dedication as midfielder battles UK floods for club shop's grand opening". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  63. Martins, Alejandra. "London 2012: Inside track on Olympic running surface – BBC News". BBC. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  64. "Stadium seeding starts". West Ham United. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  65. "Stadium in Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park to become new national centre for athletics". Athletics Weekly. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  66. "The future of the Stadium". Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  67. Danielle Rossingh (23 July 2013). "Olympic Stadium New Home of U.K. Athletics for 50 Years". Bloomberg. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  69. "Opportunity of a lifetime! University athletes set to test Olympic venues in competition". Daily Mail. London. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  70. "Olympic Stadium test event to be held in May". BBC. 26 April 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  71. "Olympic Stadium to host evening of entertainment". IPC. 13 March 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  72. "Olympic Stadium is officially opened". BBC News. 6 May 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  73. "Whitehead, Cockroft and Blake celebrate new World Records". British Athletics. 8 May 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  74. "Olympic Park to host School Games". BBC News. 7 October 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  75. "School Games set to continue 2012 build-up". BBC News. 6 May 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  76. "London 2012 Opening and Closing Ceremony". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  77. Rostance, Tom (9 August 2012). "David Rudisha breaks 800m world record in Olympics win". BBC Sport. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  78. Fordyce, Tom (11 August 2012). "Usain Bolt wins third gold in Jamaica 4x100m relay victory". BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  79. Sheringham, Sam (10 August 2012). "USA smash world 4x100m relay record to win Olympic gold". BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  80. "World Records Ratified". IAAF. 7 November 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  81. Fordyce, Tom (5 August 2012). "Usain Bolt wins Olympics 100m final at London 2012". BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  82. Sheringham, Sam (10 August 2012). "Pole vaulter Renaud Lavillenie breaks record". BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  83. Fordyce, Tom (7 August 2012). "Sally Pearson takes 100m hurdles gold". BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  84. "Tatyana Lysenko in record throw". BBC News. 10 August 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  85. White, Jim (29 August 2012). "Paralympics 2012: Hawking opens ceremony with a 'Big Bang'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  86. Jones, David (9 September 2012). "Para, Para, Paralympics! Coldplay rock the Games Closing Ceremony as they are joined by Rihanna to sing farewell to spectacular summer of sport". Daily Mail. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  87. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Gold medal glory for Whitehead on Day 3". International Paralympic Committee. 1 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  88. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Brazilian sprinters go 1–2–3". International Paralympic Committee. 5 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  89. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Peacock, Weir, van Rhijn, Campbell all take gold". International Paralympic Committee. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  90. 1 2 3 4 "McFadden finally gets her gold". International Paralympic Committee. 3 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  91. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "Athletics events come to a close". International Paralympic Committee. 8 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  92. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "Smyth, McKillop, O'Hanlon, Stilwell light up Olympic Stadium". International Paralympic Committee. 1 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  93. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Weir does it again on track". International Paralympic Committee. 4 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  94. 1 2 "Record defying opening day for Athletics". International Paralympic Committee. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  95. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Popow gets his sprinting gold". International Paralympic Committee. 8 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  96. "Weir closes night with historic finish". International Paralympic Committee. 3 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  97. "Repeat success for China's Na Mi". International Paralympic Committee. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  98. 1 2 "O'Hanlon nabs the double". International Paralympic committee. 8 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  99. 1 2 3 4 "Rehm shines in long jump at Olympic Stadium". International Paralympic Committee. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  100. 1 2 3 4 5 "Men's shot put takes centre stage on Day 7". International Paralympic Committee. 5 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  101. 1 2 3 "Repeat success for China's Na Mi". Paralympic.org. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
  102. 1 2 3 4 5 "Australia's Cartwright jumps for joy". International Paralympic Committee.
  103. 1 2 3 "Wang wraps up field hat trick". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
  104. "China's Yao shot to the top of the podium". International Paralympic Committee.
  105. "State aid – Detailed guidance". Gov.uk. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  106. "Lawrence, S. (2012) TFEU – State Aid and Sporting Legacy Facilities within the European Union. International Sports Law Journal 2012 1–2 40–41." (PDF). Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  107. "London 2012 Olympics: Stadium not 'white elephant' says Hugh Robertson as West Ham confirm new bid". The Daily Telegraph. 11 October 2011.
  108. 1 2 "2012 Stadium Bid Collapsed". ESPN Soccernet. 11 October 2011.
  109. "Tottenham demand to know if goalposts shifted during bidding for Olympic Stadium". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
  110. "London 2012 Olympic Games Stadium Bidding Begins". BBC News. 18 August 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
  111. "Tottenham and West Ham Lead London 2012 Stadium Bid". BBC News. 12 November 2010.
  112. Pringle, Derek (3 November 2009). "Cricket Would Be a Bad Fit for Post-London 2012 Olympic Stadium". The Daily Telegraph.
  113. "London's Olympic Stadium a Potential T20 Venue". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
  114. "Essex Ponder Olympic Stadium Use". BBC News. 15 April 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
  115. "Improved Bid May Tempt Wasps into Olympic Stadium". Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 19 October 2008.
  116. "Olympic Board Statement on the Olympic Stadium". London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd. Retrieved 19 October 2008.
  117. "2012 Chief Makes Stadium Demand". BBC News. 8 October 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008.
  118. "MLB Eyeing London's Olympic Stadium for Games". Sports Illustrated. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
  119. "Olympic Stadium's grand designs post-2012 ... before West Ham emerged as bid winners". The Daily Telegraph. London. 10 February 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  120. "Hammers' Olympic Move Ruled Out". BBC News. 7 February 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2007.
  121. "Olympic Stadium Hopefuls Enter Next Round". Sky News. 18 August 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
  122. "Olympic Stadium now first choice for Tottenham". The Guardian. 5 October 2010.
  123. "Tottenham maintain Olympic stadium interest is 'deadly serious'". The Guardian. 25 November 2010.
  124. "Gold and Sullivan Take Over West Ham". Retrieved 19 January 2010.
  125. "West Ham's Grounds for Optimism over Olympic Stadium". BBC Sport. 18 August 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
  126. "West Ham Chosen as Preferred Olympic Stadium Tenant". BBC News. 11 February 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
  127. "Orient Challenge Stadium Decision". BBC News. 16 February 2011.
  128. "West Ham Approved as London 2012 Olympic Stadium Tenant". BBC News. 3 March 2011.
  129. Kirk, Tristan (25 June 2011). "Spurs Judicial Review Bid over Olympic Stadium Rejected by Judge". Haringey Independent. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
  130. "Spurs Lodge Fresh Stadium Appeal". BBC News. 29 June 2011.
  131. "London 2012: OPLC Reviews Olympic Stadium Bid Process". BBC News. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
  132. "2012 Stadium Bid Not Compromised". BBC News. 22 August 2011.
  133. "Tottenham 'To Drop 2012 Olympic Stadium Legal Bid'". BBC News. 23 August 2011.
  134. "Spurs Win Right To Challenge 2012 Stadium Decision". BBC News. 24 August 2011.
  135. "Coe Calms Fears over Worlds Bid". BBC News. 25 August 2011.
  136. Wilson, Neil (8 June 2011). "London 2012 Olympics: Coe Insists Track Will Stay at Olympic Stadium". Daily Mail. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
  137. "West Ham – Newham Statement". West Ham United F.C. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  138. Gold, David (31 January 2012). "West Ham Among 16 Interested in London 2012 Olympic Stadium as Deadline Passes". insidethegames.
  139. "Tottenham Hotspur ends 2012 Olympic Stadium legal bid". 17 October 2011.
  140. Davies, Trevor (18 October 2011). "Orient Seek a Move to the Olympic Stadium". East London Advertiser. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  141. "Olympic Stadium wanted by West Ham and 15 other parties". BBC. 1 February 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
  142. "F1 track plan among Olympic Stadium bids". BBC Sport. 17 July 2012.
  143. Kelso, Paul; Cary, Tom (22 June 2012). "London 2012 Olympics: plan to hold Formula One race in and around Olympic Stadium on bid shortlist". The Daily Telegraph.
  144. "Essex CCC make joint Olympic Stadium bid". BBC Sport. 30 March 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
  145. "Mayor to take over Park legacy planning". BBC. 8 February 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
  146. Kelso, Paul (12 September 2012). "London 2012 Olympics: Boris Johnson to take control of stadium legacy as Daniel Moylan loses job". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
  147. "West Ham United are preferred bidder for Olympic Stadium". BBC News. 5 December 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
  148. 1 2 Owen Gibson (5 December 2012). "West Ham given three months to seal Olympic Stadium bid". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  149. Bond, David (5 December 2012). "West Ham given ultimatum over Olympic Stadium deal". BBC Sport. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
  150. David Bond (5 December 2012). "The future of the Olympic Stadium remains far from resolved". BBC Sport. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
  151. West Ham (11 February 2013). "West Ham United move closer to securing Olympic Stadium deal with breakthrough agreement". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  152. Riach, James (18 February 2013). "West Ham's move to Olympic Stadium stalls again over approval process". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  153. "West Ham closing on Olympic Stadium deal – David Gold". BBC News. 4 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  154. "West Ham receive 99-year lease for Olympic Stadium". stadiumguide.com. 24 March 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  155. "Athletics in 50-year Olympic stadium deal coup". London Evening Standard. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  156. "New deal secures athletics legacy on Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park". Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  157. "Barry Hearn calls for judicial review". BBC News. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  158. Kelso, Paul (6 March 2013). "Leyton Orient launch legal bid to stop West Ham United taking over the Olympic Stadium". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  159. Staniforth, Mark (7 March 2013). "Failure to share Olympic Stadium threatens London's legacy, says Hearn". Daily Mail. Press Association. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  160. Gibson, Owen (26 April 2013). "Barry Hearn faces Olympic Stadium defeat after rejection of review". The Guardian.
  161. Rumsby, Ben (19 April 2013). "Barry Hearn says Orient will continue to fight for the right to share the Olympic Stadium". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  162. "Leyton Orient chairman Barry Hearn defiant". BBC News. 13 June 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  163. "Leyton Orient lose Olympic Stadium tenancy review bid". BBC News. 19 September 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  164. Richards, Chris (18 November 2013). "Peers say Leyton Orient SHOULD be allowed to use the Olympic Stadium". Daily Mirror.
  165. "Olympic Stadium 'not being used to the full' – Lords report". BBC London. 19 November 2013.
  166. Conway, Richard (18 November 2013). "London 2012: Lords report warns of faltering Olympic legacy". BBC Sport.
  167. Gibson, Owen. "Olympic Stadium gutted as conversion of new home for West Ham begins". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
  168. Rumsby, Ben (18 December 2013). "Leyton Orient could share Olympic Stadium with West Ham as Barry Hearn is cleared to strike rental deal". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
  169. Ziegler, Martyn (14 December 2013). "Leyton Orient could rent Olympic Stadium – and there's nothing West Ham can do about it, claims Barry Hearn". The Independent. London. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
  170. "Leyton Orient Olympic Stadium Dispute Settled". Stadia Directory. 1 July 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  171. Gary Anderson. "Leyton Orient end London 2012 Olympic Stadium dispute after settlement reached". insidethegames.biz – International Olympic Committee, Paralympic and Commonwealth Games News. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  172. Benge, James (3 September 2015). "Arsenal, Chelsea and Tottenham fan coalition's call for public inquiry into West Ham Olympic stadium deal rejected by government". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  173. "Olympic Stadium: New details on West Ham deal revealed". BBC Sport. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
  174. "West Ham at the Olympic Stadium: My dog could've done a better deal - Barry Hearn". BBC Sport. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  175. "French firm Vinci leads the race to run Olympic Stadium". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  176. "New milestone for our new stadium". West Ham United F.C. 3 February 2015. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  177. Shales, Mark (4 February 2015). "French construction firm to run Olympic Stadium for 25 years". Newham Recorder. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  178. "MAYOR ANNOUNCES VINCI APPOINTED AS OPERATOR FOR FORMER OLYMPIC STADIUM". Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park. 3 February 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  179. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  180. Sale, Charles (6 December 2012). "Diamond League meeting could be held at Olympic Stadium". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
  181. "Olympic Stadium to host Diamond League meeting". BBC News. 24 January 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  182. Hart, Simon (13 February 2013). "Paralympic action added to London Anniversary Games at the 2012 Olympic Stadium in July". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  183. "Sainsburys's confirmed as major British Athletics sponsor". UK Athletics. 15 April 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  184. Hart, Simon (15 April 2013). "Sainsbury's announced as sponsor of Anniversary Games at Olympic Stadium after agreeing deal with UK Athletics". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  185. Majendie, Matt (27 January 2015). ""Olympic Stadium is athletics' venue... not West Ham's" – UK Athletics chief De Vos has big plans for iconic arena". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  186. "Farah back in former Olympic Stadium to launch the London leg of the 2015 IAAF Diamond League". iaaf.org. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  187. Mark Shales. "Mo Farah launches third Sainsbury's Anniversary Games at Olympic Stadium". Newham Recorder. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  188. Etchells, Daniel (26 February 2015). "London 2012 Olympic Stadium to host IPC Athletics Grand Prix Final". Insidethegames.biz. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  189. "London's former Olympic Stadium set to host Grand Prix Final". International Paralympic Association. 26 February 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  190. "100m Schippers Asher-Smith London". iaaf.org. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  191. "Renaud Lavillenie London IAAF Diamond League". iaaf.org. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  192. "Hahn and Hermitage break world records in London". Paralympic.org. 26 July 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  193. "London Pulls Out of 2015 World Athletics Race". BBC Sport. 4 November 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  194. "UK Bids To Host 2017 World Athletics Championships". BBC Sport. 11 March 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  195. "London Bids To Host 2017 World Athletics Championships". BBC Sport. 18 August 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  196. "London selected to host 2017 IAAF World Championships". International Association of Athletics Federations. 11 November 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
  197. Hart, Simon (18 October 2012). "Olympic Stadium set to host 2017 World Paralympic Championships". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  198. "London named host city for 2017 Paralympic World Championships". BBC sport. 19 December 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  199. McLeman, Neil (22 March 2013). "Capital gains: Boris hails Olympic Stadium move as 'a great deal for West Ham and London'". Daily Mirror.
  200. Bond, David (22 March 2013). "West Ham get Olympic Stadium after government ups funding". BBC Sport.
  201. "Olympic Stadium: West Ham sell out over 50,000 season tickets for next season". BBC Sport. 9 May 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  202. Long, Sam. "West Ham confirm Europa League third qualifying round fixture date reversed by Uefa". Evening Standard. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
  203. Steinberg, Jacob. "Cheikhou Kouyaté sets West Ham's Olympic record in win over Domzale". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  204. "West Ham mark official London Stadium opening with Juventus defeat". BBC Sport. 7 August 2016. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  205. Hafez, Shamoon (21 August 2016). "West Ham United 1 AFC Bournemouth 0". BBC Sport. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  206. "West Ham United 2-4 Watford". 10 September 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2016 via www.bbc.co.uk.
  207. "Hornets come from behind to secure astonishing West Ham win". Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  208. "Arrests after West Ham v Middlesbrough violence". BBC Sport. 2 October 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  209. "West Ham condemn stadium violence". Sky Sports. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  210. "Middlesbrough fans attacked after West Ham game at London Stadium". The Telegraph. 1 October 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  211. "Sunderland fans 'feared for their safety' at West Ham's London Stadium". Sunderland Echo. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  212. "EFL Cup: West Ham v Chelsea tie to see enhanced security at London Stadium". BBC Sport. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  213. "West Ham v Chelsea: Eight-year-old caught up in football violence". BBC Sport. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  214. "West Ham v Chelsea: Arrests after London Stadium crowd disorder". BBC Sport. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  215. "West Ham: MP says club should play behind closed doors if violence is repeated". BBC Sport. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  216. "West Ham: London Stadium should be knocked down says expert". BBC Sport. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  217. "Olympic Stadium: T20 cricket deal 'in principle', say Essex". BBC Sport. 22 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  218. Ben Rumsby (21 November 2015). "Olympic Stadium moves closer to staging the first ever Major League Baseball game in Europe". The Telegraph. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  219. "London's Olympic Stadium to host 2015 Race of Champions". ESPN. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  220. William Esler at the Olympic Stadium. "Team England claim Race of Champions Nations Cup crown". Sky Sports. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  221. William Esler at the Olympic Stadium. "Sebastian Vettel crowned Champion of Champions at Race of Champions". Sky Sports. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  222. "Olympic Stadium to host England-New Zealand rugby league Test". BBC Sport. 25 February 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  223. Bower, Aaron (24 February 2015). "Olympic Stadium to host rugby league Test between England and New Zealand". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  224. The Rugby Football League. "England to Bid For Rugby League World Cup". Rugby League.com. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  225. "Rugby World Cup 2015: Olympic Stadium to host games". BBC News. 2 May 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  226. "Olympic Stadium: Barbarians face Samoa in first match at venue". BBC. 19 February 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  227. "Olympic Stadium to make rugby bow with Barbarians-Samoa ahead of World Cup | ESPN Scrum". ESPN. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  228. Purewal, Nick (19 February 2015). "Olympic Stadium to get Rugby World Cup warm-up when Barbarians take on Samoa | Daily Mail Online". Daily Mail. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  229. "Sprinklers put dampener on rugby's Olympic Stadium bow". BBC Sport. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
  230. Sweney, Mark (22 January 2013). "Live Nation strikes deal to exclusively host gigs at Olympic Stadium". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  231. "Axl Rose and AC/DC play first ever concert at London's Olympic Stadium". NME. 5 June 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  232. 1 2 3 4 "Getting Here". London Stadium. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
  233. 1 2 3 "Getting here". Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  234. "North East London Bus Map" (PDF). Transport for London. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  235. "A9 London Stratford to Stansted Airport". National Express. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  236. "London (Stratford) Bus Station". National Express. Retrieved 12 July 2016.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Olympic Stadium (London).

Preceded by
Beijing National Stadium
Summer Olympics
Opening and closing ceremonies (Olympic Stadium)

Succeeded by
Estádio do Maracanã
Rio de Janeiro
Preceded by
Beijing National Stadium
Summer Paralympics
Opening and closing ceremonies (Olympic Stadium)

Succeeded by
Estádio do Maracanã
Rio de Janeiro
Preceded by
Beijing National Stadium
Olympic Athletics competitions
Main venue

Succeeded by
Estádio Olímpico João Havelange
Rio de Janeiro
Preceded by
Beijing National Stadium
Paralympic Athletics competitions
Main venue

Succeeded by
Estádio Olímpico João Havelange
Rio de Janeiro
Preceded by
Beijing National Stadium
World Championships in Athletics
Main Venue

Succeeded by
Khalifa International Stadium
Preceded by
Invictus Games
Opening ceremony venue

2014 Invictus Games
Succeeded by
Champion Stadium
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/2/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.