List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe

  European states
  Most commonly accepted extent of European territory of transcontinental states

The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe, geographical or political. Fifty-six sovereign states, six of which have limited recognition, are listed with territory in Europe and/or membership in international European organisations. There are eight areas that are not integral parts of a European state or have special political status.

Geographical boundaries of Europe

Under the commonly used geographic definition, the border between Asia and Europe stretches along the Ural Mountains,[1] Ural River, and Caspian Sea in the east,[2] the Greater Caucasus range[3] and the Black Sea, with its outlets, the Bosporus and Dardanelles, in the south.[4][5][5] Based on that division, transcontinental states Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkey have territory both in Europe and Asia.

The island of Cyprus in West Asia is proximate to Anatolia (or Asia Minor) and is on the Anatolian Plate [6] but is often considered part of Europe and is a current member of the European Union (EU). Armenia is entirely in West Asia also but is a member of certain European organisations.[7] Sometimes Israel is considered as part of geopolitical Europe as well. The island of Malta is on the African Plate.

Although the Mediterranean Sea provides a clearer divide between Africa and Europe, some traditionally European islands such as Malta, Sicily, Pantelleria and the Pelagian Islands are located on the African continental plate.[8] The island of Iceland is part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, straddling the Eurasian Plate and the North American Plate.[9]

Some territories geographically outside Europe have strong connections with European states. Greenland has socio-political connections with Europe and is part of the Kingdom of Denmark, but closer to the continent of North America and usually grouped with it.[10]

Other territories are part of European countries but are geographically located in other continents, such as the French overseas departments,[11] the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla on the coast of Africa,[12] and the Dutch Caribbean territories of Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius.[13]

Political map of Europe and surrounding region

Sovereign states

A sovereign state is a political association with effective sovereignty over a population for whom it makes decisions in the national interest.[14] According to the Montevideo convention, a state must have a permanent population, a defined territory, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states.[15]

Recognized states

There are 50 internationally recognized sovereign states with territory located within the common definition of Europe and/or membership in international European organisations, of which 44 have their capital city within Europe. All except the Vatican City are members of the United Nations (UN),[16] and all except Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City are members of the Council of Europe.[17] 28 of these countries have also been member states of the EU since 2013, which means they are highly integrated with each other and share their sovereignty with EU institutions.

Each entry in the list below has a map of its location in Europe. Territory in Europe is shown in dark-green; territory not geographically in Europe is shown in a lighter shade of green. The lightest shade of green represents states in the EU and is shown on the maps of all territories within the EU.

* = Member of the EU[18]
Flag Map English short and formal names
Domestic short and formal names
Flag of Albania
Map showing Albania in Europe

Republic of Albania
Albanian: Shqipëri / Shqipëria — Republika e Shqipërisë Tirana

Albanian: Tiranë
3,020,209 28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi)
Flag of Andorra
Map showing Andorra in Europe

Principality of Andorra
Catalan: Andorra — Principat d'Andorra Andorra la Vella

Catalan: Andorra la Vella
85,458 468 km2 (181 sq mi)
Flag of Armenia
Map showing Armenia in Europe

Republic of Armenia
Armenian: Հայաստան — Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն (Hayastan — Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun) Yerevan

Armenian: Երևան (Yerevan)
3,060,631 29,743 km2 (11,484 sq mi)
Flag of Austria
Map showing Austria in Europe

Republic of Austria
German: Österreich — Republik Österreich Vienna

German: Wien
8,223,062 83,871 km2 (32,383 sq mi)
Flag of Azerbaijan
Map showing Azerbaijan in Europe

Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijani: Azǝrbaycan — Azǝrbaycan Respublikası Baku

Azerbaijani: Bakı
9,686,210 86,600 km2 (33,436 sq mi)
Flag of Belarus
Map showing Belarus in Europe

Republic of Belarus
Belarusian: Беларусь — Рэспубліка Беларусь

Russian: Беларусь — Республика Беларусь (Bielarus' — Respublika Belaruś)

Belarusian: Мінск (Minsk)
9,608,058 207,600 km2 (80,155 sq mi)
Flag of Belgium
Map showing Belgium in Europe

Kingdom of Belgium
Dutch: België — Koninkrijk België

French: Belgique — Royaume de Belgique

German: Belgien — Königreich Belgien

Dutch: Brussel

French: Bruxelles

German: Brüssel
11,239,755 30,528 km2 (11,787 sq mi)
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Map showing Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Latin: Bosna i Hercegovina

Bosnian, Serbian Cyrillic: Босна и Херцеговина

Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Latin: Sarajevo

Bosnian, Serbian Cyrillic: Сарајево
3,871,643 51,197 km2 (19,767 sq mi)
Flag of Bulgaria
Map showing Bulgaria in Europe

Republic of Bulgaria
Bulgarian: България — Република България (Bǎlgarija — Republika Bǎlgarija) Sofia

Bulgarian: София (Sofia)
6,924,716 110,879 km2 (42,811 sq mi)
Flag of Croatia
Map showing Croatia in Europe

Republic of Croatia
Croatian: Hrvatska — Republika Hrvatska Zagreb

Croatian: Zagreb
4,470,534 56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi)
Flag of Cyprus
Map showing Cyprus in Europe

Republic of Cyprus
Greek: Κύπρος — Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία (Kýpros — Kypriakí Dimokratí)

Turkish: Kıbrıs — Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti

Greek: Λευκωσία (Lefkosia)

Turkish: Lefkoşa
1,172,458 9,251 km2 (3,572 sq mi)
Flag of the Czech Republic
Map showing the Czech Republic in Europe
Czech Republic* Czech: Česko — Česká republika Prague

Czech: Praha
10,538,275 78,867 km2 (30,451 sq mi)
Flag of Denmark
Map showing Denmark in Europe

Kingdom of Denmark
Danish: Danmark — Kongeriget Danmark Copenhagen

Danish: København
5,569,077 2,210,000 km2 (853,286 sq mi)
Flag of Estonia
Map showing Estonia in Europe

Republic of Estonia
Estonian: Eesti — Eesti Vabariik Tallinn

Estonian: Tallinn
1,257,921 45,228 km2 (17,463 sq mi)
Flag of Finland
Map showing Finland in Europe

Republic of Finland
Finnish: Suomi — Suomen tasavalta

Swedish: Finland — Republiken Finland

Finnish: Helsinki

Swedish: Helsingfors
5,268,799 338,145 km2 (130,559 sq mi)
Flag of France
Map showing France in Europe

French Republic
French: France — République française Paris

French: Paris
66,259,012 643,427 km2 (248,429 sq mi)
Flag of Georgia
Map showing Georgia in Europe
Georgia[b] Georgian: საქართველო (Sak'art'velo) Tbilisi / T'bilisi

Georgian: თბილისი (T'bilisi)
4,935,880 69,700 km2 (26,911 sq mi)
Flag of Germany
Map showing Germany in Europe

Federal Republic of Germany
German: Deutschland — Bundesrepublik Deutschland Berlin

German: Berlin
80,996,685 357,022 km2 (137,847 sq mi)
Flag of Greece
Map showing Greece in Europe

Hellenic Republic
Greek: Ελλάς — Ελληνική Δημοκρατία (Ellás — Elliniki Dimokratia) Athens

Greek: Αθήνα (Athína)
10,816,286 131,957 km2 (50,949 sq mi)
Flag of Hungary
Map showing Hungary in Europe
Hungary* Hungarian: Magyarország Budapest

Hungarian: Budapest
9,919,128 93,028 km2 (35,918 sq mi)
Flag of Iceland
Map showing Iceland in Europe

Republic of Iceland
Icelandic: Ísland — Lýðveldið Ísland Reykjavík

Icelandic: Reykjavík
317,351 103,000 km2 (39,769 sq mi)
Flag of Ireland
Map showing Ireland in Europe
Ireland*[d][26] English: Ireland

Irish: Éire

English: Dublin

Irish: Baile Átha Cliath
4,832,765 70,273 km2 (27,133 sq mi)
Flag of Italy
Map showing Italy in Europe

Italian Republic
Italian: Italia — Repubblica Italiana Rome

Italian: Roma
61,680,122 301,340 km2 (116,348 sq mi)
Flag of Kazakhstan
Map showing Kazakhstan in Europe

Republic of Kazakhstan
Kazakh: Қазақстан — Қазақстан Республикасы (Qazaqstan — Qazaqstan Respūblīkasy)

Russian: Казахстан — Республика Казахстан (Kazahstan — Respublika Kazahstan)

Kazakh: Астана

Russian: Астана (Astana)
17,948,816 2,724,900 km2 (1,052,090 sq mi)
Flag of Latvia
Map showing Latvia in Europe

Republic of Latvia
Latvian: Latvija — Latvijas Republika Riga

Latvian: Rīga
2,165,165 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi)
Flag of Liechtenstein
Map showing Liechtenstein in Europe

Principality of Liechtenstein
German: Liechtenstein — Fürstentum Liechtenstein Vaduz

German: Vaduz
37,313 160 km2 (62 sq mi)
Flag of Lithuania
Map showing Lithuania in Europe

Republic of Lithuania
Lithuanian: Lietuva — Lietuvos Respublika Vilnius

Lithuanian: Vilnius
2,943,472 65,300 km2 (25,212 sq mi)
Flag of Luxembourg
Map showing Luxembourg in Europe

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
German: Luxemburg — Großherzogtum Luxemburg

French: Luxembourg — Grand-Duché de Luxembourg

Luxembourgish: Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg

German: Luxemburg

French: Luxembourg

Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg
520,672 2,586 km2 (998 sq mi)
Flag of Macedonia
Map showing Macedonia in Europe

Republic of Macedonia
Macedonian: Македонија — Република Македонија (Makedonija — Republika Makedonija) Skopje

Macedonian: Скопје (Skopje)
2,091,719 25,713 km2 (9,928 sq mi)
Flag of Malta
Map showing Malta in Europe

Republic of Malta
English: Malta — Republic of Malta

Maltese: Malta — Repubblika ta' Malta

English: Valletta

Maltese: Valletta
412,655 316 km2 (122 sq mi)
Flag of Moldova
Map showing Moldova in Europe

Republic of Moldova
Romanian: Moldova — Republica Moldova Chișinău

Romanian: Chișinău
3,583,288 33,851 km2 (13,070 sq mi)
Flag of Monaco
Map showing Monaco in Europe

Principality of Monaco
French: Monaco — Principauté de Monaco Monaco

French: Monaco
30,508 2 km2 (0.8 sq mi)
Flag of Montenegro
Map showing Montenegro in Europe
Montenegro[i] Montenegrin: Црна Гора (Crna Gora) Podgorica

Montenegrin: Подгорица (Podgorica)
650,036 13,812 km2 (5,333 sq mi)
Flag of the Netherlands
Map showing the Netherlands in Europe

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Dutch: Nederland — Koninkrijk der Nederlanden Amsterdam (capital)

The Hague (seat of government)

Dutch: Amsterdam

Dutch: 's-Gravenhage / Den Haag
16,877,351 41,543 km2 (16,040 sq mi)
Flag of Norway
Map showing Norway in Europe

Kingdom of Norway
Bokmål: Norge — Kongeriket Norge

Nynorsk: Noreg — Kongeriket Noreg

Norwegian: Oslo
5,147,792 323,802 km2 (125,021 sq mi)
Flag of Poland
Map showing Poland in Europe

Republic of Poland
Polish: Polska — Rzeczpospolita Polska Warsaw

Polish: Warszawa
38,346,279 312,685 km2 (120,728 sq mi)
Flag of Portugal
Map showing Portugal in Europe

Portuguese Republic
Portuguese: Portugal — República Portuguesa Lisbon

Portuguese: Lisboa
10,427,301 92,090 km2 (35,556 sq mi)
Flag of Romania
Map showing Romania in Europe
Romania* Romanian: România Bucharest

Romanian: București
21,729,871 238,391 km2 (92,043 sq mi)
Flag of Russia
Map showing Russia in Europe

Russian Federation
Russian: Росси́я — Российская Федерация (Rossija — Rossijskaja Federacija) Moscow

Russian: Москва (Moskva)
146,267,288 17,098,242 km2 (6,601,668 sq mi)
Flag of San Marino
Map showing San Marino in Europe
San Marino

Republic of San Marino
Italian: San Marino — Repubblica di San Marino San Marino

Italian: San Marino
32,742 61 km2 (24 sq mi)
Flag of Serbia
Map showing Serbia in Europe

Republic of Serbia
Serbian: Србија — Република Србија, Srbija – Republika Srbija Belgrade

Serbian: Београд, Beograd
7,209,764 88,361 km2 (34,116 sq mi)
Flag of Slovakia
Map showing Slovakia in Europe

Slovak Republic
Slovak: Slovensko — Slovenská republika Bratislava

Slovak: Bratislava
5,443,583 49,035 km2 (18,933 sq mi)
Flag of Slovenia
Map showing Slovenia in Europe

Republic of Slovenia
Slovene: Slovenija — Republika Slovenija Ljubljana

Slovene: Ljubljana
1,988,292 20,273 km2 (7,827 sq mi)
Flag of Spain
Map showing Spain in Europe

Kingdom of Spain
Spanish: Reino de España Madrid

Spanish: Madrid
47,737,941 505,370 km2 (195,124 sq mi)
Flag of Sweden
Map showing Sweden in Europe

Kingdom of Sweden
Swedish: Sverige — Konungariket Sverige Stockholm

Swedish: Stockholm
9,723,809 450,295 km2 (173,860 sq mi)
Flag of Switzerland
Map showing Switzerland in Europe

Swiss Confederation
German: Schweiz — Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft

French: Suisse — Confédération Suisse

Italian: Svizzera — Confederazione Svizzera

Romansh: Svizra — Confederaziun svizra
Bern / Berne

German: Bern

French: Berne

Italian: Berna
8,061,516 41,277 km2 (15,937 sq mi)
Flag of Turkey
Map showing Turkey in Europe

Republic of Turkey
Turkish: Türkiye — Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Ankara

Turkish: Ankara
76,667,864 783,562 km2 (302,535 sq mi)
Flag of Ukraine
Map showing Ukraine in Europe
Ukraine Ukrainian: Украïна (Ukraina) Kiev

Ukrainian: Київ (Kyiv)
44,291,413 603,550 km2 (233,032 sq mi)
Flag of the United Kingdom
Map showing the UK in Europe
United Kingdom*[h]

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
English: United Kingdom — United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland London

English: London
63,742,977 243,610 km2 (94,058 sq mi)
Flag of the Vatican City
Map showing Vatican City in Europe
Vatican City

Vatican City State

Holy See

Italian: Città del Vaticano — Stato della Città del Vaticano

Latin: Sancta Sedes[27]
Vatican City

Italian: Città del Vaticano
842 0.44 km2 (0.17 sq mi)

States with limited recognition

The following six entities in Europe have partial diplomatic recognition by one or more UN member states (and therefore are defined as states by the constitutive theory of statehood) or have no diplomatic recognition by any UN member state but are defined as states by the declarative theory of statehood and are recognised by one or more Non-UN member states. None are members of the UN, Council of Europe or EU.

Flag Map English short and formal names Status Domestic short and formal names Capital Population[a] Area[a]
Flag of Abkhazia
Map showing Abkhazia in Europe

Republic of Abkhazia
Claimed as an autonomous republic of Georgia. Recognised by four UN states.[28] Abkhaz: Аҧсны (Apsny)

Russian: Абха́зия (Abhazia)

Abkhaz: Аҟəа (Akwa)

Russian: Сухуми
250,000 [29] 8,660 km2 (3,344 sq mi)[30]
Flag of Kosovo
Map showing Kosovo in Europe

Republic of Kosovo[19]
Recognised by 110 UN member states;[31] Serbia does not recognise the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence, and considers it an autonomous province. Albanian: Kosova / Kosovë — Republika e Kosovës

Serbian: Косово — Република Косово, Kosovo – Republika Kosovo

Albanian: Prishtina, Prishtinë

Serbian: Приштина, Priština
1,836,529[24] 10,887 km2 (4,203 sq mi)[25]
Flag of Nagorno-Karabakh
Map showing Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan

Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Claimed as part of Azerbaijan. De facto independent state,[32] recognised by 3 non-UN states. Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ — Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ Հանրապետություն (Lernayin Gharabaghi — Lernayin Gharabaghi Hanrapetut’yun)[33] Stepanakert

Armenian: Ստեփանակերտ (Khankendi)
141,400[34] 7,000 km2 (2,703 sq mi)[35]
Flag of Northern Cyprus
Map showing Northern Cyprus in Europe
Northern Cyprus[c]

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Claimed as part of the Republic of Cyprus. Recognised by Turkey.[36] Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs — Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti Nicosia

Turkish: Lefkoşa
294,906[37] 3,355 km2 (1,295 sq mi)[25]
Flag of South Ossetia
Map showing South Ossetia in Europe
South Ossetia[b]

Republic of South Ossetia
Claimed as part of Georgia. Recognised by four UN states.[28] Ossetian: Хуссар Ирыстон — Республикæ Хуссар Ирыстон (Khussar Iryston — Respublikæ Khussar Iryston)

Russian: Южная Осетия — Республика Южная Осетия (Yuzhnaya Osetiya — Respublika Yuzhnaya Osetiya)

Ossetian: Цхинвал or Чъреба (Chreba)
70,000[38] 3,900 km2 (1,506 sq mi)[39]
Flag of Transnistria
Map showing Transnistria in Moldova
Transnistria / Trans-Dniester

Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
Claimed as a territorial unit of Moldova. De facto independent state,[32] recognised by 3 non-UN states. Moldovan: Нистрянэ — Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ (Transnistria — Republica Moldovenească Nistreană)

Russian: Приднестрóвье — Приднестрóвская Молдáвская Респýблика (Pridnestrov'ye — Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika)

Ukrainian: Придністров'я — Придністровська Молдавська Республіка (Prydnistrov'ya — Pridnistrovs'ka Moldavs'ka Respublika)

Moldovan: Тираспол

Russian: Тирáсполь

Ukrainian: Тирасполь
530,000[40] 3,500 km2 (1,351 sq mi)[41]

Dependent territories

The following six European entities are dependent territories.[42]

* = Part of the EU, although there may be special arrangements
Flag Map English short and formal names[19][21] Legal status Domestic short and formal names Capital[22] Population[24] Area[25]
Flag of the United Kingdom, as used in Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Map showing Akrotiri and Dhekelia in Europe
Akrotiri and Dhekelia [c]

Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia
British overseas territory English: Akrotiri and Dhekelia — Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Episkopi Cantonment

English: Episkopi Cantonment
15,700 254 km2 (98 sq mi)
Flag of the Faroe Islands
Map showing the Faroe Islands in Europe
Faroe Islands / Faeroe Islands Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark Faroese: Føroyar

Danish: Færøerne

Faroese: Tórshavn

Danish: Thorshavn
49,947 1,393 km2 (538 sq mi)
Flag of Gibraltar
Map showing Gibraltar in Europe
Gibraltar*[43] British overseas territory English: Gibraltar Gibraltar

English: Gibraltar
29,185 6.5 km2 (2.5 sq mi)
Flag of Guernsey
Map showing Guernsey in relation to the United Kingdom

Bailiwick of Guernsey
Crown Dependency in right of Guernsey[44][45][46] English: Guernsey — Bailiwick of Guernsey

French: Guernesey — Bailliage de Guernesey

Guernésiais: Guernesey — Bailliage de Guernesey
Saint Peter Port

English: Saint Peter Port

French: Saint Pierre Port

Guernésiais: Saint Pierre Port
65,849 78 km2 (30 sq mi)
Flag of the Isle of Man
Map showing the Isle of Man in Europe
Isle of Man[h] Crown Dependency in right of Man[46][47][48] English: Isle of Man

Manx: Mannin — Ellan Vannin

English: Douglas

Manx: Doolish
86,866 572 km2 (221 sq mi)
Flag of Jersey
Map showing Jersey in Europe

Bailiwick of Jersey
Crown Dependency in right of Jersey[44][45][46] English: Jersey — Bailiwick of Jersey

French: Jèrri — Bailliage de Jèrri

Jèrriais: Jèrri — Bailliage de Jèrri
Saint Helier

English: Saint Helier

French: Saint-Hélier

Jèrriais: Saint Hélyi
96,513 118 km2 (46 sq mi)

Special areas of internal sovereignty

The following places are considered integral parts of their controlling state, but have a political arrangement which was decided through an international agreement.

* = Part of the EU, although there may be special arrangements
Flag Map English short and formal names Legal status Domestic short and formal names Capital Population Area
Flag of Åland
Map showing Åland in Europe

Åland Islands[21]
Self-governing area of Finland, significant autonomy as the result of the Åland crisis[50] Swedish: Åland — Landskapet Åland Mariehamn[21]

Swedish: Mariehamn
27,500[51] 6,787 km2 (2,620 sq mi)[51]
Flag of the United Kingdom; Northern Ireland does not have its own flag
Map showing Northern Ireland in the United Kingdom and Europe
Northern Ireland* Part of the United Kingdom, devolved government determined by the Good Friday Agreement[52] Northern Ireland[53] Belfast[53] 1,810,863 [54] 14,130 km2 (5,456 sq mi)[53]
Flag of Norway, as used in Svalbard
Map showing Svalbard in Europe
Svalbard[19] Special territory of Norway, determined by the Svalbard Treaty[55] Norwegian: Svalbard Longyearbyen[21][22]

Norwegian: Longyearbyen
2,019[24] 62,045 km2 (23,956 sq mi)[25]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f Area and population numbers include integral areas located outside of Europe. The area and population of states with separatist regions includes that of the separatist regions.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Part of Transcaucasian Region, at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. Physiographically, Armenia falls entirely in Western Asia, while Georgia and Azerbaijan are mostly in Asia with small portions north of the Caucasus Mountains divide in Europe.
  3. ^ a b c The island of Cyprus is located on the Cyprian arc on the edge of the Asian Anatolian Plate and is physiographically associated with Asia, but it is part of European organisations such as the EU.
  4. ^ The terms Republic of Ireland and Poblacht na hÉireann are not official long names and are used only as a legal description meant to differentiate the state from the island.
  5. ^ a b c Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkey have territory in both Europe (dark green) and Asia (light green).
  6. ^ a b Denmark and the Netherlands are constituent countries of the Kingdom of Denmark and the Kingdom of the Netherlands respectively. Both are members of the EU; however, the other constituent countries of their kingdoms are not. In international organisations, the terms Denmark and Netherlands are often used as short forms of their respective kingdoms as a whole.
  7. ^ The Netherlands is also known as "Holland", but this is the improper name of the whole country as it refers only to a small region inside the country. See Netherlands (terminology).
  8. ^ a b c d The United Kingdom consists of the countries of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The UK is responsible for the foreign relations and ultimate good governance of the Crown dependencies of Guernsey, the Isle of Man and Jersey, which are otherwise separate. The mainlands of England, Scotland and Wales make up the island of Great Britain (or simply Britain), which is sometimes used synonymously with the United Kingdom.
  9. ^ a b c d e f EU candidate country.


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  4. Charles T. Evans (2009-07-01). "Black Sea". Retrieved 2011-02-17.
  5. 1 2 Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopaedia 2007. Europe. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 2007-12-27.
  6. Shimon Wdowinski; Zvi Ben-Avraham; Ronald Arvidsson; Goran Ekström (2006). "Seismotectonics of the Cyprian Arc" (PDF). Geophysics Journal International. 164 (164): 176–181. Bibcode:2006GeoJI.164..176W. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02737.x. Retrieved 2011-03-05.
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