John IV Laskaris

John IV Doukas Laskaris
Ἰωάννης Δ΄ Δούκας Λάσκαρις

Portrait of John IV from a 15th-century manuscript
Emperor of Nicaea
Reign 1258–1261
Predecessor Theodore II Laskaris
Successor Michael VIII Palaiologos
Born 25 December 1250
Died c. 1305
Father Theodore II Laskaris
Mother Elena of Bulgaria
Religion Eastern Orthodoxy

John IV Doukas Laskaris (or Ducas Lascaris) (Greek: Ἰωάννης Δ΄ Δούκας Λάσκαρις, Iōannēs IV Doukas Laskaris) (December 25, 1250 – c. 1305) was emperor of Nicaea from August 18, 1258 to December 25, 1261. This empire was one of the Greek states formed from the remaining fragments of the Byzantine Empire, after the capture of Constantinople by Roman Catholics during the Fourth Crusade in 1204.


John was a son of Theodore II Doukas Laskaris and Elena of Bulgaria. His maternal grandparents were Emperor Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria and his second wife was Anna Maria of Hungary. Anna was originally named Mária and was the eldest daughter of Andrew II of Hungary and Gertrude of Merania.

John IV was only seven years old when he inherited the throne on the death of his father. The young monarch was the last member of the Laskarid dynasty, which had done much to restore the Byzantine Empire. His regent was originally the bureaucrat George Mouzalon, but Mouzalon was murdered by the nobility, and the nobles' leader Michael Palaiologos usurped the post. Soon, on January 1, 1259, Palaiologos made himself co-emperor as Michael VIII. Michael was, in fact, John's second cousin once removed, since they were both descended from Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamatera.

After Michael's conquest of Constantinople from the Latin Empire on July 25, 1261, John IV was left behind at Nicaea, and was later blinded on Michael's orders on his eleventh birthday, December 25, 1261.[1] This made him ineligible for the throne, and he was exiled and imprisoned in a fortress in Bithynia. This action led to the excommunication of Michael VIII Palaiologos by the Patriarch Arsenius Autoreianus, and a later revolt led by a Pseudo-John IV near Nicaea.

John IV spent the remainder of his life as monk in Dacibyza,[2] under the name Joasaph.[3] There is a rescript of Charles of Anjou, dated 9 May 1273, which refers to a report that John escaped from his imprisonment and invites him to come to his court. Further documents attest to his arrival and receiving a pension from the Angevin arch-enemy of Michael Palailogos. However, this contradicts the evidence of the historians George Pachymeres and Nikephoros Gregoras, who record that John remained in Dacbyza until long after Michael's death. In his study of Michael VIII's reign, historian Deno John Geanakoplos discusses the contradictory evidence and comes to the conclusion that the documents of Charles of Anjou were intended to serve as propaganda, "to attract the support of the legitimist, pro-Lascarid Greeks of the Byzantine Empire, as well as to sway the anti-Angevin sentiment of the still surviving Greek population of Charles' own territories of southern Italy and Sicily."[4]

In 1290 John was visited by Michael VIII's son and successor Andronikos II Palaiologos, who sought forgiveness for his father's blinding three decades earlier. As Donald Nicol notes, "The occasion must have been embarrassing for both parties, but especial for Andronikos who, after all, was the beneficiary of his father's crimes against John Laskaris."[5] The deposed emperor died about 1305 and was eventually recognized as a saint, whose memory was revered in Constantinople in the 14th century.


8. Basileios Vatatzes
4. John III Doukas Vatatzes
18. Isaakios Angelos
9. unknown Angelina
2. Theodore II Laskaris
20. Manuel Laskaris
10. Theodore I Laskaris
21. Joanna Karatzaina
5. Eirene Laskarina
22. Alexios III Angelos
11. Anna Angelina
23. Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamatera
1. John IV Laskaris
12. Ivan Asen I of Bulgaria
6. Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria
13. Elena
3. Elena Asenina
28. Béla III of Hungary
14. Andrew II of Hungary
29. Agnes de Châtillon
7. Anna Maria of Hungary
30. Berthold IV, Duke of Merania
15. Gertrude of Merania
31. Agnes of Rochlitz

See also


  1. Hackel 2001, p. 71
  2. Gharipour Mohammad. "Sacred Precincts: The Religious Architecture of Non-Muslim Communities Across the Islamic World" BRILL, 14 nov. 2014. ISBN 9004280227 p 147
  3. Donald M. Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453, second edition (Cambridge: University Press, 1993), p. 246
  4. Geanakoplos, Emperor Michael Palaeologus and the West (Harvard University Press, 1959), pp. 217f
  5. Donald M. Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453, second edition (Cambridge: University Press, 1993), p. 99

Further reading

John IV Laskaris
Laskarid dynasty
Born: 25 December 1250 Died: unknown 1305
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Theodore II Doukas Laskaris
Emperor of Nicaea
with Michael VIII Palaiologos (1259–1261)
Succeeded by
Michael VIII Palaiologos
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