Heinrich Bär

Heinrich Bär

The head and shoulders of a young man, shown in semi-profile. He wears a shirt with an Iron Cross displayed at the front of his shirt collar. His hair is dark and short, his nose is long and straight, and his facial expression is showing a broad smile; gazing at a point to the right of the camera.

Heinrich Bär
Birth name Oskar-Heinz Bär
Nickname(s) Pritzl or Reeste
Born (1913-05-25)25 May 1913
Sommerfeld, Kingdom of Saxony, German Empire
Died 28 April 1957(1957-04-28) (aged 43)
Braunschweig, Lower Saxony, West Germany
Allegiance  Nazi Germany
Service/branch  Luftwaffe
Years of service 1934–45
Rank Lieutenant Colonel (Oberstleutnant)
Unit JG 51, JG 77, JGr Süd, JG 1, JG 3, EJG 2 and JV 44
Commands held 12./JG 51, I.JG 77, JGr Süd, II./JG 1, JG 3, III./EJG 2 and JV 44

World War II

Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords
Other work test pilot

Oskar-Heinz (Heinrich) "Pritzl" Bär (pronounced [ˈhaɪnʁɪç bɛːɐ̯]; 25 May 1913 – 28 April 1957) was a German Luftwaffe flying ace who served throughout World War II in Europe.[1] Bär flew more than one thousand combat missions, and fought in all major German theaters of the war, including the Western, Eastern and Mediterranean fronts. On 18 occasions he survived being shot down, and he was credited with 220 or 221 aerial victories,[Note 1][5] around 16 of which were in a Messerschmitt Me-262 jet fighter.

Bär, a Saxon with a strong accent, joined the Reichswehr in 1934 and transferred to the Luftwaffe in 1935. Serving first as a mechanic, then as a pilot on transport aircraft, he was informally trained as a fighter pilot. He claimed his first aerial victory in September 1939 on the French border. By the end of the Battle of Britain, his tally of victories had increased to 17. Transferred to the Eastern Front to participate in Operation Barbarossa, he quickly accumulated further kills, a feat that earned him the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords for 90 aerial victories in February 1942.

During the remainder of World War II, Bär was credited with 130 other aerial victories, including 16 while flying one of the first jet fighters, the Me 262, an achievement which would normally have earned him the coveted Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds.[4][6] Hermann Göring's personal dislike of Bär, coupled with Bär's insubordinate character and lack of military discipline, deprived him of this award.[7] After World War II, Bär continued his career as an aviator. He was killed in a flying accident on 28 April 1957 near Braunschweig.

Early life

Bär was born on 25 May 1913 in Sommerfeld near Leipzig in the Kingdom of Saxony, a federated state of the German Empire.[Note 2] His parents were farmers, and in 1916, his father was killed in action on the Western Front of World War I. Bär attended the Volksschule, a combined primary and lower secondary school, in Sommerfeld. Initially, he planned on taking over the family farm in Engelsdorf and following graduation attended the agriculture school in Wurzen. Aged 15, he became a glider pilot, joining the glider club on the "Schwarzer Berg" (Black Mountain) at Taucha.[8] Bär then wanted to become a forester, for everything associated with wildlife and forests interested him. His first sight of a Junkers transport aircraft changed his mind and convinced him that he should become an aviator.[9] As a teenager, he had ambitions to become an airline pilot with Deutsche Luft Hansa.[10]

The Great Depression prevented Bär from gaining a civil pilot license. In 1934, he joined the Reichswehr and was assigned to the 3. Kompanie of Kraftfahrabteilung 4 (3rd Company of the 4th Motor Vehicle Battalion) as a mechanic. He served in this position until the following year, when he was transferred to a combat wing of the Luftwaffe. A few months later, he was accepted for pilot training, receiving his transport aircraft pilot's training.[Note 3] From 1 November 1937 to 31 March 1938, Bär attended the flight school at Oldenburg and was then transferred to the flight school at Hildesheim. He was transferred again, attending the flight school at Ludwigslust where he attained his Luftwaffe Advanced Pilot's Certificate (Erweiterter Luftwaffen-Flugzeugführerschein), also known as 'C'-Certificate, confirming proficiency on multi-engine aircraft, on 16 May 1938. Bär then attended the blind flying school Blindflugschule 2 (BFS 2—2nd blind flying school) at Neuburg an der Donau from 7 July to 14 August 1938.[11] He was transferred to I./Jagdgeschwader 135, the core of the future Jagdgeschwader 51 (JG 51), on 1 September 1938, usually flying the Junkers Ju 86.[Note 4][10] The Squadron Leader (Staffelkapitän) Douglas Pitcairn noticed Bär's flying talents and tried to convince Bär to become a fighter pilot. Initially Bär refused, but after he illegally conducted some aerobatics in the Ju 86 leading to an engine failure, he reluctantly accepted and became a fighter pilot.[12][13]

World War II

Stationed on the border with France, Bär achieved his first victory—a Curtiss P-36 Hawk—on 25 September 1939 during the Phoney War air skirmishes with the Armée de l'Air (French air force), earning him the Iron Cross 2nd Class on 27 September 1939.[14] During the Battle of France, he was credited with two more aerial victories before adding a further 10 during the Battle of Britain. During this time, he had several emergency landings with badly damaged planes and was shot down over the English Channel on 2 September 1940 by a Spitfire. Bär was summoned to appear before Hermann Göring and report on this battle.[Note 5] When Göring asked him what he was thinking about while in the water, Bär immediately replied, "Your speech, Herr Reichsmarschall, in which you said that England is no longer an island!", alluding to an address that Göring had made before the German fighter pilots.[15] Incidents like this are testimony to his often blatant disregard for higher authority, a trait that frequently landed him in trouble.[17] In early 1941, he was credited with an additional four aerial victories against the Royal Air Force (RAF), bringing his total to 17.[15][18]

Eastern Front

In June 1941, JG 51 was transferred East to take part in Operation Barbarossa. JG 51 at the time was part of the 2nd Air Corps, operating in the central sector of the Eastern Front. Bär claimed five aerial victories on 30 June 1941, bringing his total to 22.[19] On this day JG 51 was credited with 113 aerial victories in total, among them their 1,000th aerial victory—the first unit to reach this figure—and Oberst Werner Mölders, with 82 aerial victories, surpassed Manfred von Richthofen in number of victories.[20][21] Within two weeks of combat against the Soviet Air Force, Bär's tally rose to 27, which earned him the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 2 July, followed by his promotion to Oberleutnant on 1 August 1941. On 14 August, he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves for 60 victories, and on 30 August he became an "ace-in-a-day" by shooting down six Soviet aircraft. On 31 August, Bär was shot down by an Ilyushin Il-2 some 50 kilometers (31 mi) behind Soviet lines, near Novgorod-Seversky. He suffered injuries to his back and feet while bailing out, but was able to walk back to the German lines; his wounds necessitated a lengthy hospital treatment.[22][23]

Bär was promoted to Hauptmann in late 1941 and appointed Squadron Leader of 12./JG 51 in early 1942. His longtime wingman at the time was Heinrich Hoffmann.[24] He received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords on 16 February as his tally rose to 90. This achievement was mentioned in the daily Wehrmachtbericht (the propaganda report by the OKW) on 12 February 1942, his first of three references during the course of the war. On 11 May, Bär was transferred from IV./JG 51 on the Moscow front to take command of I. Gruppe of Gordon Gollob's Jagdgeschwader 77 (JG 77) flying wing. Bär replaced Herbert Ihlefeld who had been transferred. JG 77 was tasked with supporting the hard fighting in the Crimean Campaign over the Kerch Strait on the Crimean Peninsula. Led by the flying aces (Experten) Gollob and Bär, JG 77 took over the air space above Kerch-Taman as Gollob and Bär shot down two and three LaGG-3s respectively, raising Bär's victory total to 93.[25] Mutual animosity between the two men, Gollob, a disciplinarian pro-Nazi, and Bär, an anti-authoritarian, ensured an intense rivalry.[25] On 19 May 1942, Bär claimed five further aerial victories; his victory total now stood at 103. He was the 9th Luftwaffe pilot to achieve the century mark.[26] That same day, Inspector of Fighters (General der Jagdflieger) Adolf Galland arrived to inspect Bär's I./JG 77 and JG 77 surpassed 2,000 victories.[27][28] This flying achievement earned Bär a second mention in the daily Wehrmachtbericht on 20 May 1942.[29]

Mediterranean theater

Tail of Bär's Messerschmitt Bf 109F-4 with the Stab I./JG 77

In June 1942, JG 77 was moved to the Mediterranean theater and took part in the air battles over Malta before relocating to Tunisia and participating in the North African Campaign. On 25 January 1943, Bär claimed two Curtiss P-40 Warhawk fighters shot down, taking his total to 149 aerial victories.[30] After Bär achieved his 149th aerial victory, General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim submitted him for the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds. Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring ignored this request, denying Bär the "Diamonds". The reason for this remains uncertain, but it is believed that Göring disliked Bär for his insubordinate character and strong Saxon dialect, which Göring was known to detest.[31] On 27 January 1943, Bär surpassed the 150 aerial victory mark after he claimed three more P-40s shot down.[30]

"He was honest through and through. Whatever he told you was the truth. He never tried to cover things up as some pilots did."[32]

Günther Rall, Chief of the Air Staff of the post-war Luftwaffe

Bär and his I. Gruppe of JG 77 operated from Fatnassa, Tunisia, in early March 1943. On 1 March, Bär claimed a Spitfire shot down, then in the evening met Galland, who was making a surprise visit to I./JG 77. Galland was greeted by Major Joachim Müncheberg, who introduced Bär to Galland. Thus began a comradeship which outlasted World War II.[33]

Over North Africa and the Mediterranean theater, Bär had increased his tally to 179, but, fighting a losing battle against ever-increasing Allied air superiority, Bär lost his fighting spirit, and suffered severe mental and physical exhaustion. After several arguments with JG 77's new Commander Colonel Johannes Steinhoff and Hermann Göring, in mid-1943 Bär was transferred to France "for cowardice before the enemy" and demoted to Squadron Leader. He took over command of an operational training unit, Jagdgruppe Süd.[34][35]

Defense of the Reich

Bär inspecting his 184th aerial victory, a Boeing B-17F of 91st Bomb Group on 21 February 1944. His wingman Leo Schuhmacher is standing to his right.[36]

His combat skills were hard to overlook and hence Bär was transferred to II./Jagdgeschwader 1 (JG 1) on 21 January 1944 as an ordinary pilot. He was assigned to 6./JG 1. Jagdgeschwader 1 (JG 1) Wing Commander (Geschwaderkommodore) Colonel Walter Oesau welcomed him with a reminder that he had promised Oberkommando der Luftwaffe (OKL) Göring that Bär would not be given any command responsibilities. Although Bär accepted this with humor, he later commented to others that in the air he was the "Kommodore of his own crate".[35][37]

On 15 March 1944, Bär, now a Major and rehabilitated from the demotion, was given command of II./Jagdgeschwader 1 (JG 1). This was after the death of Hauptmann Hermann Segatz on 8 March 1944. JG 1 was tasked with Reichsverteidigung (Defense of the Reich) and equipped with the Focke Wulf 190 A-7 fighter. Morale of the group soared following his appointment. He was considered the unofficial leader of the group and the best officer in the entire Geschwader.[38] On 11 April 1944, Bär achieved his 199th aerial victory over a B-17 Flying Fortress near Fallersleben. His 200th aerial victory, a B-24 Liberator, was claimed on 22 April accompanied by his regular wingman Warrant Officer (Oberfeldwebel) Leo Schuhmacher, who would be awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 1 March 1945 as a fighter pilot in II./JG 1.[36][39] Bär had just landed at Störmede airfield from a II./JG 1 intercept when a smoking United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) B-24 of the 458th Bombardment Group passed overhead. Bär and his wingman quickly got into their aircraft and intercepted the B-24. The bomber's gunners had already bailed out of the aircraft, making it an easy aerial victory.[40] Bär returned to Störmede airfield to the congratulations of his men. This double century victory earned Bär his third and final reference in the Wehrmachtbericht on 24 April 1944. After Oesau's death on 11 May 1944, Bär was made acting Wing Commander of JG 1. In June, he was appointed Wing Commander of Jagdgeschwader 3 (JG 3) following the death of Friedrich-Karl Müller. By the end of 1944, Bär's score had risen to 203.[34][41]

Bär's 204th and 205th victories, against two Hawker Typhoons, were achieved on 1 January 1945 during Unternehmen Bodenplatte, a Luftwaffe mass attack against Allied airfields in the Benelux area. The operation resulted in hundreds of aircraft losses on both sides. Bär's JG 3 contributed by raiding Eindhoven in the Netherlands, shooting down about six RAF fighters and destroying many aircraft on the ground.[34][42] One of Bär's 'aerial kills' may not have been airborne. Historian Norman Franks states both aircraft, from No. 438 Squadron RAF, were taxiing when hit. Flight Lieutenant Pete Wilson was wounded and later died from his injuries after Bär's strafing attack. The second Typhoon did get airborne. Its pilot, Flight Officer Ross Keller was killed.[43] This version of events is contradicted by a witness, Pilot Officer 'Bill' Harle, who thought both aircraft were airborne.[44]

Combat in the Me 262

In February, Bär was transferred to command the jet fighter training unit III./Ergänzungs-Jagdgeschwader 2 (EJG 2). In March, the unit was equipped with the Messerschmitt Me 262 fighter and sent into battle. Bär shot down 13 enemy aircraft, many of them heavy bombers like the B-17 and the B-24, bringing his score to 217. On 23 April, Bär transferred to the elite Jet Experten unit Jagdverband 44 (JV 44), led by Adolf Galland. On 26 April, he assumed command of the unit when Galland was wounded. Bär possibly flew his first operational sortie with JV 44 on 27 April 1945. Flying the Me 262 A-1/U5, a six MK 108 cannon prototype, he was accompanied by Major Wilhelm Herget and the non-commissioned officer NCO (Unteroffizier) Franz Köster when the trio engaged American fighters over Riem; Bär claimed one aerial victory.[45] While not flying operationally, Bär spent most of his time giving hasty instruction to the new pilots still being assigned to JV 44.[46] With JV 44, he achieved his final four aerial victories (3 P-47s and 1 Mosquito) on 28 April,[47] bringing his total to 220. All told, he had achieved 16 victories in the Me 262, making him the second most successful Jet Expert of the war, which he finished as a Lieutenant Colonel (Oberstleutnant).[Note 6][48][47]

Messerschmitt Me 262 A-1a - EJG 2 - Major Heinz Bär

During the final days of the Second World War in Europe, Lieutenant General (Generalleutnant) Adolf Galland attempted to surrender JV 44 to American forces from his hospital bed.[49] At the same time Air General (General der Flieger) Karl Koller had ordered JV 44 to relocate to Prague and continue fighting. Bär, as a Galland loyalist, attempted to ignore the order. Bär was further pressured to relocate JV 44 when Major General (Generalmajor) Dietrich Peltz, commander of IX. Fliegerkorps, and Colonel Hajo Herrmann, commander of 9. Flieger-Division (J), unexpectedly emerged at the control room in Maxglan on 2 May 1945. A heated and violent dispute erupted between Bär, Peltz and Herrmann, witnessed by Walter Krupinski. He later recalled that Bär responded with "Yes, sir, but we are under the command of Generalleutnant Galland, and I will only follow orders of Generalleutnant Galland!"—a final act of disobedience that Krupinski believed could have led to Bär being shot for insubordination.[50]

In the early morning hours of 4 May 1945, Bär gathered the pilots of JV 44 for a final briefing. Bär ordered the remaining Me 262 destroyed before going into captivity and interrogation by US Intelligence officers of the 1st Tactical Air Force's Air Prisoner of War Interrogation Unit, based at Heidelberg.[51]

After the war

Bär did not return to his home in Sommerfeld after World War II. He settled in Braunschweig, where he continued his career in aviation, including a lead position for motor-powered flight with the Deutscher Aero Club. He also worked as a consultant and test pilot in the field of sport aviation, testing aircraft before they went on the market. On 28 April 1957, while conducting a routine flight-check in a light aircraft, a LF-1 Zaunkönig, Bär put the aircraft into a flat spin, the final manoeuvre in the test process. The aircraft spun down to 50 meters (160 ft) then, unable to regain control, Bär was killed in the resulting crash at Braunschweig-Waggum.[4][34][52]

Summary of career

Heinrich Bär, call sign "Bussard 1", flew more than 1,000 combat missions. His 220 confirmed aerial victories place him eighth on the overall list of Experten.[Note 1][Note 7] His claim of 124 aerial victories over Western-flown aircraft is second only to Hans-Joachim Marseille's total of 158; almost all of the latter's victories occurred in Africa. He achieved four victories during the Battle of France, 13 during the Battle of Britain and 61 over Libya and Tunisia. On the Eastern Front he had claimed 96 aerial victories. At least 75 of his victories had been claimed against British- and American-flown aircraft over Europe, 16 of these while flying the Me 262 jet fighter. Also among these 75 aerial victories are 21 US heavy bombers and one Mosquito. Bär crash-landed or bailed out 18 times and was wounded three times in combat.[4][34][53][54]


Three times Heinz Bär was recommended for the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds. All three commendations were denied by Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring. Bär shot down a further 130 enemy aircraft after he had received the Swords.[70]

Dates of rank

4 April 1934: Gefreiter[11]
1 August 1940: Leutnant (Second Lieutenant),[55] with a rank age dated 1 May 1940[11]
14 August 1941: Oberleutnant (First Lieutenant),[11] with a rank age dated 1 August 1941[55]
1 December 1941: Hauptmann (Captain), with a rank age dated 1 September 1941[71]
1 March 1943: Major (Major),[55] with a rank age dated 1 September 1942[72]
1 January 1945: Oberstleutnant (Lieutenant Colonel)[55][73]


  1. 1 2 Some sources claim he is credited with 220 aerial victories, but 221 seems to be correct based on his log book and personal file. Sources that list him with 220 include Luftwaffe Fighter Aces by Mike Spick,[2] German Jet Aces of World War 2 by Hugh Morgan and John Weal.[3] Sources that list him with 221 aerial victories include Luftwaffe Aces by Franz Kurowski.[4] Such World War II air combat statistics are liable to dispute.
  2. In 1933, Sommerfeld was merged with Engelsdorf, which in 1999 became part of Leipzig.[8]
  3. Flight training in the Luftwaffe progressed through the levels A1, A2 and B1, B2, referred to as A/B flight training. A training included theoretical and practical training in aerobatics, navigation, long-distance flights and dead-stick landings. The B courses included high-altitude flights, instrument flights, night landings and training to handle the aircraft in difficult situations. For pilots destined to fly multi-engine aircraft, the training was completed with the Luftwaffe Advanced Pilot's Certificate (Erweiterter Luftwaffen-Flugzeugführerschein), also known as C-Certificate.
  4. For an explanation of the meaning of Luftwaffe unit designation see Organisation of the Luftwaffe during World War II.
  5. Sources are inconclusive with respect to whether Göring had witnessed the incident personally or whether it was reported to him on 8 September 1940 by Werner Mölders.[15][16]
  6. For a list of Luftwaffe Jet aces see List of German World War II jet aces
  7. For a list of World War II aces see List of World War II air aces
  8. According to Kurowski on 1 June 1942.[55]
  9. 1 2 According to Scherzer as Leutnant of the Reserves.[58]
  10. According to Scherzer as Hauptmann of the Reserves.[58]



  1. Spick 1996, pp. 3–4.
  2. Spick 1996, p. 227.
  3. Morgan & Weal 1998, p. 88.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Kurowski 1996, p. 122.
  5. Schaulen 2003, p. 26.
  6. Toliver & Constable 1998, p. 360.
  7. Kurowski 1996, pp. 103–105.
  8. 1 2 Stockert 1996, p. 182.
  9. Kurowski 1996, p. 73.
  10. 1 2 Toliver & Constable 1998, p. 358.
  11. 1 2 3 4 Stockert 1996, p. 183.
  12. Aders & Held 1993, pp. 29–30.
  13. Toliver & Constable 1998, p. 359.
  14. Aders & Held 1993, p. 47.
  15. 1 2 3 Spick 1996, p. 219.
  16. Aders & Held 1993, p. 68.
  17. Kurowski 1996, pp. 103-105.
  18. 1 2 3 4 Berger 1999, p. 13.
  19. Bergström & Mikhailov 2000, p. 61.
  20. Aders & Held 1993, p. 90.
  21. Weal 2001, p. 22.
  22. Kurowski 1996, pp. 83–87.
  23. Stockert 1996, pp. 184–185.
  24. Weal 2006, p. 67.
  25. 1 2 Bergström & Mikhailov 2001, p. 159.
  26. Obermaier 1989, p. 243.
  27. Bergström & Mikhailov 2001, p. 160.
  28. Kurowski 1996, p. 92.
  29. Frey & Herrmann 2004, p. 136.
  30. 1 2 Prien 1995, p. 2425.
  31. Kurowski 1996, p. 96.
  32. MacLean 2007, p. 6.
  33. Kurowski 2007, p. 70.
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 Berger 1999, p. 14.
  35. 1 2 Caldwell & Muller 2007, p. 153.
  36. 1 2 Weal 1996, p. 55.
  37. A Fighter Group in Normandy.
  38. Kurowski 1996, p. 107.
  39. Scherzer 2007, p. 688.
  40. Caldwell & Muller 2007, pp. 184–185.
  41. Caldwell & Muller 2007, pp. 170–202.
  42. Girbig 1997, p. 172.
  43. Franks 2000, p. 131.
  44. Manrho & Pütz 2004, pp. 76–77.
  45. Forsyth 2008, p. 93.
  46. Forsyth 2008, p. 94.
  47. 1 2 Caldwell & Muller 2007, pp. 284–285.
  48. Kurowski 1996, pp. 117–121.
  49. Forsyth 2008, pp. 111–112.
  50. Forsyth 2008, pp. 115–116.
  51. Forsyth 2008, pp. 119–120.
  52. Frey & Herrmann 2004, p. 148.
  53. Kurowski 2007, p. 157.
  54. Spick 1996, pp. 220, 227.
  55. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Kurowski 2007, p. 156.
  56. Schumann 2009, p. 11.
  57. Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 23.
  58. 1 2 3 Scherzer 2007, p. 199.
  59. Schumann 2009, p. 8.
  60. Patzwall 2008, p. 44.
  61. Schumann 2009, p. 21.
  62. 1 2 MacLean 2007, p. 222.
  63. 1 2 Thomas 1997, p. 17.
  64. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 120.
  65. Von Seemen 1976, p. 75.
  66. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 55.
  67. Von Seemen 1976, p. 26.
  68. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 39.
  69. Von Seemen 1976, p. 14.
  70. Kurowski 2007, p. 154.
  71. Stockert 1996, p. 185.
  72. Stockert 1996, p. 188.
  73. Stockert 1996, p. 191.


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  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. 
  • Schuelke, John (October 1995), "A Fighter Group in Normandy", Luftwaffe Verband Journal, 4 (October 1995), archived from the original on 2009-07-30, retrieved 2008-10-01 
  • Schumann, Ralf (2009). Ritterkreuzträger Profile Nr. 6 Heinrich "Heinz" Bär [Knight's Cross Profiles Nr. 6 Heinrich "Heinz" Bär] (in German). UNITEC-Medienvertrieb. ASIN B003IE6JSM  (22 January 2014). 
  • Spick, Mike (1996). Luftwaffe Fighter Aces. New York: Ivy Books. ISBN 978-0-8041-1696-1. 
  • Stockert, Peter (1996). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 1 [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 1] (in German). Bad Friedrichshall, Germany: Friedrichshaller Rundblick. ISBN 978-3-9802222-7-3. 
  • Thomas, Franz (1997). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 1: A–K [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 1: A–K] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2299-6. 
  • Toliver, Raymond F.; Constable, Trevor J. (1998) [1977]. Die deutschen Jagdflieger-Asse 1939–1945 [The German Fighter Aces 1939–1945] (in German). Stuttgart, Germany: Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 978-3-87943-193-9. 
  • Von Seemen, Gerhard (1976). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 : die Ritterkreuzträger sämtlicher Wehrmachtteile, Brillanten-, Schwerter- und Eichenlaubträger in der Reihenfolge der Verleihung : Anhang mit Verleihungsbestimmungen und weiteren Angaben [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 : The Knight's Cross Bearers of All the Armed Services, Diamonds, Swords and Oak Leaves Bearers in the Order of Presentation: Appendix with Further Information and Presentation Requirements] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7909-0051-4. 
  • Weal, John (1996). Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Aces of the Western Front. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85532-595-1. 
  • Weal, John (2001). Bf 109 Aces of the Russian Front. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-084-1. 
  • Weal, John (2006). Jagdgeschwader 51 'Mölders'. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-045-1. 
  • Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 2, 1. Januar 1942 bis 31. Dezember 1943 [The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 2, 1 January 1942 to 31 December 1943] (in German). München, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1985. ISBN 978-3-423-05944-2. 
  • Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 3, 1. Januar 1944 bis 9. Mai 1945 [The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 3, 1 January 1944 to 9 May 1945] (in German). München, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1985. ISBN 978-3-423-05944-2. 

Further reading

  • Bergström, Christer (2007). Barbarossa — The Air Battle: July–December 1941. London: Chervron/Ian Allan. ISBN 978-1-85780-270-2. 
  • Bergström, Christer (2007). Stalingrad — The Air Battle: November 1942 – February 1943. London: Chervron/Ian Allan. ISBN 978-1-85780-276-4. 
  • Bergström, Christer (2007). Kursk — The Air Battle: July 1943. London: Chervron/Ian Allan. ISBN 978-1-903223-88-8. 
  • Bergström, Christer; Pegg, Martin (2003). Jagdwaffe: The War in Russia: January–October 1942. London: Classic Colours. ISBN 978-1-903223-23-9. 
  • Michulec, Robert (2002). Luftwaffe at War/Luftwaffe Aces of the Western Front. London: Greenhill Books. ISBN 978-1-85367-486-0. 
  • Weal, John (2011). Fw 190 Defence of the Reich Aces. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-482-4. 
Military offices
Preceded by
Oberst Walter Oesau
Commander of Jagdgeschwader 1 Oesau
12 May 1944 – 20 May 1944
Succeeded by
Oberst Herbert Ihlefeld
Preceded by
Major Friedrich Karl Müller
Commander of Jagdgeschwader 3 Udet
1 June 1944 – 13 February 1945
Succeeded by
Major Werner Schröer
Preceded by
Generalleutnant Adolf Galland
Commander of Jagdverband 44
26 April 1945 – 8 May 1945
Succeeded by

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