Nickname(s): Doon

Dehradun (Uttarakhand)

Coordinates: 30°19′05″N 78°01′44″E / 30.318°N 78.029°E / 30.318; 78.029Coordinates: 30°19′05″N 78°01′44″E / 30.318°N 78.029°E / 30.318; 78.029
Country  India
State Uttarakhand
District Dehradun
  Mayor Mr. Vinod Chamoli (BJP)
  District Magistrate Ravinath Raman, (IAS)
  SSP Sweety Agarwal,(IPS)
  Metropolis 300 km2 (100 sq mi)
Elevation 435 m (1,427 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
  Metropolis 578,420
  Density 1,900/km2 (5,000/sq mi)
  Metro[2] 714,223
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 248001
Telephone code +91–135
Vehicle registration UK-07,UA-07,UP-07
Clean Doon Green Doon Educated Doon

Dehradun /ˌdɛrəˈdn/ or Dehra Dun is the capital city of the state of Uttarakhand in the northern part of India. Located in the Garhwal region, it lies 236 kilometres (147 mi) north of India's capital New Delhi and is one of the "Counter Magnets" of the National Capital Region (NCR) being developed as an alternative centre of growth to help ease the migration and population explosion in the Delhi metropolitan area.[3]

Dehradun is in the Doon Valley on the foothills of the Himalayas nestled between the river Ganges on the east and the river Yamuna on the west. The city is famous for its picturesque landscape and slightly milder climate and provides a gateway to the surrounding region. It is well connected and in proximity to Himalayan tourist destinations such as Mussoorie, and Auli and the Hindu holy cities of Haridwar and Rishikesh along with the Himalayan pilgrimage circuit of Chota Char Dham.

It hosts training institutions of national importance such as the Indian Military Academy, ITBP Academy & Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy (IGNFA). The city population has significant contribution of government servants. It is home to national foundations such as the Ordnance Factory Dehradun, Opto Electronics Factory, Instruments Research and Development Establishment (IRDE), Defence Electronics Application Laboratory (DEAL) and other defence establishments. Other institutions include the Indian Institute of Petroleum, National Institute for Visually Handicapped, Central Soil and Water Conservation Research & Training Institute, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (Keshava Deva Malviya Institute of Petroleum Exploration, Institute of Drilling Technology), Uttarakhand Space Applications Centre, Survey of India, Wadia Institute Of Himalayan Geology, Forest Survey of India (FSI), Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Wildlife Institute of India [FRI] Forest Research Institute, Army Cadet College and the Rashtriya Indian Military College [ RIMC] .[4]

Dehradun Municipal Corporation is locally known as Nagar Nigam Dehradun. Other urban entities involved in civic services and city governance and management include Mussoorie Dehradun Development Authority (MDDA), Special Area Development Authority (SADA), Jal Sansthan, and Jal Nigam among others.

Dehradun is also known for its Basmati rice and bakery products.


Dehradun is made up of two words: 'Dehra' is derived from the word "dera", deriving from griha and meaning home. "Doon" is a term for the valley that lies between the Himalayas and the "Shivaliks". When Ram Rai Ji, son of Guru Har Rai Ji, came to this region with his followers, he established a camp here for them. Around this time, the modern city of Dehradun started to develop. This is when the word dehra was linked to doon, and thus the city was named Dehradun. In Skanda Purana, Dun is mentioned as a part of the region called Kedar Khand, the abode of Shiva. In ancient India during the Mahabharata epic era, Dronacharya the great teacher of Kauravas and Pandavas, lived here hence the name, "Dronanagari" (द्रोणनगरी, lit. city of Drona).[5][6] Some historians believe that the word dehra can be regarded as a term for camping.[7]


Princely flag of Kingdom of Garhwal. Dehradun was part of the princely state of Garhwal before becoming part of British India after the Anglo-Nepalese War in 1816.
Doon Valley, Dehradun, 1850s
Main article: History of Dehradun

The history of the city of Uttarakhand, Dehradun (nicknamed "Doon Valley") is linked to the story of Ramayana and Mahabharata. It is believed that after the battle between Ravan and Lord Ram, Lord Ram and his brother Laxman visited this site. Dronacharya, the legendary Royal guru to the Kauravas and Pandavas in the epic Mahabharata, is believed to have been born and resided in Dehradun.[8] Evidence such as ancient temples and idols have been found in the areas surrounding Dehradun which have been linked to the mythology of Ramayana and Mahabharata. These relics and ruins are believed to be around 2000 years old. Furthermore, the location, the local traditions and the literature reflect this region's links with the events of Mahabharata and Ramayana. Even after the battle of Mahabharata, the Pandavas had influence on this region as the rulers of Hastinapur with the descendants of Subahu ruled the region as subsidiaries. Likewise, Rishikesh is mentioned in the pages of history when Lord Vishnu answered the prayers of the saints, slaughtered the demons and handed the land to the saints. The adjoining place called Chakrata has its historical impression during the time of Mahabharata.In the seventh century this area was known as Sudhnagar and was described by the Chinese traveller Huen Tsang. Sudhnagar later came to be recognised as the name of Kaalsi. Edicts of Ashoka have been found in the region along the banks of river Yamuna in Kaalsi indicating the wealth and importance of the region in ancient India. In the neighbouring region of Haripur, ruins were discovered from the time of King Rasala which also reflect the region's prosperity.Before the name of Dehradun was used, the place is shown on old maps as Gurudwara (a map by Webb, 1808) or Gooroodwara (a map by Gerard, 1818). Gerard's map names the place as "Dehra or Gooroodwara". Surrounding this original Sikh temple were many small villages that are now the names of parts of the modern city.

Dehradun itself derives its name from the historical fact that Shri Ram Rai, the eldest son of the Seventh Sikh Guru Har Rai Ji, set up his "dera" (camp) in "dun" (valley) in 1676. This 'Dera' 'Dun' later on became Dehradun.

The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb was highly impressed by the miraculous powers of charismatic Ram Rai. He asked the contemporary Raja of Garhwal, Fateh Shah to extend all possible help to Shri Ram Rai. Initially a Gurudwara (temple) was built in Dhamawala. The construction of the present building of Darbar Shri Guru Ram Rai Ji Maharaj was completed in 1707. There are portraits of gods, goddesses, saints, sages and religious stories on the walls. There are pictures of flowers and leaves, animals and birds, trees, similar faces with pointed noses and big eyes on the arches which are the symbol of the colour scheme of Kangra-Guler and Mughal art. High minarets and round pinnacles are the models of the Muslim architecture. The huge talab in the front measuring 230 x 80 feet had dried up for want of water over the years. People had been dumping rubbish; it has been renovated and revived.

Capt john, War memorial maint by army at Dehradun

Dehradun was invaded by Mahmud of Ghazni during his campaigns into India followed by Taimooralang in 1368, Ruahela Njibuddulo in 1757 and Ghulam Qadir in 1785. In 1806 King Prithvi Narayan Shah united many of the Indian territories that now fell under places such as Almora, Pathankot, Kumaon, Garhwal, Sirmur, Shimla, Kangra and Dehradun.

On the western front Garhwal and parts of Himachal Pradesh up to Punjab and on the eastern front the state of Sikkim up to Darjeeling became parts of Nepal for a brief period until the British East India Company went on war from 1814 to 1816. The war ended with signing of the Treaty of Sugowli where almost a third was ceded to British East India company. The British got Dehradun in 1816 and colonised Landour and Mussoorie in 1827–1828.

Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first prime minister, was quite fond of the city and often visited. He spent his last few days here before passing away in Delhi in 1964.[9] Another leader from the independence movement, Rash Behari Bose, who was one of the key organisers of the Ghadar conspiracy and, later, the Indian National Army was based in Dehradun in his early days before he was forced to move to Japan in 1915 to continue the freedom struggle.

Post independence Dehradun and other parts of Garhwal and Kumaon were merged with United Provinces which was later renamed the state of Uttar Pradesh. In 2000, Uttarakhand state (earlier called Uttaranchal) was created from the northwestern districts of Uttar Pradesh under the Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2000. Dehradun was made its provisional capital. After becoming the capital, the city has seen continuous development.[10]


The city of Dehradun mainly lies in Doon Valley and is at a varying height from 575m in Clement Town to above 700 m at Jakhan which is 4 km from the city. However, the general elevation is600 m above sea level. Jakhan is the starting point of Lesser Himalayan Range that extends to Mussoorie and beyond. Jaunsar Bawar hills in Dehradun District rises to 3700m above sea level. The hilly region of Mussoorie goes up to a height of 1870–2170 metres above sea level.

The Doon valley contains the settlements including Dehradun, Doiwala, Herbertpur, Vikasnagar, Sahaspur, Rishikesh, Raiwala and Subash Nagar, Clement Town. The district contains Rajaji National Park which is home to several elephants, Benog Wildlife Sanctury at Mussoorie & Asan Conservation Reserve {Asan Barrage}. The Doon valley has the Terai and Bhabar forests within it as well as the Shiwalik hills and Lesser Himalayan Range containing hill stations such as Mussoorie and Chakrata. The district is bordered by the Himalayas in the north, the Sivalik Hills to the south, the river Ganges to the east, and the Yamuna river to the west. Towns in the foothills of the mountain ranges include Mussoorie, Sahastradhara, Chakrata, Lahkhamondal, Gautam Kund Chandrabani and Dakpathar.

This district is divided into two major parts: the main city Dehradun surrounded by Shivalik and the Jaunsar Bavar, which is in the foothills of Himalayas. In the north and northwest it borders on the district of Uttarkashi and in the east by Pauri. In the west, it is bordered by Yamunanagar district of Haryana and the Tons and Yamuna rivers. To the south are Haridwar and Uttar Pradesh's Saharanpur district.

It is between latitudes 29 °58' N and 31°2'N and longitudes 77° 34' E and 78° 18'E.[11] This district consists of six tehsils — Dehradun, Chakrata, Vikasnagar, Kalsi, Tiuni and Rishikesh — six community development blocks — Vis, Chakrata, Kalsi,Vikasnagar, Sahaspur, Rajpur and Doiwala — 17 towns and 764 villages. Out of these 746 villages are inhabited; 18 are uninhabited.[12]


A cloudy view of Dehradun

The latitudinal extent of the region defines its climate. As the city is located between 30-31°N the climate is exclusively classified under Humid Subtropical Climate and is often Continental type. The climate is similar to Haldwani, Panchkula, Jammu or Siliguri. The city is also referred as the 'Rainy City of India' due to continuous and incessant rainfalls specially in monsoon. In fact 16–17 June rainfall was highest ever recorded rainfall of 370 mm rainfall that devastated whole Uttarakhand and nearby regions.

Dehradun is India's wettest State capital this monsoon with 2,865 mm of rainfall between 1 June and 30 September, according to Director of the Dehradun Meteorological Centre Anand Sharma (Spurious claim). Panjim(Goa)-Capital of Goa receives annually 296 cm of rain which is the highest amount of rainfall received by any state capital. With 2,365 mm, Mumbai received the second highest rainfall during this monsoon season.

Mr. Sharma said, "In 2012, Dehradun recorded 2137 mm of rainfall, and Mumbai received 1867 mm." This year many records had been broken. Dehradun's maximum recorded rainfall in 24 hours was 188 mm in 1925. This year, heavy rains caused havoc in the State in June. On 17 June, the rainfall for 24 hours was 370 mm.

The year 2013 has the longest monsoon since 1975.

The climate of Dehradun is humid subtropical, although it varies from tropical: from hot in summers to severely cold, depending upon the season and the altitude. The nearby hilly regions often get snowfall during winter.

Climate data for Dehradun
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24.6
Average high °C (°F) 19.3
Average low °C (°F) 6.0
Record low °C (°F) −1.1
Average precipitation mm (inches) 55.0
Average relative humidity (%) 72 66 57 46 48 66 85 86 81 69 68 71 67.9
Source #1: IMD[15][16]
Source #2:[17]


Religions in Dehradun City, 2011 Census data[18]
Religion Percent
Distribution of religions[19]
Christians, Buddhists, Jains.

As per provisional reports of Census India, population of Dehradun in 2011 was 578,420;[1] male and female are 303,411 and 275,009 respectively. The sex ratio of the city is 906 per 1000 males.[1] The number of literates in Dehradun city is 463,791, of which 251,832 are males and 211,959 are females.[1] Average literacy rate of Dehradun city is 89.32 percent, whereas male literacy and female literacy rates are 92.65 and 85.66 percent, respectively.[1] The number of children of age under six in Dehradun city is 59,180 as per figure from Census India report on 2011. There are 31,600 boys and 27,580 are girls.[1] Child sex ratio of girls is 873 per 1000 boys.[1]


Central Braille Press, Dehradun — the first Braille press of India

Because of the low population and, on the whole, competent education institutes, Dehradun garners a good per capita income close to $2400 (per 2012 figures: national average $800). It has enjoyed strong economic growth in the last 20 years. Dehradun today has experienced a commercial and information technology upswing, amplified by the establishment of software technology parks of India (STPI)[20] and SEZs (Special economic zones) throughout. Regional offices of Genpact, Spice Digital, Serco, IMSI, Spanco, Aptara, IndiaMART, Jubilant Genrics Ltd,RMSI are present in Dehradun. A number of manufacturing units are present in the Selaqui area. The construction of the Delhi-Dehradun four-lane highway may enable more economic development.

Dehradun is also known for being a centre for national defence production. Major defence production establishments include the Ordnance Factory Dehradun, the Opto Electronics Factory of the Ordnance Factories Board, Defence Electronics Application Laboratory and Instruments Research and Development Establishment of the Defence Research and Development Organisation which manufactures products for the Indian Armed Forces. Many of these are located in Raipur area. The Ordnance Factory estate is located in the middle of mountains. Dulhani river flows in the heart of the colony.


Tourist destinations[21] include the Dehradun zoo, Kalanga monument, Chandrabani,himalayan gallary cum regional science centre Guchhupani, Forest Research Institute, Tapovan, Lakshman Siddh Peeth,[22] Tapkeshwar Temple, Santala Devi temple, Mindrolling Monastery, Prakasheshwar Mahadev Temple,[23] Sai Mandir,[24] Central Braille Press[25] and Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology.[26]

The tourist destinations can be divided into four or five areas: nature, sports, sanctuary, museums and institutions. The nearby hill stations are well known for their natural beauty,[27] temples for its faith dimensions, sanctuary for animal and bird lovers. Hill stations include Mussoorie, Sahastradhara, Chakrata, and Dakpathar. Famous temples Tapkeshwar, Lakhamandal and Santala Devi are here.

In sports tourism, the Doon Ice Rink at Maharana Pratap Sports Complex, Raipur is the first full-sized ice arena in India.[28][29] It has hosted ice skating competitions and ice hockey tournaments, including the IIHF Challenge Cup of Asia.[30]


Transport options include:


Aerial View of DIT University
Forest Research Institute, Dehradun

Dehradun has higher education institutions for engineering, medical, management and other fields. It is the home of Doon University and Uttarakhand Technical University.Other educational institutions include[31] St. Joseph's Academy, Delhi Public School Dehradun, Scholars Home, Colonel Brown Cambridge School, Summer Valley School, Rashtriya Indian Military College, Doon International School, Welham Girls School, Welham Boys School, Convent of Jesus and Mary, Convent of Jesus and Mary EC Road Dehradun, The Doon School, SelaQui International School, Army Public School, Cambrian Hall, St. Thomas' College, Ann Mary School,Doon International School Riverside Campus, Brightlands School, and Marshall School. Several Indian and international luminaries have attended these schools. There are numerous forest officials in India who have attended the Forest Research Institute in Dehradun. It is home to many religious schools as well. Yoga, Ayurveda and meditation have great influence in Dehradun.

National Institute for Visually Handicapped[32] (NIVH) plays a key role in helping the blind people. It is the first such institute in India and the first press for Braille script in the country[33] which provides education and service to the blind children.

Some of the law universities include Uttaranchal University, UPES, The ICFAI University. Guitarmonk school for guitar classes is also available at various locations in Dehradun.

Dehradun houses organisations like the Latika Roy Foundation[34] for people with disabilities to access education, employment, and full inclusion in the community. The ASK Foundation, an educational charity, is also located in Dehradun.[35]

Higher educational institutions


Statue of Tara and Great Stupa Dehra Dun

Dehradun is a part of the Garhwal region, therefore the local customs of the Garhwali people have had a great influence on its culture. Hindi and Garhwali are the primary languages spoken. Other languages spoken in the region are English, Punjabi, Nepali, Tibetan, and Kumaoni. There are people from different religions and backgrounds residing here. After becoming the capital, there has been continuous growth in education, communication and transport. As the state capital, Dehradun is home to many government institutions. Dehradun is renowned all over India for its educational institutions.

Buses are identified with blue bars. There are autorickshaws which are often used for transportation but blamed for pollution and noise. The evening buzz of Rajpur road is an attraction. After becoming the capital of Uttarakhand, the growth of the city has accelerated; it is still known as a peaceful city with pleasant weather. The city centre is easily recognised by the Clock Tower (Ghanta Ghar), a structure with six functioning clocks. The statue of San Dijen placed in Shanti Niketan contributes to the beauty of the city. Dehradun has been home to artists and writers including Stephen Alter, Nayantara Sahgal, Allan Sealy, Ruskin Bond and also to country singer Bobby Cash.

Dehradun was home to freedom fighters whose names are engraved in gold on the Clock Tower. It was called "The Gray City" in the initial days because ex-Army officers and VIPs considered this place ideal for residence after retirement.[36] Woolen blankets are typical of this region and worn by people living at high altitude. Women wear saris with full-sleeve blouses along with angora jackets. Girls wear full skirts with scarfs covering their head and shoulders; more recently, they have adopted modern wear like salwar suits. In villages and to a lesser extent in towns, men wear the traditional dhoti, angarkha and langoti. The way dhotis are worn represents backgrounds and castes: short dhotis represent low status whereas long dhotis represent high. It is more common in urban areas for men to wear shirts and trousers, jeans and kurta-pyjamas. In winter, men usually dress in jackets, hats and overcoats. Hemp is grown in great quantities in this region, so its yarn is frequently used as lining.

The largest profession in Dehradun is agriculture. There are large numbers of people in the military, businesses and education. Staple foods are rice and dal with raita, curd and salad. Dehradun is known for its lychees and for growing the world's finest basmati rice.

There are fairs (melas) throughout the year. Notable fairs include Magh Mela, held on 14 January and Jhanda Mela in March, a fair for the Hindu community, that attracts Hindus from all over India and abroad.


The first indoor ice rink in India that meets the size requirements for ice hockey, figure skating, short track and rink bandy was built in Dehradun.[37] Uttarakhand Cricket Association is the governing body of the Cricket activities in the Uttarakhand state of India and the Uttarakhand cricket team.


Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium & Mega Sports Complex is a proposed multi-purpose stadium in the Raipur area of Dehradun. It will be the first international level stadium in the state.[38] Since, the formation of the state 2000, the state suffered a blow to its sport facilities as Uttar Pradesh had the entire infrastructure for sports. Uttarakhand had hosted very few matches of Ranji Trophy. Due to lack of the in infrastructure the player started moving to different states.

In November 2012, Former Chief Minister of Uttarakhand Vijay Bahuguna laid the foundation of the stadium hoped that the stadium would bring Dehradun on the international cricket map and added that the shortage of money would not be a hurdle in the completion of the Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium and the Mega Sports Complex.[38] The stadium would be constructed as per international norms. The stadium and sports complex would be built in 23 acres.[39]


Ghanta Ghar (Clock tower), Dehradun

After Dehradun was made the capital of Uttarakhand, there was a construction boom, especially in residential property. Modern buildings have gradually supplanted older architectural styles including those related to the British colonial rule of India. Important older buildings still upstanding include the Clock Tower, Forest Research Institute, CNI College, Morrison Memorial Church, Inamullah Building, Jama Masjid, Osho Meditation Centre, Indian Military Academy and Darbar Sahib.

Shopping and entertainment

Paltan Bazaar and Rajpur Road are the economic heart of Dehradun. The largest mall in Dehradun is currently Pacific Mall at Jakhan. Other malls are also in various stages of proposal, consideration or development, in response to changing demographics, globalisation and purchasing power.

Malls include Crossroads, Pacific, City Junction, Parsvanath Eleganza and Vikas Cine Mall. There are five multiplexes:

There are also some cinema halls which have been here for many years:


See also


Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dehradun.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Dehradun.
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