For other uses, see Jammu (disambiguation).
Jammu Tawi
Cosmopolitan City
from the top:
View of Jammu and the Tawi River
Mansar Lake, Jammu Tawi railway station in Jammu
Bahu Fort, Jammu
Amar Singh Palace, Jammu.
Srinagar Jammu National Highway
Coordinates: 32°44′N 74°52′E / 32.73°N 74.87°E / 32.73; 74.87Coordinates: 32°44′N 74°52′E / 32.73°N 74.87°E / 32.73; 74.87
Country  India
State  Jammu and Kashmir
District Jammu
Settled 2900 BC
Founded by Raja Jambulochan
  Type Municipal Corporation
  Body Jammu Municipal corporation and Jammu Development Authority
  Total 167 km2 (64 sq mi)
Elevation 327 m (1,073 ft)
Population (2011)
  Total 576,198
  Rank 92nd
  Official Dogri Punjabi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 180001
Vehicle registration JK 02
Sex ratio 867 / 1000
Literacy 90.14%
Distance from Delhi 575 kilometres (357 mi) NW
Distance from Mumbai 1,971 kilometres (1,225 mi) NE (land)
Climate Cfa (Köppen)
Precipitation 710 millimetres (28 in)
Avg. summer temperature 29.6 °C (85.3 °F)
Avg. winter temperature 17.7 °C (63.9 °F)
Website jammu.nic.in

Jammu  pronunciation  is the largest city in the Jammu Division and the winter capital of state of Jammu and Kashmir in India. It is situated on the banks of the Tawi River. It is administered by a municipal corporation.[1]


Jammu is located at 32°44′N 74°52′E / 32.73°N 74.87°E / 32.73; 74.87.[2] It has an average elevation of 327 m (1,073 ft). Jammu city lies at uneven ridges of low heights at the Shivalik hills. It is surrounded by Shivalik range to the north, east and southeast while the Trikuta Range surrounds it in the north-west. It is approximately 600 kilometres (370 mi) from the national capital, New Delhi.

The city spreads around the Tawi river with the old city overlooking it from the north (right bank) while the new neighbourhoods spread around the southern side (left bank) of river. There are five bridges on the river. The city is built on a series of ridges.


The name Jammu is derived from its ruler who founded it. Raja Jambulochan founded this city and named it Jambupur which later changed to Jammu. Many historians and locals believe that Jammu was founded by Raja Jambu Lochan in the 14th century BC. During one of his hunting campaigns, he reached the Tawi River where he saw a goat and a lion drinking water at the same place. Having satisfied their thirst, the animals went their own ways. The Raja was amazed, abandoned the idea of hunting and returned to his companions. Recounting what he had seen, he exclaimed that this place, where a lion and a goat could drink water side by side, was a place of peace and tranquility. The Raja commanded that a palace be built at this place and a city was founded around it. This city became known as Jambu-Nagar, which then later changed into Jammu.


Jammu has historically been the capital of Jammu Province and the winter capital of the east, while Jammu and Kashmir princely state (18461952). Jambu Lochan was the brother of Raja Bahu Lochan who constructed a fort, Bahu Fort, on the bank of river Tawi. The city name figures in the ancient book Mahabharata. Excavation near Akhnoor, 32 kilometres (20 mi) from Jammu city, provides evidence that Jammu was once part of the Harappan civilization.

Remains from the Maurya, Kushan, Kushanshahs and Gupta periods have also been found in Jammu. After 480 CE, the area was dominated by the Hephthalites and ruled from Kapisa and Kabul. They were succeeded by the Kushano-Hephthalite dynasty from 565 to 670 CE, then by the Shahi from 670 CE to the early 11th century, when the Shahi were destroyed by the Ghaznavids.

Jammu is also mentioned in accounts of the campaigns of Timur. The area witnessed changes of control following invasions by Mughals and Sikhs, before finally falling under the control of the British.

The Dev Dynasty ruled it for about 984 years from 840 CE to 1816 CE. The city remained in scientific isolation and lagged behind other Indian cities. Then came the Dogra Rule that revived its ancient glory by building great temples, renovated old shrines, built educational institutes and many more. A 43 km long railway line connecting Jammu with Sialkot was laid in 1897[3] but it was abandoned after the Partition of India as the railway link to Sialkot was broken. Jammu had no rail services until 1971, when the Indian Railways laid the Pathankot - Jammu Tawi Broad Gauge line. The new Jammu Tawi station was opened in 1975. In 2000, much of the old railway station was demolished to make way for an art centre.[4]

After partition of India, Jammu continued to be the winter capital of the state.


Jammu, like the rest of north-western India, features a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cwa),[5] with extreme summer highs reaching 46 °C (115 °F), and temperatures in the winter months occasionally falling below 4 °C (39 °F). June is the hottest month with average highs of 40.6 °C (105.1 °F), while January is the coldest month with average lows reaching 7 °C (45 °F). Average yearly precipitation is about 42 inches (1,100 mm) with the bulk of the rainfall in the months from June to September, although the winters can also be rather wet. In winter dense smog causes much inconvenience and temperature even drops to 2 °C (36 °F). In summer, particularly in May and June, extremely intense sunlight or hot winds can raise the mercury to 46 °C (115 °F). Following the hot season, the monsoon lashes the city with heavy downpours along with thunderstorms: rainfall may total up to 669 mm (26.3 in) in the wettest months.

Climate data for Jammu (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 28.0
Average high °C (°F) 18.9
Average low °C (°F) 7.8
Record low °C (°F) 0.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 52.4
Average rainy days 3.1 4.2 4.8 3.2 3.2 5.3 12.5 13.1 6.1 1.8 1.1 2.3 60.6
Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[6][7]


Jammu Tawi station

Jammu city has a railway station called Jammu Tawi (station code JAT) that is connected with major cities of India. The old railway link to Sialkot was broken after the Partition of India and Jammu had no rail services until 1971, when the Indian Railways laid the Pathankot - Jammu Tawi Broad Gauge line. The new Jammu Tawi station was opened in October 1972 and is an origination point for Express trains. With the commencement of the Kashmir Railway, all trains to the Kashmir Valley will pass through Jammu Tawi. A part of the Kashmir railway project has been executed and the track has been extended to Katra. Jalandhar - Pathankot - Jammu Tawi section has been doubled and electrified.

National Highway 1A which passes through Jammu connects it to the Kashmir valley. National Highway 1B connects Jammu with Poonch town. Jammu is just 80 kilometres (50 mi) from Kathua town, while it is 68 kilometres (42 mi) from Udhampur city. Katra is also 49 kilometres (30 mi) away.

Jammu Airport is in the middle of Jammu. It has direct flights to Srinagar, Delhi, Amritsar, Chandigarh, Leh and Mumbai and Bengaluru (erstwhile Bangalore) Jammu Airport operate daily 30 arrival and departure flights which is Goair, Air India, Spicejet and Indigo running daily flights.

The city has JKSRTC city buses under and mini buses for local transport which run on some defined routes. These mini buses are called "Matadors". Besides this auto-rickshaw and cycle-rickshaw service is also available. Local taxis are also available.


Jammu city serves as the winter capital of Jammu & Kashmir state from November to April when all the offices move from Srinagar to Jammu. Srinagar serves as the summer capital from May to October.[8] Jammu was a municipal committee during 2001 census of India. With effect from 5 September 2003, it has upgraded status of a municipal corporation.[9]


Jammu city is the main cultural and economic centre of the administrative division of Jammu. The city has a number of small industries. Jammu has a number of woodgrain mills to cater to the local population. One of the most famous local Basmati Rice is produced in RS Pura area near jammu, which is then processed in rice mills in Jammu. Apart from Rice Mills scattered all around Jammu, industrial estate at Bari Brahamna has a large presence of Industrial units manufacturing a variety of products right from carpets, electronic goods, electric goods etc. The local government gives incentives for new units by foregoing taxes for a few initial years of establishment. Bari Brahamna also has a freight rail link that helps carry the goods manufactured here to other parts of India.


Amar Mahal Palace

Tourism is the largest industry in Jammu as in the rest of the state. It is also a focal point for the pilgrims going to Vaishno Devi and Kashmir valley as it is second last railway terminal in North India. All the routes leading to Kashmir, Poonch, Doda and Laddakh start from Jammu city. So throughout the year the city remains full of people from all the parts of India. Places of interest include old historic palaces like Mubarak Mandi, Purani Mandi, Rani Park, Amar Mahal, Bahu Fort, Raghunath Temple, Ranbireshwar Temple, Karbala, Peer Meetha, Old city and a number of shopping places, fun parks, etc.

Bahu Fort

Bahu Fort, Jammu, India

Bahu Fort, which also serves as a religious temple, is situated about 5 km from Jammu city on a rock face on the left bank of the river Tawi. This is perhaps the oldest fort and edifice in Jammu city. Constructed originally by Raja Bahulochan over 3,000 years ago, the fort was improved and rebuilt by Dogra rulers.[10] Inside the fort, there is a temple dedicated to the goddess Kali, popularly known as Bave Wali Mata,[10][11] the presiding deity of Jammu. Every Tuesday and Sunday pilgrims throng this temple and partake in "Tawi flowing worship". Today the fort is surrounded with a terraced garden which is a favourite picnic spot of the city folk.

Gauri Shankar Temple at Channi Himmat is a lord Shiva temple which is located in the heart of the Channi Himmat (opposite railway crossing) which is about 3–4 km from the railway station. The unique architecture of the temple is at its best in the evening. The food is offered to people on every Saturday evening.

Bagh-E-Bahu, located on the banks of Tawi river, is a Mughal-aBagh itself . There is a small cafeteria on one side of the garden. On the by-pass road behind Bahu Fort, the city forest surrounds the ancient Mahamaya Temple overlooking the river Tawi. A small garden surrounded by acres of woods provides a view of the city. Opposite the Bahu Fort, overlooking the River Tawi, is a temple dedicated to Mahamaya of Dogra decent, who lost her life fourteen centuries ago fighting foreign invaders. The present temple of Bawey Wali Mata was built shortly after the coronation of Maharaja Gulab Singh, in 1849. It is also known as the temple of Mahakali and the goddess is considered second only to Mata Vaishno Devi in terms of mystical power.

Raghunath Temple

Amongst the temples in Jammu, the Raghunath Temple[12] takes pride of place being situated right in the heart of the city. This temple is situated at the city centre and was built in 1857. Work on the temple was started by Maharaja Gulab Singh, founder of the Kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir, in 1835 AD and was completed by his son Maharaja Ranbir Singh in 1860 AD. The inner walls of the main temple are covered with gold sheet on three sides. There are many galleries with lakhs of saligrams. The surrounding Temples are dedicated to various Gods and Goddesses connected with the epic Ramayana. This temple consists of seven shrines, each with a tower of its own. It is the largest temple complex in northern India. Though 130 years old, the complex is remarkable for sacred scriptures, one of the richest collections of ancient texts and manuscripts in its library. Its arches, surface and niches are undoubtedly influenced by Mughal architecture while the interiors of the temple are plated with gold. The main sanctuary is dedicated to Lord Vishnu's eighth incarnation and Dogras' patron deity, the Rama. It also houses a Sanskrit Library containing rare Sanskrit manuscripts.

Peer Kho Cave

Alongside the same Tawi river are the Peer Kho Cave temple,[13] the Panchbakhtar temple and the Ranbireshwar temple dedicated to Lord Shiva with their own legends and specific days of worship. Peer Kho cave is located on the bank of river Tawi and it is widely believed that Ramayan character Jamvant (the bear god) meditated in this cave. The Ranbireshwar Temple has twelve Shiva lingams of crystal measuring 12" to 18" and galleries with thousands of saligrams fixed on stone slabs. Located on the Shalimar Road near the New Secretariat, and built by Maharaja Ranbir Singh in 1883 AD. It has one central lingam measuring seven and a half feet height (2.3 m) and twelve Shiva lingams of crystal measuring from 15 cm to 38 cm and galleries with thousands of Shiva lingams fixed on stone slabs.

Shri Mata Vaishno Devi

Situated at an altitude of 5,200 feet above sea level, the Holy Cave Shrine of Mata Vaishno Devi or Trikuta Bhagwati has been a beacon of faith and fulfilment to millions of devotees from all over the world. The pilgrimage to the Shrine holds great significance for the pilgrims. The Yatris have to undertake a trek of nearly 12 km from the base camp at Katra. At the culmination of their pilgrimage, the yatries are blessed with the Darshans of the Mother Goddess inside the Sanctum Sanctorum - the Holy Cave. These Darshans are in the shape of three natural rock formations called the Pindies. There are no statues or idols inside the Cave.[14]

A geological study of the Holy Cave has indicated its age to be nearly a million years. As per belief the practice of worshipping Shakti, largely started in the Puranic period and the first mention of the Mother Goddess is in the epic Mahabharat. When the armies of Pandavs and Kaurvas were arrayed in the battlefield of Kurukshetra, Arjun, the chief warrior of Pandavs upon advice of Sri Krishna; meditated upon the Mother Goddess and sought Her blessings for victory. This is when Arjun addresses the Mother Goddess as 'Jambookatak Chityaishu Nityam Sannihitalaye', which means 'you who always dwell in the temple on the slope of the mountain in Jamboo' (probably referring to the present day Jammu). On a mountain, just adjacent to the Trikuta Mountain and overlooking the Holy Cave are five stone structures, which are believed to be the rock symbols of the five Pandavs.[15] J-K Govt to not roll back tax on commercial helicopter services - Amar Ujala. Read more news about Jammu Amar Ujala - Jammu [16]


As of 2011 census [17] the population of Jammu was 576,198. Males constituted 52.7% of the population; females numbered constituted 47.3% of the population. The sex ratio was 898 females per 1,000 males against national average of 940. Jammu had an average literacy rate of 89.66%, much higher than the national average of 74.4%: male literacy was 93.13% and female literacy was 85.82%. In Jammu, (8.47% of the population) persons were under 6 years of age. Most of Jammu and Kashmir's Hindus live in the Jammu region and are closely related to the Punjabi-speaking peoples in the Punjab state; many speak Dogri,[18] earlier considered a dialect of Punjabi; Dogri is a dialect of Punjabi on the basis of grammar and vocabulary.

Religion in Jammu (2011)[19]
Religion Percent
Rank Language 1961[20]
1 Dogri 55%
2 Punjabi 22%
3 Hindi 11.6%
Other 11.4%


In the 2014–2015 General Budget of India, Arun Jaitley, the Finance Minister of India, proposed an Indian Institute of Technology and an Indian Institute of Management for the division. List of some educational institutions is provided below.

Engineering Colleges in Jammu:-

Medical Institutions:-

General Degree Courses (colleges):-



Refugees and migration

The annual rate of intra-regional migration is estimated between 29% to 35%. Being comparatively safe from terrorism, Jammu has become a hub of refugees. At present there are about 9-13 lakhs refugees living in and around Jammu in different relief camps. These primarily include Kashmiri Pandit IDP who migrated from Kashmir in 1989, Pakistan administered Kashmir refugees (mainly Hindus), refugees from Reasi, Doda and Kishtwar (both Hindus and Muslims).


Jammu is known for its sund panjeeri, patisa , rajma with rice and Kalari cheese. Dogri food specialties include ambal, khatta meat, kulthein di dal, dal patt, maa da madra, rajma, and auriya. Pickles typical of Jammu are made of kasrod, girgle, mango with saunf, zimikand, tyaoo, seyoo, and potatoes. Auriya is a dish made with potatoes. Jammu cuisine features various chaats, especially gol gappas, kachalu, Chole bhature, gulgule, rajma kulche and dahi bhalla, among various others.[21]

During weddings it is typical to make kayoor and sugar.


  1. "Jammu Municipal Corporation (Homepage)". Official website of Jammu Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 4 December 2008.
  2. "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Jammu, India".
  3. "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 14, page 49 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India -- Digital South Asia Library".
  4. "‘Inaccessible’ Maya throws open doors to her MLAs". The Indian Express. 10 January 2009. C1 control character in |title= at position 1 (help)
  5. "Climate: Jammu - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
  6. "Jammu Climatological Table Period: 1971–2000". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  7. "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  8. "Scheme for voting by postal ballot by a person holding any office under the Govt. and verified to be moving along with the headquarters of the Govt. from Kashmir Province to Jammu Province or vice-versa." (PDF). Office of the Chief Electoral Officer, Jammu and Kashmir. p. 1. Retrieved 8 December 2008. ...the State Govt. functions for six months (November to April) in the winter capital Jammu after which it moves to the summer capital Srinagar...
  9. "History of Jammu Municipal Corporation". Official website of Jammu Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 4 December 2008.
  10. 1 2 "Bahu Fort/Temple". National Informatics centre. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  11. Jeratha, Aśoka (2000). Forts and palaces of the Western Himalaya. Indus Publishing. pp. 59–65. ISBN 81-7387-104-3.
  12. "Department of Tourism, Jammu and Kashmir - Raghunath Temple". www.jktourism.org. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
  13. "Department of Tourism, Jammu and Kashmir - Peer Khoh". www.jktourism.org. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
  14. "Shri Mata Vaishno Devi".
  15. "Shri Mata Vaishno Devi Yatra | Online Registration & Helicopter Booking & much more". www.jammu.com. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
  16. "Hindi Newspapers". Amar Ujala. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  17. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/pca/SearchDetails.aspx?Id=1888
  18. "Jammu and Kashmir". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  19. "Jammu City Population Census 2011 - Jammu and Kashmir".
  20. Kashmir, India Superintendent of Census Operations, Jammu and; Kamili, M. H. "District Census Handbook, Jammu & Kashmir: Jammu" via Google Books.
  21. "Jammu Pincode". citypincode.in. Retrieved 2014-05-19.
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