Castelo Branco, Portugal
A view of the city.
|Coordinates: 39°49′N 7°30′W / 39.817°N 7.500°WCoordinates: 39°49′N 7°30′W / 39.817°N 7.500°W|
|Subregion||Beira Interior Sul|
|Intermunic. comm.||Beira Baixa|
|• President||Luís Correia (PS)|
|• Total||1,438.19 km2 (555.29 sq mi)|
|• Density||39/km2 (100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||WET/WEST (UTC+0/+1)|
Castelo Branco (Portuguese pronunciation: [kɐʃˌtɛɫu ˈbrɐ̃ku]) is a city and a municipality in Castelo Branco District, in Centro Region, Portugal. The name means "white castle". The city of Castelo Branco is made up of one parish with a population of 30,649 in 2001. The municipality has a total of 19 parishes. The population in 2011 was 56,109, in an area of 1438.19 km², making it one of the largest municipalities in Portugal.
History and landmarks
Castelo Branco gets its name from the prior existence of a Luso-Roman castrum or fortified settlement called Castra Leuca, on the summit of the hill of Colina da Cardosa. The population grew on the slopes of this hill.
Little is known of the history before 1182. There is, nevertheless, a document, from this date, mentioning the donation to the Templars of a piece of land called Vila Franca da Cardosa, by a noble Fernandes Sanches. In 1213 it received its autonomy or foral and the name Castel-Branco appears for the first time. Pope Innocent III confirmed this in 1215 giving it the name of Castelo Branco.
It was around this time that the Templars built the walls and the castle.
In 1510 a new foral was conceded by Manuel I and in 1642 the town acquired the status of Vila de Castelo Branco. In 1771 Castelo Branco became a city and Pope Clement XIV created the diocese of Castelo Branco in 1881.
In 1858 a telegraph line was opened between Abrantes and Castelo Branco and in 1860 the city received its first public lighting. In 1959 it became capital of the district of the same name.
The most important monument in Castelo Branco is the Jardim do Paço Episcopal (Garden of the Episcopal Palace). It is one of the most beautiful baroque gardens in Portugal and contains statues of allegories, kings and zodiacal signs, arranged around ponds, terraces and staircases.
Castelo Branco has a hot-summer mediterranean climate. Its summers are among the hottest of Portugal, influenced by its inland position. Winters are mild with cool nights, but frosts are rare and never severe. Inland areas further south in the country have hotter temperature extremes, although averages are very similar. There is somewhat of a seasonal lag in summer since September is significantly warmer than May in spite of less daylight. Winter temperatures are more consistent with the daylight cycle, since temperatures drop sharply in autumn months.
|Climate data for Castelo Branco|
|Record high °C (°F)|| 25.4
|Average high °C (°F)|| 12.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)|| 8.1
|Average low °C (°F)|| 4.1
|Record low °C (°F)|| −3.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)|| 101.0
Administratively, the municipality is divided into 19 civil parishes (freguesias):
- Castelo Branco
- Cebolais de Cima e Retaxo
- Escalos de Baixo e Mata
- Escalos de Cima e Lousa
- Freixial e Juncal do Campo
- Louriçal do Campo
- Malpica do Tejo
- Monforte da Beira
- Ninho do Açor e Sobral do Campo
- Póvoa de Rio de Moinhos e Cafede
- Salgueiro do Campo
- Santo André das Tojeiras
- São Vicente da Beira
The city is home to Centauro, a company which produces industrial coolers, refrigerators and freezers. The Portuguese subsidiary of Danone has a factory in Castelo Branco which produces Danone's dairy products for the entire Iberian Peninsula. The district of Castelo Branco is also famed for the Castelo Branco cheese.
Delphi Packard is a major factory and the principal employer, with more than 1000 workers. The Factory makes automobile component for the most important automobile constructors like Ferrari.
Commercial centers in Castelo Branco (Alegro and Fórum)
- Alegro commercial center (South view)
- Fórum commercial center in Castelo Branco (East view)
- Fórum commercial center in Castelo Branco city (North inside view)
Castelo Branco is home to the Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco, a state-run polytechnic institute of higher education, comprising schools of agriculture, technology, management, education, art and health.
Castelo Branco is the principal station located some 100 km up the Beira Baixa Railway Line from Entroncamento to Guarda. It runs via Abrantes, Rodão, Castelo Branco and Fundão with services currently terminating at Covilhã some 30 km short of Guarda. Rail services are operated by CP - Comboios de Portugal (Portuguese Trains) and consist of three stopping trains (Regionais) and three fast trains (Intercidades) per day from Lisbon via Entroncamento. The fast trains take less than 3hours to reach Castelo Branco from Lisbon Santa Apolonia and Lisbon Oriente main stations. Stopping trains are considerably slower.
From Entroncamento, the route branches off the Lisbon to Porto main line onto the Beira Baixa line following the mighty Tagus river crossing it twice on impressively long bridges. From Abrantes a series of reservoirs come into view. For lengthy stretches the single track clings to the NW flanks of the reservoirs providing exhilarating forested views as you speed along the waterside. The services are operated by comfortable and purposeful 'Iberian Gauge' (5ft6in) 25kV electric multiple units. After passing through some deep gorges into Rodao station the line then heads north away from the river and on to Castelo Branco and finally Covilhã.
From Covilhã northwards to Guarda trains were operated by more leisurely diesel motorcars. This scenic stretch of mountainous rural line provides the strategic last leg of the Beira Baixa Railway linking it to Guarda via Belmonte. However, in recent years it has been closed for modernisation and electrification. The partially completed works, originally due for completion in 2011, are sadly still on hold as of 2014 due to serious funding issues associated with the economy. This inconveniently cuts off otherwise direct rail options from Castelo Branco to destinations north of Covilhã.
- Amato Lusitano, a physician credited as one of the first discoverers of the circulation of the blood, was born here in 1511.
- Francisco Caldeira Castelo Branco (1566–1619), Captain General, founder of the city of Belém, capital of Pará (Brazil), on January 12, 1616. Was Captain General of the Captaincy of the Rio Grande (now the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Norte), from 1612 to 1614, and the captaincy of Bahia, from 1615 to 1618.
- Eugénia Lima, famous accordionist of Portugal, was born in Castelo Branco in 1926.
- João Filipe Fazendas Vaz, sports journalist well known in Spain for his analysis and knowledge of football Lusophone.
- Dr. José Lopes Dias (1900-1976) physician, writer, historian and philanthropist, founder of ESALD and Jardim de Infâcia Alfredo da Mota.
Places of interest
- City's Park
- City's Garden
- Museum "Francisco Tavares Proença Júnior"
- UMA POPULAÇÃO QUE SE URBANIZA, Uma avaliação recente - Cidades, 2004 Archived October 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Nuno Pires Soares, Instituto Geográfico Português (Geographic Institute of Portugal)
- Instituto Nacional de Estatística
- Direção-Geral do Território
- "Castelo Branco - Portugal Climate Summary". Weatherbase. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- "Climate Normals - Castelo Branco 1981-2010". Portuguese Institute of Meteorology. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- Diário da República. "Law nr. 11-A/2013, pages 552 34-35" (pdf) (in Portuguese). Retrieved 20 July 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Castelo Branco.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Castelo Branco.|
- Municipality official website
- Photos from Castelo Branco
- Castelo Branco Virtual Information on history, culture, demographics etc. (Portuguese)
- Statistical Information about the Municipality
- Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco
- Hospital Amato Lusitano