Antequera Dolmens Site
|Antequera Dolmens Site|
|Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List|
Overview of the enclosure 1
|Type||Cultural in series|
|Criteria||i, iii, iv|
|UNESCO region||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||2016 (40th Session)|
The Antequera Dolmens Site is a cultural heritage in series comprises by three cultural monuments (Dolmen of Menga, Dolmen of Viera and Beehive tomb of El Romeral) and two natural monuments (Peña de los Enamorados and El Torcal) existing in the city of Antequera, in Andalusia, Spain. The cultural institution responsible for its protection is the Archaeological complex Dolmens of Antequera. It has been declared a World Heritage Site in 2016.
Exceptional universal value
For a heritage is declared World Heritage Site must demonstrate that it has an exceptional universal value, ie, which has an extraordinary importance transcending national borders and is of interest for present and future generations of all humanity.
UNESCO requires justification of at least one of the six criteria set for the cultural heritage by the Convention on the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972) to demonstrate the exceptional universal value of the heritage. The proposal of the Antequera Dolmens Site is based on one of them (i), the ICOMOS in its final report incorporates other two (iii, iv).
- Criterion (i): "represent a masterpiece of the human creative genius"
The Dolmen of Menga represents a unique masterpiece of lintel Megalithic architecture (Atlantic tradition), based in orthostates and blankets, unique for its enormous dimensions that lead to the limit constructive the typology of corridor sepulcher, incorporating an unprecedented solution of intermediate pillars; likewise, the Beehive tomb of El Romeral complements the catalog of megalithic constructions with a vaulted solution by rows based in masonry (Mediterranean tradition).
- Criterion (iii): "provide a unique testimony, or at least exceptional, on a cultural tradition or a living or dead civilization"
Both the Dolmen of Menga as Beehive tomb of El Romeral present anomalous orientations, as evidenced the Professor Michael Hoskin where he finds that the 99.99% of the dolmens of Mediterranean area have an orientation of celestial type, ie, linked to the sunrise at the dawn of the equinoxes (as occurs in the Dolmen of Viera). However Dolmen of Menga is oriented to the anthropomorphic profile of Peña de los Enamorados to, and specifically to Rock shelter of Matacabras which has been located cave painting. Meanwhile, Beehive tomb of El Romeral is oriented to the mountains of El Torcal where is the Cave del Toro (terrestrial orientation) and at noon sun in the winter solstice (celestial orientation). In addition, in this axis Dolmen of Menga-Peña de los Enamorados is located the Beehive tomb of El Romeral. Thus, the Dolmens of Antequera build a unique megalithic landscape by the unique intrinsic relationship established with the natural elements.
- Criterion (iv): "be an outstanding example of a type of building or architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates one or several significant periods of human history"
The three megalithic monuments reflect a stage of human history in which the first ceremonial monuments in Western Europe were built, according to the two major building traditions of Megalithic art (lintel and dome by rows). This is an original proposal on the List of World Heritage Sites as it is not mixed heritage (where the cultural values of a heritage would be added the natural of the others) but a aware integration and closer dialogue between the Megalithic architecture and the landscape. A phenomenon of 'landscape monumentalization' occurs by which the natural landmarks acquire the value of monuments while the constructions are presented under the appearance of natural landscape.
Finally, the authenticity of the megaliths is proven when many researchers agree in the secondment to the Neolithic of Dolmen of Menga (lintel architecture) and the Chalcolithic of Beehive tomb of El Romeral (architecture domed by rows); and the integrity is also demonstrated by keeping all its constituent elements in good conditions.
- Dolmen of Menga
- Dolmen of Viera
- Beehive tomb of El Romeral
- Peña de los Enamorados
- El Torcal de Antequera
- Decree 25/2009 of 27 January, which is enroll into the General Catalogue of Andalusian Historical Heritage as an Heritage of Cultural Interest, with the typology of Archaeological Zone, the archaeological area of the dolmens of Antequera (province of Málaga). BOJA 18.02.09
- Decree 222/2013, of November 5, declare the Special Areas of Conservation Torcal de Antequera (ES0000032), Los Reales de Sierra Bermeja (ES6170004), Sierra Crestellina (ES6170005) and Desfiladero de los Gaitanes (ES6170003), expands the territorial scope of the Natural Park Torcal de Antequera and approves the Plan of Management of Natural Resources of the Natural Tourist Sites Torcal de Antequera, Los Reales de Sierra Bermeja, Sierra Crestellina and Desfiladero de los Gaitanes.
- Decree 245/2011 of 12 July, which is enroll into the General Catalogue of the Andalusian Historical Heritage as Bien de Interés Cultural, with the typology of archaeological site, the Archaeological site of Peña de los Enamorados, in the municipality of Antequera (Andalusia). BOJA nº150 de 02/08/2011
- Michael Hoskin (15 July 2016). "The Dolmens of Antequera". Diario Sur (in Spanish). Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- Victoria Eugenia Pérez Nebreda (2015). The Antequera Dolmens Site closer to being inscribed on the List World Heritage Sites of UNESCO. Revista PH. Junta de Andalucía (Regional Government of Andalusia): Ministry of Culture / Instituto Andaluz del Patrimonio Histórico. pp. 21–31.
- Bartolomé Ruiz González (2014). Iter de la candidatura (PDF). Sitio de los Dólmenes de Antequera. Propuesta para la inscripción en la Lista de Patrimonio Mundial. II–7. Seville: Junta de Andalucía (Regional Government of Andalusia): Ministry of Culture.
- Bartolomé Ruiz González (2014). Analytical Summary of the candidacy (PDF). Antequera Dolmens Site. Proposal for inscription on the List of World Heritage Sites. Seville: Junta de Andalucía (Regional Government of Andalusia): Ministry of Culture.
- Margarita Sánchez Romero (2012). Registration of the dolmens of Antequera in the Tentative List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Menga. Revista de Prehistoria de Andalucía. Junta de Andalucía (Regional Government of Andalusia): Ministry of Culture. pp. 219–222.
- Aurora Villalobos Gómez (2015). Antequera Dolmens Site. Intuition and intention in the work by Javier Pérez González (PDF). Antequera: Junta de Andalucía (Regional Government of Andalusia): Ministry of Culture.
- Antequera Dolmens Site on the List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites
- Declaration as World Heritage Site in the 40th World Heritage Committee of UNESCO. Friday afternoon session July 15, 2016
- Presentation of the Antequera Dolmens Site on the website of the Ministry of Culture Junta de Andalucía (Regional Government of Andalusia)
- World Heritage Sites in Andalusia