XX Corps (German Empire)
|XX Army Corps|
Flag of the Staff of a Generalkommando (1871–1918)
|Active||1 October 1912 –1919|
|Size||Approximately 44,000 (on mobilisation in 1914)|
As the German Army expanded in the latter part of the 19th century and early part of the 20th century, the XX Army Corps was set up on 1 October 1912 in Allenstein as the Generalkommando (headquarters) for the southern part of East Prussia. It took over command of 37th Division from I Corps and the newly formed 41st Division. General der Artillerie Friedrich von Scholtz, former commander of 21st Division, took command. It was assigned to the I Army Inspectorate. which became the 8th Army at the start of the First World War.
XX Corps served on the Eastern Front from the start of the war. In September 1915, the corps was upgraded to form Armee-Gruppe Scholtz, later Armee-Abteilung Scholtz, as part of the Army of the Niemen. It was reformed from Armee-Abteilung D in September 1918. It was dissolved after the war.
The 25 peacetime Corps of the German Army (Guards, I - XXI, I - III Bavarian) had a reasonably standardised organisation. Each consisted of two divisions with usually two infantry brigades, one field artillery brigade and a cavalry brigade each. Each brigade normally consisted of two regiments of the appropriate type, so each Corps normally commanded 8 infantry, 4 field artillery and 4 cavalry regiments. There were exceptions to this rule:
- V, VI, VII, IX and XIV Corps each had a 5th infantry brigade (so 10 infantry regiments)
- II, XIII, XVIII and XXI Corps had a 9th infantry regiment
- I, VI and XVI Corps had a 3rd cavalry brigade (so 6 cavalry regiments)
- the Guards Corps had 11 infantry regiments (in 5 brigades) and 8 cavalry regiments (in 4 brigades).
Each Corps also directly controlled a number of other units. This could include one or more
|XX Corps||37th Division||73rd Infantry Brigade||147th (2nd Masurian) Infantry||Lyck, III Bn at Lötzen|
|151st (2nd Ermland) Infantry||Sensburg, III Bn at Bischofsburg|
|75th Infantry Brigade||146th (1st Masurian) Infantry||Allenstein|
|150th (1st Ermland) Infantry||Allenstein|
|37th Field Artillery Brigade||73rd (1st Masurian) Field Artillery||Allenstein|
|82nd (2nd Masurian) Field Artillery||Rastenburg, Lötzen|
|37th Cavalry Brigade||10th (East Prussian) Dragoons "King Albert of Saxony"||Allenstein|
|11th (Pomeranian) Dragoons "von Wedel"||Lyck|
|41st Division||72nd Infantry Brigade||18th (1st Posen) Infantry "von Grolman"||Osterode|
|59th (4th Posen) Infantry "Baron Hiller von Gaertringen"||Deutsch-Eylau, Soldau|
|74th Infantry Brigade||148th (5th West Prussian) Infantry||Elbing, III Bn at Braunsberg|
|152nd (1st Alsasian) Infantry "Teutonic Order"||Marienburg, III Bn at Stuhm|
|41st Field Artillery Brigade||35th (1st West Prussian) Field Artillery||Deutsch-Eylau|
|79th (3rd East Prussian) Field Artillery||Osterode|
|41st Cavalry Brigade||5th (West Prussian) Cuirassiers "Duke Frederick Eugene of Württemberg"||Riesenburg|
|4th (1st Pomeranian) Uhlans "von Schmidt"||Thorn|
|Corps Troops||1st (East Prussian) Jäger Battalion "Graf Yorck von Wartenberg"||Ortelsburg|
|2nd Fortress Machine Gun Abteilung||Lötzen (Fortress Boyen)|
|23rd (2nd West Prussian) (Fortress-)Pioneer Battalion||Graudenz|
|26th (Masurian) Pioneer Battalion||Graudenz|
|20th (Masurian) Train Battalion||Marienburg|
| Allenstein Defence Command|
World War I
Organisation on mobilisation
On mobilization on 2 August 1914 the Corps was restructured. 41st Cavalry Brigade was withdrawn to form part of the 1st Cavalry Division and the 37th Cavalry Brigade was broken up and its regiments assigned to the divisions as reconnaissance units. Divisions received engineer companies and other support units from the Corps headquarters. In summary, XX Corps mobilised with 25 infantry battalions, 9 machine gun companies (54 machine guns), 8 cavalry squadrons, 24 field artillery batteries (144 guns), 4 heavy artillery batteries (16 guns), 3 pioneer companies and an aviation detachment.
|XX Corps||37th Division||73rd Infantry Brigade||147th Infantry Regiment|
|151st Infantry Regiment|
|1st Jäger Battalion|
|75th Infantry Brigade||146th Infantry Regiment|
|150th Infantry Regiment|
|37th Field Artillery Brigade||73rd Field Artillery Regiment|
|82nd Field Artillery Regiment|
|11th Dragoon Regiment|
|1st Company, 26th Pioneer Battalion|
|37th Divisional Pontoon Train|
|1st Medical Company|
|41st Division||72nd Infantry Brigade||18th Infantry Regiment|
|59th Infantry Regiment|
|74th Infantry Brigade||148th Infantry Regiment|
|152nd Infantry Regiment|
|41st Field Artillery Brigade||35th Field Artillery Regiment|
|79th Field Artillery Regiment|
|10th Dragoon Regiment|
|2nd Company, 26th Pioneer Battalion|
|3rd Company, 26th Pioneer Battalion|
|41st Divisional Pontoon Train|
|2nd Medical Company|
|3rd Medical Company|
|Corps Troops||II Battalion, 5th Foot Artillery Regiment|
|15th Aviation Detachment|
|20th Corps Pontoon Train|
|20th Telephone Detachment|
|26th Pioneer Searchlight Section|
|Munition Trains and Columns corresponding to II Corps|
On mobilisation, XX Corps was assigned to the 8th Army to defend East Prussia while the rest of the Army executed the Schlieffen Plan offensive in August 1914. It took part in the battles of Gumbinnen, Tannenberg and 1st Masurian Lakes. Immediately after 1st Masurian Lakes it joined 9th Army in Lower Silesia where it fought at the Battle of the Vistula River. By May 1915 it was back with 8th Army and on 26 May the commander of XX Corps, General der Artillerie Friedrich von Scholtz, was made commander of the Army, while retaining simultaneous command of his Corps. On 29 September 1915, the headquarters of 8th Army was dissolved. On 18 September 1915, XX Corps was upgraded to form Armee-Gruppe Scholtz, later Armee-Abteilung Scholtz, as part of the Army of the Niemen.
XX Corps was reformed from Armee-Abteilung D on 21 September 1918.
|1 October 1912 to 28 October 1915||General der Artillerie Friedrich von Scholtz||Headquarters upgraged to Armee-Abteilung Scholtz|
|21 September 1918 to end of war||Generalleutnant Viktor Albrecht||Headquarters reformed from Armee-Abteilung D|
- Armee-Abteilung or Army Detachment in the sense of "something detached from an Army". It is not under the command of an Army so is in itself a small Army.
- Armee-Gruppe or Army Group in the sense of a group within an Army and under its command, generally formed as a temporary measure for a specific task.
- Heeresgruppe or Army Group in the sense of a number of armies under a single commander.
- Armee-Abteilung D
- German Army order of battle (1914)
- Order of battle at Tannenberg
- List of Imperial German infantry regiments
- List of Imperial German artillery regiments
- List of Imperial German cavalry regiments
- The Prussian Machine Archived July 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed: 7 April 2012
- Cron 2002, p. 395
- Cron 2002, p. 85
- Haythornthwaite 1996, pp. 193–194
- They formed the Guards Cavalry Division, the only peacetime cavalry division in the German Army.
- War Office 1918, p. 259
- Had a third (Horse Artillery) Abteilung of three batteries of 4 guns.
- Cron 2002, p. 324
- Cron 2002, p. 324
- With a machine gun company
- 4 heavy artillery batteries (16 heavy field howitzers)
- Cron 2002, p. 85
- German Administrative History Accessed: 9 April 2012
- German War History Accessed: 9 April 2012
- The Prussian Machine Archived September 30, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed: 7 April 2012
- Cron 2002, p. 85
- Cron 2002, p. 84
- Cron, Hermann (2002). Imperial German Army 1914-18: Organisation, Structure, Orders-of-Battle [first published: 1937]. Helion & Co. ISBN 1-874622-70-1.
- Ellis, John; Cox, Michael (1993). The World War I Databook. Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 1-85410-766-6.
- Haythornthwaite, Philip J. (1996). The World War One Source Book. Arms and Armour. ISBN 1-85409-351-7.
- Histories of Two Hundred and Fifty-One Divisions of the German Army which Participated in the War (1914-1918), compiled from records of Intelligence section of the General Staff, American Expeditionary Forces, at General Headquarters, Chaumont, France 1919. The London Stamp Exchange Ltd (1989). 1920. ISBN 0-948130-87-3.
- The German Forces in the Field; 7th Revision, 11th November 1918; Compiled by the General Staff, War Office. Imperial War Museum, London and The Battery Press, Inc (1995). 1918. ISBN 1-870423-95-X.