XII (1st Royal Saxon) Corps
|XII (1st Royal Saxon) Army Corps|
XII. (I. Königlich Sächsisches) Armee-Korps
Flag of the Staff of a Generalkommando (1871–1918)
|Active||1 April 1867 –1919|
|Country||Kingdom of Saxony / German Empire|
|Size||Approximately 44,000 (on mobilisation in 1914)|
The Corps was formed as the Royal Saxon Corps on 1 April 1867 and headquartered in Dresden. Initially, it commanded the 1st Royal Saxon Infantry Division in Dresden and the 2nd Royal Saxon Infantry Division in Leipzig. After the XIX (2nd Royal Saxon) Corps was set up on 1 April 1899 as the headquarters for the western part of the Kingdom of Saxony, XII Corps was made responsible for the eastern part of the Kingdom.
The Corps was disbanded with the demobilisation of the German Army after World War I.
Order of Battle during the Franco-Prussian War
Commander: General Crown Prince Albert of Saxony
Chief of the General Staff: Lt. Col. Friedrich von Zezschwitz
- 23rd (1st Royal Saxon) Infantry Division - Lt. General Prince George of Saxony
- 24th (2nd Royal Saxon) Infantry Division - Maj. General Erwin Nehrhoff von Holderberg
- Saxon Cavalry Division - Major General Franz Graf und Edler Herr zur Lippe-Weißenfeld
- 12th (Royal Saxon) Field Artillery Regiment - Col. Bernhard Oskar von Funcke
- 12th (Royal Saxon) Pioneer Battalion - Lt. Col. Karl Hugo Klemm
- 12th (Royal Saxon) Train Battalion - Lt. Col. Edmund Schmalz
Between the wars
As the German Army expanded in the latter part of the 19th Century, the XIX (2nd Royal Saxon) Corps was set up on 1 April 1899 in Leipzig as the Generalkommando (headquarters) for the western part of the Kingdom of Saxony (districts of Leipzig, Chemnitz and Zwickau). It took over command of 24th (2nd Royal Saxon) Division and the newly formed 40th (4th Royal Saxon) Division. Thereafter, XII Corps was responsible for the eastern part of the Kingdom.
The 25 peacetime Corps of the German Army (Guards, I - XXI, I - III Bavarian) had a reasonably standardised organisation. Each consisted of two divisions with usually two infantry brigades, one field artillery brigade and a cavalry brigade each. Each brigade normally consisted of two regiments of the appropriate type, so each Corps normally commanded 8 infantry, 4 field artillery and 4 cavalry regiments. There were exceptions to this rule:
- V, VI, VII, IX and XIV Corps each had a 5th infantry brigade (so 10 infantry regiments)
- II, XIII, XVIII and XXI Corps had a 9th infantry regiment
- I, VI and XVI Corps had a 3rd cavalry brigade (so 6 cavalry regiments)
- the Guards Corps had 11 infantry regiments (in 5 brigades) and 8 cavalry regiments (in 4 brigades).
Each Corps also directly controlled a number of other units. This could include one or more
|XII (1st Royal Saxon) Corps||23rd (1st Royal Saxon) Division||45th (1st Royal Saxon) Infantry Brigade||100th (1st Royal Saxon) Life Grenadiers||Dresden|
|101st (2nd Royal Saxon) Grenadiers "Emperor William, King of Prussia"||Dresden|
|46th (2nd Royal Saxon) Infantry Brigade||108th (Royal Saxon) Schützen (Füsiliers) "Prince George"||Dresden|
|182nd (16th Royal Saxon) Infantry||Freiberg|
|23rd (1st Royal Saxon) Field Artillery Brigade||12th (1st Royal Saxon) Field Artillery||Dresden, Königsbrück|
|48th (4th Royal Saxon) Field Artillery||Dresden|
|23rd (1st Royal Saxon) Cavalry Brigade||1st Royal Saxon Guards Heavy Cavalry||Dresden|
|17th (1st Royal Saxon) Uhlans "Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria, King of Hungary"||Oschatz|
|32nd (3rd Royal Saxon) Division||63rd (5th Royal Saxon) Infantry Brigade||102nd (3rd Royal Saxon) Infantry "King Ludwig III of Bavaria"||Zittau|
|103rd (4th Royal Saxon) Infantry||Bautzen|
|64th (6th Royal Saxon) Infantry Brigade||177th (12th Royal Saxon) Infantry||Dresden|
|178th (13th Royal Saxon) Infantry||Kamenz|
|32nd (3rd Royal Saxon) Field Artillery Brigade||28th (2nd Royal Saxon) Field Artillery||Bautzen|
|64th (5th Royal Saxon) Field Artillery||Pirna|
|32nd (3rd Royal Saxon) Cavalry Brigade||18th (1st Royal Saxon) Hussars "King Albert"||Großenhain|
|20th (3rd Royal Saxon) Hussars||Bautzen|
|Corps Troops||12th (1st Royal Saxon) Jäger Battalion||Freiberg|
|13th (2nd Royal Saxon) Jäger Battalion||Dresden|
|19th (2nd Royal Saxon) Foot Artillery||Dresden|
|12th (1st Royal Saxon) Pioneer Battalion||Pirna|
|12th (1st Royal Saxon) Train Battalion||Dresden, Bischofswerda|
|7th (Royal Saxon) Telegraph Battalion||Dresden|
| Dresden Defence Command|
World War I
Organisation on mobilisation
On mobilization on 2 August 1914 the Corps was restructured. 23rd Cavalry Brigade was withdrawn to form part of the 8th Cavalry Division and the 32nd Cavalry Brigade was broken up and its regiments assigned to the divisions as reconnaissance units. Divisions received engineer companies and other support units from the Corps headquarters. In summary, XII Corps mobilised with 25 infantry battalions, 9 machine gun companies (54 machine guns), 8 cavalry squadrons, 24 field artillery batteries (144 guns), 4 heavy artillery batteries (16 guns), 3 pioneer companies and an aviation detachment.
|XII (1st Royal Saxon) Corps||23rd (1st Royal Saxon) Division||45th Infantry Brigade||100th Life- Grenadier Regiment|
|101st Grenadier Regiment|
|46th Infantry Brigade||108th Schützen Regiment|
|182nd Infantry Regiment|
|23rd Field Artillery Brigade||12th Field Artillery Regiment|
|48th Field Artillery Regiment|
|20th Hussar Regiment|
|1st Company, 12th Pioneer Battalion|
|23rd Divisional Pontoon Train|
|1st Medical Company|
|3rd Medical Company|
|32nd (3rd Royal Saxon) Division||63rd Infantry Brigade||102nd Infantry Regiment|
|103rd Infantry Regiment|
|12th Jäger Battalion|
|64th Infantry Brigade||177th Infantry Regiment|
|178th Infantry Regiment|
|32nd Field Artillery Brigade||28th Field Artillery Regiment|
|64th Field Artillery Regiment|
|18th Hussar Regiment|
|2nd Company, 12th Pioneer Battalion|
|3rd Company, 12th Pioneer Battalion|
|32nd Divisional Pontoon Train|
|2nd Medical Company|
|Corps Troops||I Battalion, 19th Foot Artillery Regiment|
|29th Aviation Detachment|
|12th Corps Pontoon Train|
|12th Telephone Detachment|
|12th Pioneer Searchlight Section|
|Munition Trains and Columns corresponding to II Corps|
On mobilisation, XII Corps was assigned to the predominantly Saxon 3rd Army forming part of the right wing of the forces for the Schlieffen Plan offensive in August 1914 on the Western Front. It was transferred to the 2nd Army on 14 September 1914 and to the 7th Army one day later. It would later serve under the 5th Army and the 3rd Army again. It was still in existence at the end of the war in Armee-Abteilung B, Heeresgruppe Herzog Albrecht von Württemberg at the extreme southern end of the Western Front.
|23 February 1867||General der Infanterie||Crown Prince Albert of Saxony|
|19 August 1870||General der Infanterie||Prince Georg of Saxony|
|22 March 1900||Generalleutnant||Max von Hausen|
|26 August 1902||General der Infanterie||Crown Prince Friedrich Augustus of Saxony|
|18 October 1904||Generalleutnant||Hermann von Broizem|
|26 September 1910||General der Infanterie||Karl Ludwig d'Elsa|
|17 April 1916||Generalleutnant||Horst Edler von der Planitz|
|8 September 1917||General der Kavallerie||Hans Krug von Nidda|
|24 July 1918||Generalleutnant||Max Leuthold|
- Armee-Abteilung or Army Detachment in the sense of "something detached from an Army". It is not under the command of an Army so is in itself a small Army.
- Armee-Gruppe or Army Group in the sense of a group within an Army and under its command, generally formed as a temporary measure for a specific task.
- Heeresgruppe or Army Group in the sense of a number of armies under a single commander.
- German Army order of battle (1914)
- German Army order of battle, Western Front (1918)
- List of Imperial German infantry regiments
- List of Imperial German artillery regiments
- List of Imperial German cavalry regiments
- Royal Saxon Army
- Claus von Bredow, bearb., Historische Rang- und Stammliste des deuschen Heeres (1905), p. 1386.
- A. Niemann, Der französische Feldzug 1870-1871 (Verlag des Bibliographischen Instituts, Hildburghausen, 1871), p. 44.
- Günter Wegner, Stellenbesetzung der deutschen Heere 1815-1939. (Biblio Verlag, Osnabrück, 1993), Bd. 1, p.128;
- Claus von Bredow, bearb., Historische Rang- und Stammliste des deuschen Heeres (1905), pp.1388-1389.
- German Administrative History Accessed: 11 May 2012
- Cron 2002, p. 395
- Haythornthwaite 1996, pp. 193–194
- They formed the Guards Cavalry Division, the only peacetime cavalry division in the German Army.
- War Office 1918, p. 251
- Had a third (Horse Artillery) Abteilung of three batteries of 4 guns.
- Cron 2002, p. 300
- Cron 2002, pp. 310
- With a machine gun company.
- 4 heavy artillery batteries (16 heavy field howitzers)
- XII. Armeekorps (Chronik 1914/1918)
- Cron 2002, pp. 88–89
- Ellis & Cox 1993, pp. 186–187
- German Administrative History Accessed: 11 May 2012
- German War History Accessed: 11 May 2012
- The Prussian Machine Archived April 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed: 11 May 2012
- Cron 2002, p. 84
- Rangliste der Königlich Sächsischen Armee für das Jahr 1914 (1914), pp. 10–11
- Cron, Hermann (2002). Imperial German Army 1914-18: Organisation, Structure, Orders-of-Battle [first published: 1937]. Helion & Co. ISBN 1-874622-70-1.
- Ellis, John; Cox, Michael (1993). The World War I Databook. Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 1-85410-766-6.
- Haythornthwaite, Philip J. (1996). The World War One Source Book. Arms and Armour. ISBN 1-85409-351-7.
- Histories of Two Hundred and Fifty-One Divisions of the German Army which Participated in the War (1914-1918), compiled from records of Intelligence section of the General Staff, American Expeditionary Forces, at General Headquarters, Chaumont, France 1919. The London Stamp Exchange Ltd (1989). 1920. ISBN 0-948130-87-3.
- The German Forces in the Field; 7th Revision, 11th November 1918; Compiled by the General Staff, War Office. Imperial War Museum, London and The Battery Press, Inc (1995). 1918. ISBN 1-870423-95-X.