Tenth Dynasty of Egypt

The Tenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty X) is often combined with Dynasties VII, VIII, IX and XI (Thebes only) under the group title First Intermediate Period. Dynasties IX and X date approximately from 2160 to 2025 BC.[1]


Dynasty IX was founded at Herakleopolis Magna, and Dynasty X continued there. At this time Egypt was not unified, and there is some overlap between these and other local dynasties. The Turin Canon lists eighteen kings for this royal line, but their names are damaged, unidentifiable, or lost.[2]

The following is a possible list of rulers of the Tenth Dynasty based on the Turin Canon, as egyptologists have differing opinions about the order of succession within the two dynasties. Among them, only Wahkare Khety and Merykare are undoubtedly attested by archaeological finds:

Dynasty X (according to Hayes) (c. 2130 - 2040 BCE)[3]
Name Comments
Meryhathor(?) -
Neferkare VIII Might be the Kaneferre mentioned by Ankhtifi
Wahkare Khety III Possibly the purported author of the Teaching for King Merykare
Merykare -
[name lost] An ephemeral ("x months") successor of Merykare
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  1. Shaw, Ian, ed. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 480. ISBN 0-19-815034-2.
  2. Sir Alan Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs, Oxford University Press, 1961, pp. 112-13.
  3. William C. Hayes, in The Cambridge Ancient History, vol 1, part 2, 1971 (2008), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-077915, p. 996.

Preceded by
Ninth dynasty
Dynasty of Egypt
c. 2160 – 2025 BCE
Succeeded by
Eleventh dynasty
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