Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt
Nepherites I founded the Twenty-ninth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (according to an account preserved in a papyrus in the Brooklyn Museum) by defeating Amyrtaeus in open battle, and later putting him to death at Memphis. Nepherites made his capital at Mendes. This brief dynasty is often considered part of the Late Period.
On Nepherites' death, two rival factions fought for the throne: one behind his son Muthis, and the other supporting an usurper Psammuthes; although Psammuthes was successful, he only managed to reign for a year.
Psammuthes was overthrown by Hakor, who claimed to be the grandson of Nepherites I. He successfully resisted Persian attempts to reconquer Egypt, drawing support from Athens (until the Peace of Antalcidas in 386 BC), and from the rebel king of Cyprus, Evagoras. Although his son Nepherites II became king on his death, the younger Nepherites was unable to keep hold on his inheritance.
- Clarysse, Willy (1974), "Nephorites, Founder of the 29th Dynasty and His Name", Chronique d'Égypte: Bulletin périodique de la Fondation égyptologique reine Élisabeth, 69: 215–217.
- Lloyd, Alan Brian (2000), "The Late Period (664–332 BC)", in Shaw, Ian, The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 369–394, ISBN 0-8109-1020-9.
- Myśliwiec, Karol (2000), The Twilight of Ancient Egypt: First Millennium B.C.E, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-8630-0. Translated by David Lorton.
- Ray, John D. (1986), "Psammuthis and Hakoris", Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Egypt Exploration Society, 72: 149–158, doi:10.2307/3821486, JSTOR 3821486.
- Traunecker, Claude (1979), "Essai sur l'histoire de la XXIXe dynastie" (PDF), Bulletin de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale, 79: 395–436.