Swartzia picta
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Swartzieae
(DC. 1825) Cardoso et al. 2013[1]
Type genus
Swartzia Schreb.
Subclades and Genera

See text.

Distribution of the Swartzieae.
  • Swartziaceae Bartling
  • Swartzieae clade
  • Swartzieae sensu stricto
  • Swartzioid clade
  • Swartzioids sensu lato
  • Tounateeae Baill. 1870

The tribe Swartzieae is an early-branching monophyletic clade of the flowering plant subfamily Faboideae or Papilionaceae. Traditionally this tribe has been used as a wastebasket taxon to accommodate genera of Faboideae which exhibit actinomorphic, rather than zygomorphic floral symmetry and/or incompletely differentiated petals and free stamens.[1][2] It was recently revised and most of its genera were redistributed to other tribes (Amburaneae, Baphieae, and Exostyleae).[1][3][4] Under its new circumscription, this clade is consistently resolved in molecular phylogenies.[1][3][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] Members of this tribe possess "non-papilionate swartzioid flowers[…]largely characterized by a tendency to lack petals combined with a profusion and elaboration of free stamens"[1][3] and a "lack of unidirectional order in the initiation of the stamens".[10] They also have "complete or near complete fusion of sepals resulting from intercalary growth early in development, relatively numerous stamens, and a single or no petal, with other petals not at all apparent in development."[12] The tribe is predicted to have diverged from the other legume lineages 48.9±2.8 million years ago (in the Eocene).[9]

Subclades and genera

Swartzioids sensu stricto

The members of this clade occur mainly in lowland rain forests.[3][5][10]


The members of this clade are distinguished by "a nearly actinomorphic androecium with basifixed anthers, exarillate seeds, and a tendency toward alternate leaflets."[3][10] They occur mainly in neotropical, seasonally-dry tropical woodlands.[3]


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowskie MF, Lavin M (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot. 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001.
  2. Polhill RM. (1994). "Classification of the Leguminosae". In Bisby FA, Buckingham J, Harborne JB. Phytochemical Dictionary of the Leguminosae, Plants and Their Constituents. 1. Chapman and Hall/CRC Press, London. pp. xxv–xlvii. ISBN 9780412397707.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cardoso D, de Queiroz LP, Pennington RT, de Lima HC, Fonty É, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M (2012). "Revisiting the phylogeny of papilionoid legumes: new insights from comprehensively sampled early-branching lineages". Am J Bot. 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380.
  4. Wojciechowski MF. (2013). "Towards a new classification of Leguminosae: Naming clades using non-Linnaean phylogenetic nomenclature". S Afr J Bot. 89: 85–93. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.06.017.
  5. 1 2 Ireland HE, Pennington RT, Preston J (2000). "Molecular systematics of the Swartzieae". In Herendeen PS, Bruneau A. Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 9. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. pp. 277–298. ISBN 184246017X.
  6. Pennington RT, Lavin M, Ireland H, Klitgaard B, Preston J, Hu J-M (2001). "Phylogenetic relationships of basal papilionoid legumes based upon sequences of the chloroplast trnL intron". Syst Bot. 55 (5): 818–836. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-26.3.537.
  7. Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M, Sanderson MJ (2004). "A phylogeny of legumes (Leguminosae) based on analysis of the plastid matK gene resolves many well-supported subclades within the family". Am J Bot. 91 (11): 1846–1862. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.11.1846. PMID 21652332.
  8. Ireland HE. (2005). "Tribe Swartzieae". In Lewis G, Schrire B, MacKinder B, Lock M. Legumes of the world. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. pp. 214–225. ISBN 1900347806.
  9. 1 2 Lavin M, Herendeen PS, Wojciechowski MF (2005). "Evolutionary rates analysis of Leguminosae implicates a rapid diversification of lineages during the Tertiary". Syst Biol. 54 (4): 575–594. doi:10.1080/10635150590947131. PMID 16085576.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 Torke BM, Schaal BA (2008). "Molecular phylogenetics of the species-rich neotropical genus Swartzia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) and related genera of the swartzioid clade". Am J Bot. 95 (2): 215–228. doi:10.3732/ajb.95.2.215.
  11. LPWG [Legume Phylogeny Working Group] (2013). "Legume phylogeny and classification in the 21st century: progress, prospects and lessons for other species-rich clades". Taxon. 62 (2): 217–248. doi:10.12705/622.8.
  12. Tucker SC. (2003). "Floral ontogeny in Swartzia (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Swartzieae): Distribution and role of the ring meristem". Am J Bot. 90 (9): 1271–1292. doi:10.3732/ajb.90.9.1271.
  13. Ireland HE (2007). "Taxonomic changes in the South American genus Bocoa (Leguminosae–Swartzieae): Reinstatement of the name Trischidium, and a synopsis of both genera". Kew Bull. 62 (2): 333–350. JSTOR 20443359.
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