Location in Belgium
|Coordinates: 50°51′N 03°36′E / 50.850°N 3.600°ECoordinates: 50°51′N 03°36′E / 50.850°N 3.600°E|
|• Mayor||Marnic De Meulemeester (VLD)|
|• Governing party/ies||VLD, CD&V|
|• Total||68.06 km2 (26.28 sq mi)|
|Population (1 January 2016)|
|• Density||460/km2 (1,200/sq mi)|
Oudenaarde (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈʌu̯dənaːrdə], French Audenarde, English sometimes Oudenarde) is a Belgian municipality in the Flemish province of East Flanders. The municipality comprises the city of Oudenaarde proper and the towns of Bevere, Edelare, Eine, Ename, Heurne, Leupegem, Mater, Melden, Mullem, Nederename, Welden, Volkegem and a part of Ooike.
From the 15th to the 18th century, but especially in the 16th century, Oudenaarde was a world-known centre of tapestry production. The town's name, meaning “old field”, still lingers on in “outnal”, an obsolete English term for a kind of brown linen thread.
The glory of Ename
The history of the current municipality of Oudenaarde starts in 974, when Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor and king of Germany, built one of its three fortifications on the Scheldt at Ename to protect his kingdom against possible attacks from Francia (the other two frontier posts were at Valenciennes and Antwerp). Ename grew very fast. By 1005, the town already had a couple of churches and had become the largest town in the Duchy of Lotharingia. In 1033, Count Baldwin IV of Flanders took the city as a frontier post against emperor Henry III. In 1047, Baldwin V consolidated his father’s victory by having his wife found the Benedictine abbey of Saint Salvator there. By that time, the former merchants and guild artisans of Ename had fled across the Scheldt to the recently founded city of Oudenaarde.
Oudenaarde’s golden age
In the 11th century, Oudenaarde’s economy flourished, thanks to the proximity of the Scheldt and to the burgeoning, but vibrant cloth and tapestry industry. Churches, cloisters and hospitals were built. Throughout the Middle Ages, the city was one of the staunchest supporters of the counts of Flanders, defending them against insurrections from the South, and even from Ghent. The city became known as the residence of the nobles. It built itself a flagship town hall (built 1526–1537), which we can still admire today, and the St-Walburga church. Charles V stayed here for a couple of months in 1522 and fathered an illegitimate daughter, Margaret of Parma, who was to become Regent of the Netherlands.
During the Reformation, the people of Oudenaarde chose Protestantism and allied themselves with Ghent against Charles V. In 1582, after a prolonged siege by Margaret's son, Alexander Farnese, the city finally gave in, causing most merchants, workers, and even nobles to flee. Oudenaarde fell under the Counter-Reformation, which for a short while revived the commerce of tapestry. The glory days, however, never came back. The French attacked and took the city three times in less than a century. In 1708, one of the key battles in the War of the Spanish Succession, known as the Battle of Oudenaarde, was fought in the vicinity of the city. Oudenaarde slumbered as a provincial town under the Habsburg regime.
Like its neighbours, in the 1790s it suffered religious curtailment imposed by the French Revolution. The city later suffered damage during World War I, which is commemorated by several monuments scattered around town.
- The Flamboyant Gothic-style Town Hall and its Belfry were designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1999. The city hall houses a unique collection of Oudenaarde tapestries.
- The Church of Our Lady of Pamele, begun in 1234 on the banks of the Scheldt, and the Church of St Walburga near the market square, are both worth a visit.
- Oudenaarde is also home to the Centrum Tour of Flanders, a museum dedicated to the Tour of Flanders (Tour of Flanders) cycle race.
- Since 2008 the village of Mater in Oudenaarde has been the home of Belgium's smallest craft brewery: the Smisje Brewery (previously located in Bruges).
- Oudenaarde Town Hall
- Church of Our Lady of Pamele
- Saint Walburga's church, Oudenaarde
- Oudenaarde railway station
- The marketplace, Oudenaarde
- Recurring events include a beer fest in June, an open-air musical festival in the summer, and an agricultural fair in February. The celebrated Tour of Flanders voor Vrouwen, the women's Tour of Flanders cycle race, starts every spring in Oudenaarde. The men's Tour of Flanders has passed through Oudenaarde on several occasions, and regularly ascends the Koppenberg hill in the municipality. The Koppenberg hillside is also used for a November cyclo-cross race.
- Every ten years, one of the largest floral displays in Flanders takes place on the market square (Grote Markt). The last one took place in 2005.
- Arnold of Soissons, saint (1040-1087)
- Margaret of Parma, daughter of Charles V and Regent of the Netherlands (1522-1586)
- Johannes van den Driesche, orientalist and exegete (1550-1616)
- Adriaen Brouwer, painter (1605-1638)
- Charles Liedts, politician (1802-1878)
- Gentil Theodoor Antheunis, poet, (1840-1907)
- Reimond Stijns, writer (1850-1905)
- André Dierickx, road racing cyclist (b. 1946)
- Jotie T'Hooft, poet (1956-1977)
- Jonathan Page, American champion cyclocross racer (b. 1976)
- Jan Bakelants, Cyclist(b.1986)
Twin towns — sister cities
- Coburg, Bavaria, Germany (1972)
- Bergen op Zoom, North Brabant, Netherlands (1986)
- Castel Madama, Rome, Lazio, Italy (1986)
- Arras, Pas-de-Calais, Hauts-de-France, France (1990)
- Hastings, East Sussex, England, United Kingdom (1991)
- Buzău, Romania (2007)
- Population per municipality as of 1 January 2016 (XLS; 397 KB)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oudenaarde.|
- Official English website
- Nieuws in Oudenaarde - Only available in Dutch
- Ename - available in English
- Centrum Tour of Flanders - available in English
- Relief map of Oudenaarde and its fortifications in the 17th century
- [http://Relief map of Oudenaarde and its fortifications in the 17th century