Mohamed Fawzi (general)

Mohamed Fawzi
Minister of Defense
In office
January 1968  May 1971
President Gamal Abdel Nasser
Anwar Sadat
Preceded by Amin Howeidi
Succeeded by Mohammed Sadek
Personal details
Born 5 March 1915
Abbasiya, Cairo
Died February 2000 (aged 84)
Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt
Nationality Egyptian
Alma mater Military academy
Military service
Service/branch Egyptian Army
Rank Colonel General

Mohamed Fawzi (5 March 1915 – February 2000) was an Egyptian general and politician who served as minister of defense.

Early life and education

Fawzi was born in Abbasiya, Cairo, on 5 March 1915.[1] He attended the Egyptian Royal Military Academy and graduated in 1936.[2] He also held a master's degree, which he received from the same institution in 1952.[1]


Fawzi (second from left) with President Gamal Abdel Nasser (second from right) and Chief of Staff Abdul Munim Riad (seated first from right) at Suez Canal front during the War of Attrition with Israel, February 1968

During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Fawzi first met Gamal Abdel Nasser[2] and served as the commander of anti-aircraft artillery in Deir Suneid.[3] In 1957, Fawzi was appointed by then president Nasser as commandant of the Military Academy. In 1961, Fawzi headed the Egypt's military mission as part of the UN forces in Congo.[1] Fawzi became military secretary-general of the Arab League in March 1964.[3] He was also made chief of staff that month,[4] a post he occupied until the Six Day War in June 1967.[5][6]

After the war, Fawzi resigned from his post, and was replaced by Abdel Moneim Reiad.[7] On 11 June he was appointed general commander, replacing Abdel Hakim Amer.[8] Amer and his allies protested the move and immediately afterward, 600 officers loyal to Amer besieged army headquarters demanding Amer's reinstatement and threatening to oust Fawzi.[9] Tensions between Amer, who was a plotting a coup to be launched on 27 August, and Nasser mounted. A plan to apprehend Amer was made and Nasser managed to convince him to meet in his home. While Amer was Nasser's home, Fawzi led an army takeover of Amer's villa, confiscating all of thirteen truckloads of his weapons.[10]

In January 1968, Fawzi was appointed defense minister.[3] He also became one of the members of the Supreme Executive Committee of Egypt the same year.[11]

Fawzi continued to serve as defense minister during the era of next president Anwar Sadat. However, Fawzi and six other ministers resigned from office in May 1971.[12] Mohammed Sadek replaced Fawzi as defense minister.[13]

Arrest and sentence

Immediately after his resignation, Fawzi was arrested due to his alleged role in a coup plot.[14] In May 1971, Sadat announced that Fawzi had been under house arrest.[12] Fawzi was tried and sentenced to life imprisonment.[15] His sentence was reduced to 15 years at hard labor by Sadat in December 1971.[15] Fawzi was later pardoned in 1974 due to health concerns and his military background.[1]

Later years

In his later years, Fawzi published books on military affairs and gave lectures.[14] He also published a biography.[16] He joined Arab Democratic Nasserist Party, being a member of its political bureau.[14]


Fawzi died in February 2000 in Heliopolis.[3]


  1. 1 2 3 4 Arthur Goldschmidt (2000). Biographical Dictionary of Modern Egypt. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-55587-229-8. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  2. 1 2 "General Mohammed Fawzi". Edward Fox. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  3. 1 2 3 4 "Fighter bid farewell". Al Ahram Weekly. 469. 17–23 February 2000. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  4. Brooks, p. 89.
  5. "The three-year war". Al Ahram Weekly. 1107. 19–25 July 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  6. "On this day. 1967: Egypt and Jordan unite against Israel". BBC. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  7. "Suez artillery battle renewed". The Glasgow Herald. 10 March 1969. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  8. Kandil, 2012, p. 85.
  9. Kandil, 2012, p. 87.
  10. Kandil, 2012, p. 90.
  11. "Egypt-Internal Relations". Mongabay. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  12. 1 2 "Shakeup for Egypt cabinet said purge". Lawrence Journal. AP. 14 May 1971. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  13. "Terrorist plot cited". The Milwaukee Sentinel. 17 May 1971. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  14. 1 2 3 "Obituaries in the News". Associated Press. Cairo. 17 February 2000. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  15. 1 2 "Sadat spares 4 lives". The Milwaukee Journal. Cairo. UPI. 9 December 1971. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  16. Youssef Aboul-Enein (1 November 2012). "The Egyptian Armed Forces Collapse before His Eyes the 1967 Six-Day War". Infantry Magazine. Retrieved 20 October 2013.  via Questia (subscription required)


  • Brooks, Risa (2008), Shaping Strategy: The Civil-military Politics of Strategic Assessment, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-12980-8 
  • Kandil, Hazem (2012), Soldiers, Spies and Statesmen: Egypt's Road to Revolt, Verso Books, ISBN 978-1-84467-962-1 
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