Hundred Days Offensive
The Hundred Days Offensive was the final period of the First World War, during which the Allies launched a series of offensives against the Central Powers on the Western Front from 8 August to 11 November 1918, beginning with the Battle of Amiens. The offensive essentially pushed the Germans out of France, forcing them to retreat beyond the Hindenburg Line, and was followed by an armistice. The term "Hundred Days Offensive" does not refer to a specific battle or unified strategy, but rather the rapid series of Allied victories starting with the Battle of Amiens.
The Spring Offensive of the German Army on the Western Front had begun on 21 March 1918 with Operation Michael and had petered out by July. The Germans had advanced to the river Marne but failed to achieve a decisive breakthrough. When Operation Marne-Rheims ended in July, the Allied supreme commander Ferdinand Foch, ordered a counter-offensive which became known as the Second Battle of the Marne. The Germans, recognising their untenable position, withdrew from the Marne towards the north. For this victory, Foch was granted the title Marshal of France.
Foch considered the time had arrived for the Allies to return to the offensive. The American Expeditionary Force (AEF, General John J. Pershing), was present in France in large numbers and invigorated the Allied armies.:472 Pershing was keen to use his army in an independent role. The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) had also been reinforced by large numbers of troops returned from the Sinai and Palestine Campaign and the Italian Front and replacements held back in Britain by the Prime Minister, David Lloyd George.:155
A number of proposals were considered and, finally, Foch agreed on a proposal by Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) of the BEF, to strike on the River Somme, east of Amiens and south-west of the site of the 1916 Battle of the Somme, with the intention of forcing the Germans away from the vital Amiens–Paris railway.:472 The Somme was chosen as a suitable site for the offensive for several reasons. As in 1916, it marked the boundary between the BEF and the French armies, in this case defined by the Amiens–Roye road, allowing the two armies to cooperate. Also the Picardy countryside provided a good surface for tanks, which was not the case in Flanders. Finally, the German defences, manned by the German 2nd Army (General Georg von der Marwitz), were relatively weak, having been subjected to continual raiding by the Australians in a process termed peaceful penetration.
The advance in Picardy
The Battle of Amiens
The Battle of Amiens (with the French attack on the southern flank called the Battle of Montdidier) opened on 8 August 1918, with an attack by more than 10 Allied divisions—Australian, Canadian, British and French forces—with more than 500 tanks.:497 Through careful preparation, the Allies achieved surprise.:20,95 The attack, led by the British Fourth Army, broke through the German lines and tanks attacked German rear positions, sowing panic and confusion. By the end of the day, a gap 15 mi (24 km) wide had been created in the German line south of the Somme. The Allies had taken 17,000 prisoners and 330 guns. Total German losses were estimated to be 30,000 men, while the Allies had suffered about 6,500 killed, wounded and missing. The collapse in German morale led Erich Ludendorff to dub it "the Black Day of the German Army".:20,95
The advance continued for three more days but without the spectacular results of 8 August, since the rapid advance outran the supporting artillery and ran short of supplies. During those three days, the Allies had managed to gain 12 mi (19 km) but most of that had occurred on the first day, as a result of the Germans adding reinforcements. On 10 August, the Germans began to pull out of the salient that they had managed to occupy during Operation Michael in March, back towards the Hindenburg Line.
On 15 August 1918, Foch demanded that Haig continue the Amiens offensive, even though the attack was faltering as the troops outran their supplies and artillery and German reserves were being moved to the sector. Haig refused and prepared to launch a fresh offensive by the Third Army at Albert (the Battle of Albert), which opened on 21 August.:713–4 The offensive was a success, pushing the German 2nd Army back over a 34 mi (55 km) front. Albert was captured on 22 August. The attack was widened on the south, by the French Tenth Army starting the Second Battle of Noyon on 17 August, capturing the town of Noyon on 29 August. On 26 August, to the north of the initial attack, the First Army widened the attack by another 7 mi (11 km) with the Second Battle of Arras of 1918. Bapaume fell on 29 August (during the Second Battle of Bapaume).
Advance to the Hindenburg Line
With the front line broken, a number of battles took place as the Allies forced the Germans back to the Hindenburg Line. East of Amiens (after the Battle of Amiens), with artillery brought forward and munitions replenished, the Fourth Army also resumed its advance, with the Australian Corps crossing the Somme River on the night of 31 August, breaking the German lines during the Battle of Mont Saint-Quentin. On 26 August, to the north of the Somme, the First Army widened the attack by another 7 mi (11 km) with the Second Battle of Arras of 1918, which includes the Battle of the Scarpe (1918) (26 August) and the Battle of Drocourt-Queant Line (2 September).
South of the BEF, the French First Army approached the Hindenburg Line on the outskirts of St. Quentin during the Battle of Savy-Dallon (10 September),:128–9 and the French Tenth Army approached the Hindenburg Line near Laon during the Battle of Vauxaillon (14 September).:125 The British Fourth Army approached the Hindenburg Line along the St Quentin Canal, during the Battle of Épehy (18 September). By 2 September, the Germans had been forced back close to the Hindenburg Line, from which they had launched their offensive in the spring.
Battles of the Hindenburg Line
Foch planned a series of concentric attacks on the German lines in France (sometimes referred to as the Grand Offensive), with the various axes of advance, designed to cut German lateral communications, intending that the success of an attack would enable the entire front line to be advanced.:205–6 The main German defences were anchored on the Hindenburg Line, a series of defensive fortifications stretching from Cerny on the Aisne river to Arras. Before Foch's main offensive was launched, the remaining German salients west and east of the line were crushed at Havrincourt and St Mihiel on 12 September and at the Battle of Épehy and the Battle of the Canal du Nord on 27 September.:217
The first attack of the Grand Offensive was launched on 26 September by the French and the AEF in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive (this offensive includes the Battle of Somme-Py (26 September), the Battle of Saint-Thierry (30 September), the Battle of Montfaucon (14–17 October) and the Battle of Chesne of 1 November). The offensive involved attacking over difficult terrain, resulting in the Hindenburg Line not being broken until 17 October. Two days later, the Army Group under Albert I of Belgium (the Belgian Army, the British Second Army (General Herbert Plumer) and the French Sixth Army (General Degoutte), attacked near Ypres in Flanders (the Fifth Battle of Ypres). Both attacks made good progress initially but were then slowed by supply difficulties.
On 29 September, the central attack on the Hindenburg Line commenced, with the British Fourth Army led by the Australian Corps attacking in the Battle of St. Quentin Canal and the French First Army attacking fortifications outside St Quentin. By 5 October, the Allies had broken through the entire depth of the Hindenburg defences over a 19 mi (31 km) front.:123 Rawlinson wrote, "Had the Boche [Germans] not shown marked signs of deterioration during the past month, I should never have contemplated attacking the Hindenburg line. Had it been defended by the Germans of two years ago, it would certainly have been impregnable…."
On 8 October, the First and Third British Armies broke through the Hindenburg Line at the Second Battle of Cambrai. This collapse forced the German High Command to accept that the war had to be ended. The evidence of failing German morale also convinced many Allied commanders and political leaders that the war could be ended in 1918; previously, all efforts had been concentrated on building up forces to mount a decisive attack in 1919.
Beyond the Hindenburg Line
Through October, the German armies retreated through the territory gained in 1914. The Allies pressed the Germans back toward the lateral railway line from Metz to Bruges, which had supplied the front in Northern France and Belgium for much of the war. As the Allied armies reached this line, the Germans were forced to abandon increasingly large amounts of heavy equipment and supplies, further reducing their morale and capacity to resist.
There were many casualties in the Allied and German armies. Rearguard actions were fought during the Pursuit to the Selle (9 October), Battle of Courtrai (14 October), Battle of Mont-d'Origny (15 October), Battle of the Selle (17 October), Battle of Lys and Escaut (French: Bataille de la Lys et de l'Escaut) (20 October) (including the subsidiary Battle of the Lys and Battle of the Escaut), Battle of the Serre (20 October), Battle of Valenciennes (1 November) and the Battle of the Sambre (including the Second Battle of Guise (4 November) and the Battle of Thiérache (4 November), with fighting continuing until the last minutes before the Armistice took effect at 11:00 on 11 November 1918. One of the last soldiers to die was Canadian Private George Lawrence Price, two minutes before the armistice took effect.
- 1 2 Neiberg p. 95
- 1 2 Lloyd p. xxxi
- ↑ 279,000 French casualties from 1 July to 15 September
- ↑ Bond 1990, p. 20.
- 1 2 3 Reid 2006, p. 448.
- 1 2 3 4 5 Bean. The Australian Imperial Force in France during the Allied Offensive..
- 1 2 3 4 Livesay, John Frederick Bligh (1919). Canada's Hundred Days: With the Canadian Corps from Amiens to Mons, Aug. 8 – Nov. 11, 1918. Toronto: Thomas Allen.
- ↑ Christie, Norm M. (1999). For King and Empire: The Canadians at Amiens, August 1918. CEF Books. ISBN 1-896979-20-3.
- ↑ Schreiber, Shane B. (2004) . Shock Army of the British Empire: the Canadian Corps in the last 100 days of the Great War. St. Catharines, ON: Vanwell. ISBN 1-55125-096-9.
- ↑ Orgill, Douglas (1972). Armoured Onslaught: 8th August 1918. New York: Ballantine. ISBN 0-345-02608-X.
- ↑ "Canada's Hundred Days". Canada: Veterans Affairs. 29 July 2004. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
- ↑ Dancocks, Daniel George (1987). Spearhead to Victory: Canada and the Great War. Hurtig. p. 294. ISBN 0-88830-310-6.
- 1 2 "History of the Great War – principal events timeline – 1918". Retrieved 11 June 2010.
- ↑ "Mont St Quentin – Peronne 31 August – 2 September 1918". Retrieved 11 June 2010.
- ↑ "The Second Battles of Arras 1918". 1914–1918. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
- 1 2 3 Hanotaux. Histoire illustrée de la guerre de 1914.
- ↑ Christie, Norm M. (2005) . The Canadians at Arras and the Drocourt–Queant Line, August–September, 1918. For King and Empire: A Social History and Battlefield Tour. CEF Books. ISBN 1-896979-43-2. OCLC 60369666.
- ↑ Christie, Norm M. (1997). The Canadians at Cambrai and the Canal du Nord, August–September 1918. For King and Empire: A Social History and Battlefield Tour. CEF Books. ISBN 1-896979-18-1. OCLC 166099767.
- ↑ Wasserstein, Bernard (2007). Barbarism and Civilization: A History of Europe in Our Time. Oxford University Press. pp. 93–96. ISBN 978-0-1987-3074-3.
- ↑ Hayes-Fisher, J. (29 October 2008). "The Last Soldiers to Die in World War I". BBC News Magazine. Timewatch. Retrieved 18 January 2009.
- Bond, Brian (2007). The Unquiet Western Front, Britain's Role in Literature and History. London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-03641-2.
- Bean, Charles Edwin Woodrow (1942). The Australian Imperial Force in France during the Allied Offensive. Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918. VI (1st ed.). Angus and Robertson. OCLC 41008291. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- Christie, Norm M. (1999). For King and Empire, The Canadians at Amiens, August 1918. CEF Books. ISBN 1-896979-20-3.
- Christie, Norm M. (2005). The Canadians at Arras and the Drocourt–Queant Line, August–September, 1918. CEF Books. ISBN 1-896979-43-2. OCLC 60369666.
- Christie, Norm M. (1997). The Canadians at Cambrai and the Canal du Nord, August–September 1918. CEF Books. ISBN 1-896979-18-1.
- Dancocks, Daniel George (1987). Spearhead to Victory: Canada and the Great War. Hurtig. ISBN 0-88830-310-6. OCLC 16354705.
- Hanotaux, Gabriel (1924). Histoire Illustrée de la Guerre de 1914 (in French). 17. Paris: Gounouilhou. OCLC 175115527.
- Livesay, John Frederick Bligh (1919). Canada's Hundred Days. Thomas Allen. OCLC 471474361.
- Lloyd, Nick (2013). Hundred Days: The End of the Great War. Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-92006-8.
- Montgomery, Sir A. (1920). The Story of Fourth Army in the Battles of the Hundred Days, August 8th to November 11th, 1918 (PDF). London: Hodder & Stoughton. OCLC 682022494. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- Orgill, Douglas (1972). Armoured Onslaught: 8 August 1918. New York: Ballantine. ISBN 0-345-02608-X.
- Priestley, R. E. (1919). Breaking the Hindenburg Line: The Story of the 46th (North Midland) Division (PDF). London: Unwin. OCLC 671679006. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- Schreiber, Shane B. (2004). Shock Army of the British Empire: The Canadian Corps in the Last 100 Days of the Great War. St.Catharine's, Ontario: Vanwell. ISBN 1-55125-096-9.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hundred Days Offensive.|
- Maps of Europe during the Allied Hundred Days Offensive at omniatlas.com