Hormizd II

Hormizd II
"King of kings of Iran and Aniran"[1]
Reign 302–309
Predecessor Narseh
Successor Adhur Narseh
Born Unknown
Died 309
Issue Adurfrazgird
Shapur II
Ardashir II
Adhur Narseh
House House of Sasan
Father Narseh
Religion Zoroastrianism

Hormizd II (Persian: هرمز دوم) was the eighth king of the Sasanian Empire, and reigned for seven years and five months, from 302 to 309. He was the son of Narseh (293302).


In 302, Hormizd II ascended the throne, assuming a crown resembling the crown used by the early Sasanian rulers. Hormizd II, unlike his father, persecuted the Manicheans who had lived peacefully during the reign of his father.[3] Hormizd tried to improve Sasanian relations with Armenia, which had recently under Tiridates III of Armenia declared Christianity as its state religion; he gave his daughter Hormizddukht in marriage to a Mamikonian prince named Vahan.[4] In 309, while Hormizd was hunting, he was wounded by a Ghassanid army, and was shortly killed by the Sasanian nobles.


After his death, his oldest son Adhur Narseh, who had a cruel disposition, was killed by the grandees after a very short reign;[5] another son, Hormizd, was imprisoned, while the throne was reserved for the child of his concubine, Shapur II. Another version has it that Shapur II was the son of Hormizd II's first wife, and that while still pregnant she was made to wear a crown over her pudenda so that the baby would be born as a king.[6] Hormizd II also had many other sons named Adurfrazgird, Zamasp, Ardashir, and two daughters named Hormizddukht and Asay.


Hormizd II was one of the Sasanian kings with most children, which he had from his Jewish wife Ifra-Hormizd, and several other wives and concubines:


  1. MacKenzie, David Niel (1998), "Ērān, Ērānšahr", Encyclopedia Iranica, 8, Costa Mesa: Mazda
  2. HORMOZD II, A. Shapur Shahbazi, Encyclopaedia Iranica, (March 23, 2012).
  3. HORMOZD II, A. Shapur Shahbazi, Encyclopaedia Iranica
  4. Touraj Daryaee, Sasanian Persia, (I.B.Tauris Ltd, 2010), 16.
  5. Touraj Daryaee, Sasanian Persia, (I.B.Tauris Ltd, 2010), 16.
  6. Touraj Daryaee, Sasanian Persia, (I.B.Tauris Ltd, 2010), 16.


Hormizd II
Preceded by
Great King (Shah) of Persia
Succeeded by
Adhur Narseh
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