History of the Jews in Monaco
Monaco had a very small Jewish presence prior to World War II, numbering approximately 300 people. During the war, the principality's government issued false identity papers to its Jewish residents to protect them from Nazi deportation. Prince Louis II refused to dismiss Jewish civil servants and protected Édouard de Rothschild from deportation. However, Monaco's police arrested and turned over 42 Central European Jewish refugees to the Nazis. 60 Jews were arrested Aug. 27-28 in 1942, and 90 in total, according to "The Algemeiner".
In 1948, the Association Cultuelle Israelite de Monaco was founded as the official organization of Monaco's Jewish community, and it provides the community with a synagogue, Hebrew school and kosher food store. Today's Jewish community in Monaco consists primarily of retirees from France and the United Kingdom, and there is also a small population of North African and Turkish Jews.
While Monaco has almost no Jewish citizens, approximately 1,000 Jewish expatriates of other countries comprise about 2.86% of Monaco's total residents (citizen and non-citizen combined). This means Monaco has the highest per capita total of Jewish residents of any country in the world outside of Israel (though not the highest per capita amount of Jewish citizens).
Monaco has full diplomatic relations with Israel.
World War II monument and apology
In August 2015, Prince Albert II apologized for the role of Monaco in deporting Jews to Nazi Germany's concentration camps. A monument dedicated to Monaco Jews who were so deported was unveilied by the Prince during that occasion; it stands at the Monaco cemetery.
- Michael Curtis (2003). Verdict on Vichy. Arcade Publishing. p. 231. ISBN 1-55970-689-9.
- "The Virtual Jewish History Tour: Monaco". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2009-03-13.
- "The Algemeiner".
- "The Jewish Community of Monaco". Am Yisrael. Retrieved 2008-03-06.
- "The International Religious Freedom Report 2008: Monaco". United States Department of State. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
- "Prince Albert apologises for Monaco's role in deporting Jews to Nazi camps". the Guardian. Associated Press. Retrieved 2015-08-28.