Energy in the Philippines

The total primary energy consumption of the Philippines in 2012 was 30.2 Mtoe (million Tonnes of oil equivalent) according to BP.[1] Most of this energy came from fossil fuels. Electricity consumption in 2010 was 64.52 TWh, of which about two-thirds came from fossil fuels, 21% from hydroelectric plants, and about 13% from other renewables. The total generating capacity was 16.36 GW.[2]

The Philippines is a country with a population of over 101 million people.[3] As a rapidly developing nation, the Philippines has seen high gross domestic product (GDP) growth in recent years, having an average GDP growth rate of 6.1% from 2011 to 2015.[4] The energy-intensive manufacturing and retailing industries drive the Philippines' economic growth.[5] Given its large population and rapidly growing economy, the country's energy needs are significant and growing rapidly. According to the Philippines Department of Energy, the Philippines needed 75,266 gigawatt-hours (GWh) of electrical energy in 2013 alone.[6] Of this figure, 27.39% went to powering residential areas, while 24.31% went to commercial establishments and 27.46% to the industrial sector. With regards to geographic area, 72.84% of the electrical energy consumed in 2013 was attributable to Luzon. Meanwhile, 14.75% and 12.41% are attributable to Visayas and Mindanao, respectively.


Percentage of electricity used by major islands

  Luzon (72.84%)
  Visayas (14.75%)
  Mindanao (12.41%)

Percentage of electricity used by different sectors

  Commercial (24.31%)
  Industrial (27.46%)
  Residential (27.39%)
  Other (20.84%)

The Philippines’ demand for electrical energy in 2013 represents a 42.17% increase from 2012, when the demand for energy was at 52,941 GWh.[6] It's expected that the country’s demand for power will increase as the Philippines’ population and economy continue to grow.

The Philippines’ current energy mix highly favors fossil fuels like coal, natural gas, and oil, accounting for 73.56% of the country's total electrical energy needs,[6] primarily due to their low cost.[7]

The Philippines' most heavily used energy source is coal.[6] Of the country’s 75,266 GWh electrical energy demand in 2013, 32,081 GWh or approximately 42.62% was sourced from coal. This heavy dependence on coal is further manifested by the high number of coal-fired power plants in the country. As of March 2016, there were 32 coal-fired power generation facilities connected to the energy grid.[8][9][10] These facilities are spread throughout the country, although most of them are in Luzon and Visayas. The number of coal-fired power plants in the country is set to increase by 25 by the year 2030 to keep up with the Philippines’ growing energy demands.[11]

Besides coal, the Philippines is also heavily dependent on natural gas. The Philippines derived 18,791 GWh of electrical energy from natural gas in 2013.[6] This corresponded to 24.97% of the Philippines’ electrical energy needs during this period. As of March 2016, there was a total of 13 natural gas generation facilities connected to the energy grid.[8][9][10] 12 of these power plants are located in Luzon, with a single power plant located in Cebu.

The Philippines also derives a significant amount of electrical energy from oil, albeit to a lesser degree compared to coal and natural gas. In 2013, the Philippines sourced 5.97% of its energy from oil-based sources.[6] As of March 2016, there were a total of 212 gas and diesel-powered facilities in the Philippines.[8][9][10] The large number of oil-powered power plants is a result of a lower per plant output compared to coal and natural gas. Oil-powered power plants can be found dispersed across several provinces in Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao.

The Government of Philippines has introduced various policies to foster renewable energy . Some of the policies are income tax holiday up to 7 years, duty-free import of equipment for renewable energy technologies and so on. In 2012, the government launched the new feed-in tariff (FIT).

See also


  1. Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 (PDF). BP. 2013.
  2. "Philippines". World Factbook. CIA - Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  3. "Philippines Population (2016) - Worldometers". Retrieved 2016-04-08.
  4. "GDP growth (annual %) | Data | Table". Retrieved 2016-04-08.
  5. "Economy, Finance and Trade: Philippines". Euromonitor. April 2015.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Membrere, Leah N. "2013 Philippine Power Statistics". Retrieved 2016-04-08.
  7. World energy Perspective: Cost of energy Technologies. World energy Council. 2013. pp. 4–41. ISBN 978 0 94612 130 4.
  8. 1 2 3 "List of Existing Plants (Luzon)" (PDF). Department of Energy. Department of Energy. 2016.
  9. 1 2 3 "List of Existing Plants (Visayas)" (PDF). Department of Energy. Department of Energy.
  10. 1 2 3 "List of Existing Plants (Mindanao)" (PDF). Department of Energy. Department of Energy.
  11. Quismundo, Tarra. "Why is PH building 25 more coal-powered plants?". Retrieved 2016-04-08.
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