Elixir (programming language)

Paradigm multi-paradigm: functional, concurrent, distributed, process-oriented
First appeared 2012 (2012)
Stable release
1.3.4 / 9 October 2016 (2016-10-09)[1]
Typing discipline dynamic, strong
Platform Erlang
License Apache License 2.0[2]
Filename extensions .ex, .exs
Website elixir-lang.org
Influenced by
Erlang, LFE,[3] Ruby, Clojure

Elixir is a functional, concurrent, general-purpose programming language that runs on the Erlang virtual machine (BEAM). Elixir builds on top of Erlang and shares the same abstractions for building distributed, fault-tolerant applications. Elixir also provides a productive tooling and an extensible design. The latter is supported by compile-time metaprogramming with macros and polymorphism via protocols.[4]

Elixir is successfully used in the industry by companies such as Pinterest[5] and Moz.[6] Elixir is also used for web development, by companies such as Bleacher Report and Inverse,[7] and for building embedded-systems.[8][9] The community organizes yearly events in both United States[10][11][12] and Europe[13] as well as minor local events and conferences.[14][15]


José Valim is the creator of the Elixir programming language, an R&D project of Plataformatec. His goals were to enable higher extensibility and productivity in the Erlang VM while keeping compatibility with Erlang's ecosystem.[16]



The following examples can be run in an iex shell or saved in a file and run from the command line by typing elixir <filename>.

Classic Hello world example:

iex> IO.puts "Hello World!"
Hello World!


iex> for n <- [1,2,3,4,5], rem(n,2) == 1, do: n*n
[1, 9, 25]

Pattern Matching

iex> [1, a] = [1, 2]
iex> a

iex> {:ok, [hello: a]} = {:ok, [hello: "world"]}
iex> a


defmodule Fun do
  def fib(0), do: 0
  def fib(1), do: 1
  def fib(n) do 
    fib(n-2) + fib(n-1)  

Sequentially spawning a thousand processes

for num <- 1..1000, do: spawn fn -> IO.puts "#{num * 2}" end

Asynchronously performing a task

task = Task.async fn -> perform_complex_action() end
Task.await task


  1. "Release v1.3.4 · elixir-lang/elixir". GitHub.
  2. "elixir/LICENSE at master · elixir-lang/elixir · GitHub". GitHub.
  3. "Elixir issues mentioning LFE".
  4. "Elixir". José Valim. Retrieved 2013-02-17.
  5. "Introducing new open-source tools for the Elixir community". Retrieved 2016-08-01.
  6. "Unlocking New Features in Moz Pro with a Database-Free Architecture". Retrieved 2016-08-01.
  7. "What big projects use Elixir?". Retrieved 2016-08-01.
  8. "Elixir in production interview: Garth Hitchens". Retrieved 2016-08-01.
  9. "Nerves - Craft and deploy bulletproof embedded software in Elixir". Retrieved 2016-08-01.
  10. "ElixirConf 2014". Retrieved 2016-08-01.
  11. "ElixirConf 2015". Retrieved 2016-08-01.
  12. "ElixirConf". Retrieved 2016-08-01.
  13. "ElixirConf". Retrieved 2016-08-01.
  14. "Elixir LDN". Retrieved 2016-08-01.
  15. "EMPEX - Empire State Elixir Conference". Retrieved 2016-08-01.
  16. "Elixir - A modern approach to programming for the Erlang VM". Retrieved 2013-02-17.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Elixir". Retrieved 2014-09-07.
  18. Loder, Wolfgang (12 May 2015). Erlang and Elixir for Imperative Programmers. "Chapter 16: Code Structuring Concepts", section title "Actor Model": Leanpub. Retrieved 7 July 2015.

External links

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