Non-English-based programming languages

Non-English-based programming languages are computer programming languages that, unlike better-known programming languages, do not use keywords taken from, or inspired by, the English vocabulary.

Prevalence of English-based programming languages

Further information: English in computing

There has been an overwhelming trend in programming languages to use the English language to inspire the choice of keywords and code libraries. According to the HOPL online database of languages,[1] out of the 8,500+ programming languages recorded, roughly 2,400 of them were developed in the United States, 600 in the United Kingdom, 160 in Canada, and 75 in Australia.

In other words, over a third of all programming languages were developed in a country with English as the primary language. This does not take into account the usage share of each language, situations where a language was developed in a non-English-speaking country but used English to appeal to an international audience (see the case of Python from the Netherlands, or Ruby from Japan, or Lua from Brazil), and situations where it was based on another language which used English (see the case of Caml, developed in France but using English keywords).

International programming languages

ALGOL 68's standard document was published in numerous natural languages, and the standard allowed the internationalisation of the programming language itself.

On December 20, 1968, the "Final Report" (MR 101) was adopted by the Working Group, then subsequently approved by the General Assembly of UNESCO's IFIP for publication. Translations of the standard were made for Russian, German, French, Bulgarian, and then later Japanese. The standard was made available also in Braille. ALGOL 68 went on to become the GOST/ГОСТ-27974-88 standard in the Soviet Union.

In English, Algol68's reverent case statement reads case ~ in ~ out ~ esac. In Cyrillic, this reads выб ~ в ~ либо ~ быв.

Based on non-English languages

Languages based on symbols instead of keywords

Modifiable parser syntax


  1. In HOPL (History of Programming Languages), advanced search finds languages by country.
  2. "GOST 27974-88 Programming language ALGOL 68 - Язык программирования АЛГОЛ 68" (PDF) (in Russian). GOST. 1988. Retrieved November 15, 2008.
  3. "GOST 27975-88 Programming language ALGOL 68 extended - Язык программирования АЛГОЛ 68 расширенный" (PDF) (in Russian). GOST. 1988. Retrieved November 15, 2008.
  4. "Aheui", Esolang (wiki).
  5. Ammoria, SourceForge.
  6. Analitik, ACM.
  7. primitivorm/latino
  8. ChaScript: Breaking the language barrier using bengali programming system, IEEE.
  9. Chascript.
  10. "Dolittle", EPlang, JP.
  11. Students, UTA.
  12. GPT, DE: Berlios.
  13. seen Manual GarGar Check |url= value (help).
  14. An interpreter for ΓΛΩΣΣΑ.
  15. GOTO++.
  16. ひまわり-日本語プログラミング言語 (in Japanese), Kujira hand.
  17. Hindi programming language, SKT network.
  18. hForth, Taygeta.
  19. "Squeak", Crew, JP: Keio.
  20. IA eng (PDF).
  21. 日本語プログラミング言語 Mind (in Japanese), JP: Scripts lab.
  22. C/S Entwicklungsumgebung ML4, ML-Software.
  23. Nadesi.
  24. Japanese Programming Language Nadeshiko, Google, Project Hosting.
  25. "Ook!", Esoteric Programming Languages, DM.
  26. Phoenix, SourceForge.
  27. QLB lang.
  28. Qriollo, Qriollo.
  29. RDR, Utopia T.
  30. "Blazeeboy". Github. Retrieved 2013-08-19. |contribution= ignored (help)
  31. Sí website
  32. Ganesh (PDF), Infitt, 2003.
  33. Windev (in Chinese).
  34. Temkin (August 2015). "Light Pattern: Writing Code with Photographs". Leonardo. 48 (4): 375. doi:10.1162/LEON_a_01091. Retrieved 2015-11-23.
  35. Language Design in Maude, by matthias, 2006/06/05, LShift Ltd.


External links

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