Baron Stafford, referring to Stafford, is a title that has been created several times in the Peerage of England. In the 14th century, the barons of the 1st creation were made earls. Those of the fifth creation, in the 17th century became first viscounts and then earls.
History of the title
The first creation was by writ in 1299 for Edmond de Stafford. His successor, the second baron, was made Earl of Stafford in 1351, and the sixth earl was made Duke of Buckingham in 1444. The sixth earl was the son of Anne of Gloucester, Countess of Buckingham, daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, Earl of Buckingham (later Duke of Gloucester), youngest son of King Edward III of England. Stafford was an important supporter of the House of Lancaster in the Wars of the Roses, and was killed at the Battle of Northampton in July 1460. The 1st Duke of Buckingham was succeeded in his titles by his grandson Henry, who aided Richard III in his claiming the throne in 1483 (Edward IV of England's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville having been declared null and void and Edward's sons illegitimate by Act of Parliament Titulus Regius), but who then led a revolt against Richard. He was executed for treason in 1483 and his titles were declared forfeit. His son Edward was restored as 3rd Duke upon Henry VII's accession to the throne in 1485, but he was ultimately executed in 1521 due to his opposition to Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Henry VIII's chief advisor. When he was executed for treason, his titles were declared forfeit.
A second creation, again by writ, was for Richard Stafford, who was created Baron Stafford of Clifton. At the death of the fourth baron, that title fell into abeyance.
The third creation was for Sir Hugh Stafford, son of Hugh Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford in 1411; he had married Elizabeth Bouchier, who succeeded to the Barony of Bouchier. Hugh was summoned to parliament in lieu of his wife, as Baron Stafford. At his death, this title became extinct since he left no heirs.
The fifth creation of the title came in 1640 in favour of William Howard. He was the third and youngest son of Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel, grandson of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk (see the Duke of Norfolk). He married Mary Stafford, only sister of Henry Stafford, 5th Baron de Stafford (of the 1547 creation, which is considered to have become extinct upon the death of Mary's uncle, the sixth Baron, sometime around 1640). On 12 September 1640 William Howard was created Baron Stafford, with remainder, in default of heirs male of the body, to the heirs of his body by his wife Mary and with the precedence of the 1547 barony. The same day Mary was made Baroness Stafford in her own right. This title was for life only. Two months later, on 11 November, William Howard was created Viscount Stafford, with remainder to his issue male.
Lord Stafford later became implicated in the Titus Oates plot, where fabricated evidence was used to prove an alleged Catholic plot against Charles II. He was attainted in 1678, with his titles forfeited. In 1680 he was impeached by the House of Commons and executed. After the accession of the Catholic James II, Mary, Baroness Stafford, was created Countess of Stafford for life in 1688. On the same day, her eldest son by Lord Stafford, Henry Stafford-Howard, was created Earl of Stafford, with remainder to his brothers John and Francis. However, he was not allowed to succeed in the barony or viscountcy of Stafford as these titles were still under attainder.
Henry was succeeded according to the special remainder by his nephew, the second Earl (the eldest son of John). He was succeeded by his son, the third Earl. When he died childless, the title passed to his uncle, the fourth Earl. He was also childless and on his death in 1762 the earldom became extinct (the viscountcy of Stafford also formally became extinct, although the title was then under attainder). The claim to the barony of Stafford passed to the late Earl's niece, Anastasia, the de jure sixth Baroness Stafford. She was the daughter of the second Earl of Stafford. However, Anastasia was childless and on her death in 1807 the claim passed to her first cousin once removed, Sir William Jerningham, 6th Baronet, of Cossey (see Jerningham Baronets for earlier history of this title). He was the son of Sir George Jerningham, 5th Baronet, and his wife Mary, Lady Jerningham, only daughter of Mary Plowden, sister of the fourth Earl of Stafford.
Jerningham died in 1809 when the claim passed to his son Sir George William Jerningham, 7th Baronet. He petioned the House of Lords for a reversal of the attainder and for a writ of summons Parliament. In 1824 the attainder of the first Baron was completely reversed, and on 6 July 1825 the House of Lords decided that Jerningham had been successful in his claim to the barony. He was summoned to Parliament the same year as the eighth Baron Stafford. In 1826 he assumed by Royal licence the additional surname and arms of Stafford. He was succeeded by his eldest son, the ninth Baron. He had earlier represented Pontefract in the House of Commons. When he died the titles passed to his nephew, the tenth Baron, and then to the latter's brother, the eleventh Baron. On the eleventh Baron's death in 1913 the barony and baronetcy separated. The baronetcy was passed on to Sir Henry William Stafford Jerningham, 11th Baronet (on whose death in 1935 the title became extinct; see Jerningham Baronets).
The barony, which could be inherited through female lines, was passed on to the late Baron's nephew Francis Edward Fitzherbert, the twelfth Baron. He was the son of Emily Charlotte (sister of both the tenth and eleventh Baron) and her husband Basil Thomas Fitzherbert. He assumed in 1913 by Royal licence the additional surname and arms of Stafford. He was succeeded by his younger brother, the thirteenth Baron. He was an Admiral in the Royal Navy. On his death the title passed to his nephew, the fourteenth Baron. As of 2010 the barony is held by the latter's son, the fifteenth Baron, who succeeded his father in 1986.
Barons Stafford, First Creation (1299)
- Edmund de Stafford, 1st Baron Stafford (d. 1308)
- Ralph de Stafford, 2nd Baron Stafford (1301–1372), created Earl of Stafford in 1351
Earls of Stafford (1351)
- Ralph de Stafford, 2nd Baron Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford (1301–1372), a notable soldier in the Hundred Years' War
- Hugh de Stafford, 3rd Baron Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford (c. 1342–1386), eldest son of the 1st Earl
- Thomas Stafford, 4th Baron Stafford, 3rd Earl of Stafford (c. 1368–1392), second son of the 2nd Earl
- William Stafford, 5th Baron Stafford, 4th Earl of Stafford (1375–1395), third son of the 2nd Earl
- Edmund Stafford, 6th Baron Stafford, 5th Earl of Stafford (1378–1403), fifth son of the 2nd Earl
- Humphrey Stafford, 7th Baron Stafford, 6th Earl of Stafford (1402–1460), created 1st Duke of Buckingham in 1444
- Henry Stafford, 8th Baron Stafford, 7th Earl of Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham (1455–1483) (forfeit 1483)
- Edward Stafford, 9th Baron Stafford, 8th Earl of Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham (1477–1521) (restored 1485; forfeit 1521)
Barons Stafford of Clifton, Second Creation (1371)
A second barony of Stafford, with the modifier of Clifton, was created by writ of summons 8 January 1371: Richard Stafford (d. 1380), the younger son of Edmund de Stafford, 1st Baron Stafford, married Maud de Camville, daughter and heir of Richard de Camville of Clifton. Richard fought in the French wars of Edward III and was also appointed seneschal of Gascony. Their son, also Richard, was summoned to Parliament by Edward III and regularly participated through to 1379. He was appointed 1st Baron Stafford of Clifton. The barony then passed through:
- Edmund Stafford, 2nd Baron Stafford of Clifton (d. 1419), Richard's son. Edmund was also the Bishop of Exeter and named Keeper of the Privy Seal, 1396–1399 and again 1401–1403.
- Thomas Stafford, 3rd Baron Stafford of Clifton (d. 1425), a second son of Richard's. Was succeeded by his son.
- Thomas Stafford, 4th Baron Stafford of Clifton (d. 1445). He died issueless, leaving the Barony in abeyance. His heir was his sister, Katherine Stafford, who married Sir John Arden, Knt. Their daughter, Maud Arden, married Sir Thomas Stanley, and the barony is still invested in that line.
Barons Stafford, Third Creation (1411)
- Hugh Stafford, 1st Baron Stafford (d. 1420) Extinct on his death
Barons Stafford, Fourth Creation (1547)
- Henry Stafford, 1st Baron Stafford (1501–1563). In 1558, his title was recognized as carrying precedence from 1299.
- Henry Stafford, 2nd Baron Stafford (d. 1566)
- Edward Stafford, 3rd Baron Stafford (1536–1603)
- Edward Stafford, 4th Baron Stafford (1572–1625)
- Henry Stafford, 5th Baron Stafford (1621–1637)
- Roger Stafford, 6th Baron Stafford (c. 1573–1640) Title surrendered due to poverty in 1637; line extinct in 1640
Barons Stafford, Fifth Creation (1640) and Viscount Stafford (1640)
- William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, 1st Baron Stafford (1614–1680) (attainted 7 December 1680)
- Mary Howard, Baroness Stafford (created baroness for life) (1619–1694), sister of Henry Stafford, 5th Baron Stafford and wife of 1st Viscount
Earls of Stafford (1688)
- Mary Howard, Countess of Stafford (created countess for life)
- Henry Stafford Howard, 1st Earl of Stafford, de jure Baron Stafford (c. 1648–1719). Married Claude-Charlotte, daughter of Philibert, Count de Gramont and Elizabeth, daughter of Sir George Hamilton. Died without issue and was succeeded by his nephew William, son of brother John.
- William Stafford-Howard, 2nd Earl of Stafford, de jure Baron Stafford (c. 1690–1734). Married his first cousin Anne, daughter of Anastasia Stafford and George Holman. They had 4 children, William-Matthias, Mary (married French Count de Chabot), Anastasia and Anne.
- William Matthias Stafford-Howard, 3rd Earl of Stafford, de jure Baron Stafford (1718–1751) Married Henrietta, daughter of Richard Cantillon and left only female issue. He was succeeded by his uncle.
- John Paul Stafford-Howard, 4th Earl of Stafford, de jure Baron Stafford, (1700–1762) (younger brother of William). Married Elizabeth Ewan and died without issue. The Earldom became extinct.
Baron Stafford (1640; Reverted)
- Anastasia Stafford-Howard (1722–1807) (assumed the title Baroness Stafford upon the death of her uncle, John, as senior heir general of William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford and his wife Mary Howard, Countess of Stafford
- Sir William Jerningham, 6th Baronet, of Cossey (d. 1809), father of the following.
- George William Stafford-Jerningham, 8th Baron Stafford (1771–1851) (who succeeded in having the 1680 attainder reversed, in 1824). George was the great-grandson of Mary Stafford, sister of John Paul and daughter of John (second son of 1st Viscount Stafford) and the heir-general to the Stafford Barony.
- Henry Valentine Stafford-Jerningham, 9th Baron Stafford (1802–1884)
- Augustus Frederick FitzHerbert Stafford-Jerningham, 10th Baron Stafford (1830–1892)
- Fitzherbert Edward Stafford-Jerningham, 11th Baron Stafford (1833–1913)
- Francis Edward Fitzherbert-Stafford, 12th Baron Stafford (1859–1932)
- Edward Stafford Fitzherbert, 13th Baron Stafford (1864–1941)
- Basil Francis Nicholas Fitzherbert, 14th Baron Stafford (1926–1986)
- Francis Melfort William Fitzherbert, 15th Baron Stafford (b. 1954)
The heir apparent is the present holder's son Hon. Benjamin John Basil Fitzherbert (b. 1983)
- Kidd, Charles, Williamson, David (editors). Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage (1990 edition). New York: St Martin's Press, 1990,
- Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages