|Reign||Prince of the Albanians, 1208–1216|
Titles and styles
|Father||Progon of Kruja|
|Died||1215 or 1216|
Dimitri Progoni[a] was the third and the last Prince of the Albanians of the Progon family, reigning from 1208 to 1216. He ruled the mountain stronghold at Kruja (Arbanon), succeeding his older brother Gjin, and he managed to bring Arbanon to its maximum. Dimitri ruled in the alliances of the Republic of Ragusa, Venice and Serbian Kingdom; he married Komnena, the daughter of Stefan Nemanjić. He was later turned against Venice.
According to Pickard-Çeliku and Norris, Progon's realm was the first Albanian state during the Middle Ages. Little is known about archon Progon who was the first ruler of Kruja and its surroundings, between 1190 and 1198. The Kruja fortress stayed in the possession of the Progon family, and Progon was succeeded by his sons Gjin, and later Dimitri. Before 1204, Arbanon was an autonomous principality of the Byzantine Empire. The titles archon (held by Progon) and panhypersebastos (held by Dimitri) is a sign of Byzantine dependence.
Family, and titles
Dimitri, the son of Progon of Kruja, was the third and last lord of the Progon family, reigning between 1208 and 1216. He succeeded his brother Gjin and brought the principality to its climax. Contemporary Western sources attribute the titles judex ("judge") and princeps Arbanorum ("prince of the Albanians") to him, while Byzantine records refer to him as megas archon ("grand lord"). He also held the Byzantine title of panhypersebastos.
Alliances and conflicts
In 1208, Dimitri married Komnena Nemanjić, the daughter of Serbian Grand Prince, later King Stefan Nemanjić (r. 1196–1228). This resulted in an alliance, and vassalage to Serbia amidst conflicts with the Republic of Venice.
At the same time, George Nemanjić, in Zeta, allied himself with Venice. The struggle between the two Nemanjić branches (between Vukan and Stefan) continued under George. The Gëziq inscription mention the Progon family as judices, and notes their dependence to Mladen and George. George promised military support if Dimitri would attack Venetian territory, in a treaty signed on 3 July 1208. The alliance and conflict may have been related to the Rascian-Zetan struggle, for Dimitri had close ties with Serbia, having married Komnena.
In search for allies, Dimitri signed a treaty with the Republic of Ragusa in 1209 and began negotiations with Pope Innocent III regarding his own and his subjects' conversion to Catholicism; a tactful move, which Dimitri undertook to establish ties with Western Europe against Venice, the friendship with the pope was however of short duration, and soon turned into ill-feeling. By 1212, the Venetians had left Arbanon, abandoning it to Michael Angelos, in circumstances that remain uncertain. Arbanon remained to its traditional fidelites, Byzantine and Serbian (Orthodox); when Dimitri died, Gregory Kamonas succeeded in ruling Arbanon, and took Komnena as his second wife; ties were strengthened with Serbia, with which ties had been weakened by a Serbian attack on Scutari following the collapse of the Venetian duchy of Durazzo.
Death and aftermath
After Dimitri died in 1215, the power was left to his wife, Komnena, who soon married Greek-Albanian Gregory Kamonas, who took power of Kruja, strengthening relations with Serbia, which had been weakened after a Serbian assault on Scutari. Arbanon remained to its traditional fidelites, Byzantine and Serbian, Orthodox. Komnena had a daughter with Kamonas that married Golem.
Pipa and Repishti conclude that Arbanon was the first sketch of an "Albanian state", and that it retained semi-autonomous status as the western extremity of an empire (under the Doukai of Epirus or the Laskarids of Nicaea).
Dimitri ProgoniDied: 1216
|Lord of Kruja/
Prince of Albania
| Succeeded by|
- ^ His given name is mostly rendered as Dimitri, and his surname as Progoni. His first name is also rendered Demetrius, other variants of his full name include: Demetrios Progonos, Demetrii Progoni, Dimitrije Progonov, Dimitrije Progon (Димитрије Прогон), Demetrio Progoni.
- Fine 1994, p. 52
- Fontes (1943). Pontificia Commissio Codici Iuris Canonici Orientalis Recognoscendo. Typis polyglottis Vaticanis. p. 338.
- Dimitrije Bogdanović, Radovan Samardžić (1990). Knjiga o Kosovu: razgovori o Kosovu. Književne novine. p. 37. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
Димитрије Прогон се назива „архонтом Арбанаса" и ступа у међународне везе - са Дубровником, Венецијом и, најзад немањићком Србијом; ожењен је Комнином, кћерком Стефана Првовенчаног.
- Abulafia, p. 780
- Fine 1994, pp. 49-50
- Pickard-Çeliku 2008, p. 16
- Norris 1993, p. 35
- Fine 1994, p. 51
- Frashëri 1964, p. 42 "The territories of this principality extended over the present- day districts of central Albania. Its capital was at Kruja. The first ruler of the Principality of Arberia was Archon Progon (1190-1198) about whose life and doings we know.."
- Anamali & Prifti 2002, p. 215
- Ellis 2007, p. 134
- Anamali & Prifti 2002, p. 198
- Tayfun Atmaca (2007). Zogo ve Atatürk. Tayfun Atmaca. p. 44. ISBN 975-94215-1-8.
- Frashëri 1964, p. 43
- Abulafia, p. 786
- Nicol 1957, p. 48
- Abulafia, p. 156
- The Genealogist, Volumes 1-2
- Pipa-Repishti 1983, pp. 7–14
- Curta, p. 340
- Nicol, p. 160
- Kristo Frashëri (1964), The history of Albania: a brief survey. Publisher: s.n.
- Donald McGillivray Nicol (1957). The Despotate of Epiros. Basil Blackwell.
- Thalóczy-Jireček-Sufflay (1913), Acta et diplomata res Albaniae mediae aetatis illustrantia: Collegerunt et digesserunt dr Ludovicus de Thalóczy, dr Constantinus Jireček et dr Emilianus de Sufflay, Volume 1, Editors: Lajos Thallóczy, Konstantin Jireček, Emil von Sufflay. Publisher: typis A. Holzhausen
- Anamali, Skënder; Prifti, Kristaq (2002). Historia e popullit shqiptar në katër vëllime: Shqiptarët gjatë luftës së dytë botërore dhe pas saj, 1939-1990. Botimet Toena. ISBN 978-99943-1-452-2.
- Fine, John V. A. (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4.
- David Abulafia, The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 1198-c. 1300
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- Ducellier, Alain (1981). La façade maritime de l'Albanie au Moyen âge. Ècole des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales. p. 48. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- Norris, H. T. (1993). Islam in the Balkans: religion and society between Europe and the Arab world. University of South Carolina Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-87249-977-5. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- Arshi Pipa, Sami Repishti, Studies on Kosova, East European Monographs, 1984
- Steven G. Ellis; Lud'a Klusáková (2007). Imagining Frontiers, Contesting Identities. Edizioni Plus. ISBN 978-88-8492-466-7.
- Jubani, Zef et al. Historia e popullit shqiptar: për shkollat e mesme. Libri Shkollor: Prishtinë, 2003. 48.