Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Bleddyn ap Cynfyn (Old Welsh: Bledẏnt uab Kẏnỽẏn; d. AD 1073), sometimes spelled Blethyn, was an 11th-century Welsh king. He was installed by Harold and Tostig Godwinson as king of Gwynedd in 1063 on his father's death, during their destruction of the kingdom of Bleddyn's half-brother, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. He became king of Powys on his brother Rhiwallon's death in 1069. His descendants continued to rule Powys as the House of Mathrafal.
Bleddyn was born to an Powys nobleman named Cynfyn His mother, Llywelyn ap Seisyll's widow Angharad, was the daughter of King Maredudd of Dyfed, whose realm had been lost to the Irish pretender Rhain before its conquest by Llywelyn.
Gruffydd, Angharad's son by her first husband and Bleddyn's half-brother, was initially dispossessed upon his father's early death. Slowly, however, he rebuilt his father's realm, annexing its successor states. Although bards and annalists had called many leaders "King of the Britons", Gruffydd was the first to rule all the free Welsh after he conquered Morgannwg in response to its invasion of Dyfed.
As this was going on, Bleddyn seems to have been resident in Powys, where he married Haer ferch Cillyn, daughter of the Lord of Gest Cillyn y Blaidd Rudd ("Cillyn the Red Wolf").
Gruffydd's consolidation of power and alliance with Ælfgar of Mercia made him a threat to Harold Godwinson, earl of Hereford. Upon Ælfgar's death in 1060, Harold and his brother Tostig quickly invaded; the following year, they invaded again and were left in mastery of Wales after traitors among his men killed Gruffydd during a retreat. The south was restored to the Houses of Dinefwr and Morgan, but Powys and Gwynedd were given to Gruffydd's half-brothers Bleddyn and Rhiwallon. These two submitted to Harold and swore themselves vassals and allies of Edward the Confessor.
Closely allied with Harold, the brothers joined the Saxon resistance to William the Conqueror following his conquest of England. In 1067, they joined the Mercian Eadric the Wild in his attack on Norman Hereford, ravaging the lands as far as the River Lugg. In 1068, they joined Earls Edwin of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria in their attacks as well.
Gruffydd's sons finally challenged Bleddyn and Rhiwallon in 1070. The Battle of Mechain killed Rhiwallon and Idwal and Maredudd died of exposure soon afterwards: Bleddyn was left sole king over Gwynedd and Powys.
In 1073, Robert of Rhuddlan stealthily established his forces on the banks of the River Clwyd and attempted to ambush and capture Bleddyn. He narrowly failed, but seized valuable booty in raids further south.
Bleddyn was killed in 1073 by King Rhys ab Owain of Dyfed, having been betrayed by the lords of Ystrad Tywi. When Rhys was later defeated at the 1078 Battle of Goodwick by Bleddyn's cousin and successor Trahaearn ap Caradog and killed by Caradog ap Gruffydd of Gwent shortly afterwards, this was hailed as "vengeance for the blood of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn". After his death, Gwynedd was seized by Trahaearn and later recovered for the House of Aberffraw by Gruffudd ap Cynan; but in Powys, Bleddyn was the founder of a dynasty which lasted until the end of the 13th century.
Bleddyn's legacy in the Chronicle of the Princes was that of a benevolent ruler:
The most lovable and the most merciful of all kings… he was civil to his relatives, generous to the poor, merciful to pilgrims and orphans and widows and a defender of the weak… the mildest and most clement of kings… [he] did injury to none, save when insulted… openhanded to all, terrible in war, but in peace beloved.
Bleddyn was also responsible for a revision of the Welsh law which continued in force in his dynasty's domain of Powys. Gwynedd's Venedotian Code noted that he changed the legal composition of the homestead (tyddyn) for purposes of inheritance etc., varying its size depending on the social status of the owner. The homestead of a nobleman (uchelwr) was 12 Welsh acres, that of an serf (Med. eẏllt, Mod. aillt) had 8, and that of a bondsman or slave (Med. godaẏauc) had 4. (The text, however, notes the uncommonness of this division and says it was generally understood as 4 acres regardless of status.)
Bleddyn had at least five children:
- Davies, R.R. (1991), The age of conquest: Wales 1063-1415, O.U.P, ISBN 0-19-820198-2.
- Jones, Thomas Jones, ed. (1952), Brut y Tywysogyon: Peniarth MS. 20 version, University of Wales Press.
- Owen, Aneurin, ed. (1841), "The Venedotian Code", Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales; Comprising Laws Supposed to be Enacted by Howel the Good, Modified by Subsequent Regulations under the Native Princes prior to the Conquest by Edward the First: And Anomalous Laws, Consisting Principally of Institutions which by the Statute of Ruddlan were Admitted to Continue in Force: With an English Translation of the Welsh Text, to which are Added A few Latin Transcripts, Containing Digests of the Welsh Laws, Principally of the Dimetian Code, London: Commissioners on the Public Records of the Kingdom. (Welsh) & (English)
- Pryce, Huw (2004). "Bleddyn ap Cynfyn (d. 1075), king of Gwynedd and of Powys" (fee required). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Mathrafal DynastyBorn: Unknown Died: 1075
Gruffydd ap Llywelyn
|King of Gwynedd and Powys
| Succeeded by|
Trahaearn ap Caradog (Gwynedd)
Iorwerth ap Bleddyn (Powys)