Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Abbreviation BMGF
Formation 2000 (2000)[1]
Type Non-operating private foundation
(IRS exemption status): 501(c)(3)[2]
Purpose Healthcare, Education, Ending poverty
Headquarters Seattle, Washington, United States
Area served
Method Donations and Grants
Key people
Bill Gates, co-founder and co-chair
Melinda Gates, co-founder and co-chair
William H. Gates, Sr., co-chair
Susan Desmond-Hellmann, CEO
Endowment US$44.3 billion as of 31 December 2014[3]
Formerly called
William H. Gates Foundation

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (or the Gates Foundation, abbreviated as BMGF) is a private foundation founded by Bill and Melinda Gates. It was launched in 2000 and is said to be the largest transparently operated private foundation in the world.[4] The primary aims of the foundation are, globally, to enhance healthcare and reduce extreme poverty, and in America, to expand educational opportunities and access to information technology. The foundation, based in Seattle, Washington, is controlled by its three trustees: Bill Gates, Melinda Gates and Warren Buffett. Other principal officers include Co-Chair William H. Gates, Sr. and Chief Executive Officer Susan Desmond-Hellmann.[5]

It had an endowment of US$44.3 billion as of 31 December 2014.[3] The scale of the foundation and the way it seeks to apply business techniques to giving makes it one of the leaders in venture philanthropy,[6] though the foundation itself notes that the philanthropic role has limitations.[7] In 2007, its founders were ranked as the second most generous philanthropists in America, and Warren Buffett the first.[8] As of May 16, 2013, Bill Gates had donated US$28 billion to the foundation.[1][9]


Front building
Bill and Melinda Gates, June 2009
Rear building
Detail of the facade of the visitor center

Warren Buffett donation

On June 25, 2006, Warren Buffett (then the world's richest person, estimated worth of US$62 billion as of April 16, 2008) pledged to give the foundation approximately 10 million Berkshire Hathaway Class B shares spread over multiple years through annual contributions, with the first year's donation of 500,000 shares being worth approximately US$1.5 billion.[20] Buffett set conditions so that these contributions do not simply increase the foundation's endowment, but effectively work as a matching contribution, doubling the Foundation's annual giving: "Buffett's gift came with three conditions for the Gates foundation: Bill or Melinda Gates must be alive and active in its administration; it must continue to qualify as a charity; and each year it must give away an amount equal to the previous year's Berkshire gift, plus an additional amount equal to 5 percent of net assets. Buffett gave the foundation two years to abide by the third requirement."[21][22][23] The Gates Foundation received 5% (500,000) of the shares in July 2006 and will receive 5% of the remaining earmarked shares in the July of each following year (475,000 in 2007, 451,250 in 2008).[24][25] In July 2013, Buffet announced another donation of his company's Class B, this time in the amount worth $2 billion, is going to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.[26]


Program areas and grant database

To maintain its status as a charitable foundation, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation must donate funds equal to at least 5 percent of its assets each year.[27] As of April 2014, the foundation is organized into four program areas under chief executive officer Susan Desmond-Hellmann, who "sets strategic priorities, monitors results, and facilitates relationships with key partners":[28]

The foundation maintains an online database of grants on its website which includes for each grant the name of the grantee organization, the purpose of the grant and the amount.[30] This database is publicly available.

Open access policy

In November 2014, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation announced that they are adopting an open access (OA) policy for publications and data, "to enable the unrestricted access and reuse of all peer-reviewed published research funded by the foundation, including any underlying data sets".[31] This move has been widely applauded by those who are working in the area of capacity building and knowledge sharing. Its terms have been called the most stringent among similar OA policies.[32] As of January 1, 2015 their Open Access policy is effective for all new agreements.[33]

Funds for grants in developing countries

The following table lists the Gates Foundation's committed funding as recorded in their International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) publications. The Gates Foundation announced in October 2013 that it would join the IATI.[34] The IATI publications only include a subset of Gates Foundation grants (mainly excluding grants to developed countries), and contain few grants before 2009 (which are excluded from the table).[35] The Gates Foundation states on the IATI Registry site that "reporting starts from 2009 and excludes grants related to our US programs and grants that if published could harm our employees, grantees, partners, or the beneficiaries of our work".[36]

Committed funding (US$ millions)
DAC 5 Digit Sector[37] 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Sum
Infectious disease control 256.9 720.3 462.8 528.7 1248.3 1271.8 1097.5 5586.4
Malaria control 324.5 101.7 133.6 75.5 302.4 377.6 140.8 1456.1
STD control including HIV/AIDS 175.5 26.9 291.4 199.7 184.4 264.4 165.7 1308.0
Tuberculosis control 69.2 211.1 59.5 273.9 135.3 100.1 244.8 1094.0
Reproductive health care 173.8 66.8 77.4 165.2 84.9 207.6 130.0 905.8
Agricultural research 84.7 27.8 196.2 192.8 207.1 14.7 83.9 807.2
Family planning 104.5 21.2 21.4 49.3 165.0 145.8 181.7 688.9
Health policy and administrative management 119.3 14.3 145.7 75.5 61.1 113.4 130.3 659.5
Agricultural development 5.2 30.0 0.0 35.0 0.0 325.1 86.1 481.3
Agricultural policy and administrative management 72.9 30.0 77.5 77.1 86.2 19.7 96.9 460.3
Promotion of development awareness 47.2 45.0 35.5 41.7 124.4 61.7 80.7 436.2
Basic health care 22.3 23.9 43.7 73.2 1.7 45.6 206.3 416.7
Basic nutrition 19.2 15.7 40.9 51.5 63.7 55.9 148.2 395.2
Basic sanitation 10.1 34.9 82.9 74.9 59.1 48.7 64.9 375.5
Financial policy and administrative management 29.0 18.4 9.8 8.9 70.1 32.9 53.4 222.5
Other 487.5 273.8 2208.9 260.2 332.1 433.3 2195.7 6191.5
Total 2001.9 1662.0 3887.2 2183.0 3125.9 3518.4 5106.6 21485.1

The following table lists the top receiving organizations to which the Gates Foundation has committed funding, between 2009 and 2015. The table again only includes grants recorded in the Gates Foundation's IATI publications.[35]

Organization Amount (US$ millions)
GAVI Alliance 3,152.8
World Health Organization 1,535.1
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria 777.6
PATH 635.2
United States Fund for UNICEF 461.1
The Rotary Foundation of Rotary International 400.1
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 340.0
Global Alliance for TB Drug Development 338.4
Medicines for Malaria Venture 334.1
PATH Vaccine Solutions 333.4
UNICEF Headquarters 277.6
Johns Hopkins University 265.4
Aeras 227.6
Clinton Health Access Initiative Inc 199.5
International Development Association 174.7
CARE 166.2
World Health Organization Nigeria Country Office 166.1
Agence française de développement 165.0
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo 153.1
Cornell University 146.7
Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa 146.4
United Nations Foundation 143.0
University of Washington Foundation 138.2
Foundation for the National Institutes of Health 136.2
Emory University 123.2
University of California San Francisco 123.1
Population Services International 122.5
University of Oxford 117.8
International Food Policy Research Institute 110.7
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture 104.8


The foundation explains on its website that its trustees divided the organization into two entities: the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (foundation) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Trust (trust). The foundation section, based in Seattle, US, "focuses on improving health and alleviating extreme poverty," and its trustees are Bill and Melinda Gates and Warren Buffett. The trust section manages "the investment assets and transfer proceeds to the foundation as necessary to achieve the foundation's charitable goals"—it holds the assets of Bill and Melinda Gates, who are the sole trustees, and receives contributions from Buffett.[38]

The foundation posts its audited financial statements and 990-PF forms on the "Financials" section of its website as they become available. At the end of 2012, the foundation registered a cash sum of US$4,998,000, down from US$10,810,000 at the end of 2011. Unrestricted net assets at the end of 2012 were worth US$31,950,613,000, while total assets were worth US$37,176,777,000.[39]

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Trust Investments

The foundation appears to have the following stakes in investments:[40]

The foundation trust invests undistributed assets, with the exclusive goal of maximizing the return on investment. As a result, its investments include companies that have been criticized for worsening poverty in the same developing countries where the foundation is attempting to relieve poverty.[41][43] These include companies that pollute heavily and pharmaceutical companies that do not sell into the developing world.[44] In response to press criticism, the foundation announced in 2007 a review of its investments to assess social responsibility.[45] It subsequently cancelled the review and stood by its policy of investing for maximum return, while using voting rights to influence company practices.[46][47]

Global development division

Christopher Elias leads the foundation's efforts to combat extreme poverty through grants as president of the Global Development Program.[48]

In March 2006, the foundation announced a US$5 million grant for the International Justice Mission (IJM), a human rights organization based in Washington, D.C., US to work in the area of sex trafficking. The official announcement explained that the grant would allow the IJM to "create a replicable model for combating sex trafficking and slavery" that would involve the opening of an office in a region with high rates of sex trafficking, following research. The office was opened for three years for the following purposes: "conducting undercover investigations, training law enforcement, rescuing victims, ensuring appropriate aftercare, and seeking perpetrator accountability".[49]

The IJM used the grant money to found "Project Lantern" and established an office in the Philippines city of Cebu. In 2010 the results of the project were published, in which the IJM stated that Project Lantern had led to "an increase in law enforcement activity in sex trafficking cases, an increase in commitment to resolving sex trafficking cases among law enforcement officers trained through the project, and an increase in services – like shelter, counseling and career training – provided to trafficking survivors". At the time that the results were released, the IJM was exploring opportunities to replicate the model in other regions.[50]

Financial services for the poor

Agricultural development

Water, sanitation and hygiene

The "sanitation value chain" used by the Gates Foundation to illustrate their approach to sanitation, showing collection, transport, treatment and reuse.[54]
The Gates Foundation created this video to advocate for increased innovation for toilets and everything they are connected to
Example for technology innovation: The off-grid Nano Membrane Toilet of Cranfield University - prototype on display at Reinvent the Toilet Fair in Delhi, India

The Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) program of the Gates Foundation was launched in mid-2005 as a "Learning Initiative," and became a full-fledged program under the Global Development Division in early 2010.[54] The Foundation has since 2005 undertaken a wide range of efforts in the WASH sector involving research, experimentation, reflection, advocacy, and field implementation. In 2009, the Foundation decided to refocus its WASH effort mainly on sustainable sanitation services for the poor, using non-piped sanitation services (i.e. without the use of sewers),[54] and less on water supply. This was because the sanitation sector was generally receiving less attention from other donors and from governments, and because the Foundation believed it had the potential to make a real difference through strategic investments.

In mid 2011, the Foundation announced in its new "Water, Sanitation, Hygiene Strategy Overview" that its funding now focuses primarily on sanitation, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, because access to improved sanitation is lowest in those regions.[55] Their grant-making focus has been since 2011 on sanitation science and technology ("transformative technologies"), delivery models at scale, urban sanitation markets, building demand for sanitation, measurement and evaluation as well as policy, advocacy and communications.[54][55]

In mid 2011, the foundation stated that they had committed more than US$265 million to the water, sanitation, and hygiene sector over the past five years, i.e. since about 2006.[55] For the time period of about 2008 to mid 2015, all grants awarded to water, sanitation and hygiene projects totaled a value of around US$650 million, according to the publicly available grant database.[30]

Example of low-tech toilet development being funded: A urine-diverting dry toilet called Earth Auger toilet from Ecuador/USA

Improved sanitation in the developing world is a global need, but a neglected priority, as shown by the data collected by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) of UNICEF and WHO. This program is tasked to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) relating to drinking water and sanitation.[56] About one billion people have no sanitation facility whatsoever and continue to defecate in gutters, behind bushes or in open water bodies, with no dignity or privacy. This is called open defecation and it poses significant health risks.[57] India is the country with the highest number of people practicing open defecation: around 600 million people.[58] The Foundation has been funding many sanitation research and demonstration projects in India since about 2011.[59]

Sanitation technology innovations

In 2011, the foundation launched a program called "Reinvent the Toilet Challenge" with the aim to promote the development of innovations in toilet design to benefit the 2.5 billion people that do not have access to safe and effective sanitation.[60][61] This program has generated significant interest of the mainstream media.[62][63] It was complemented by a program called "Grand Challenges Explorations" (2011 to 2013 with some follow-up grants reaching until 2015) which involved grants of US$100,000 each in the first round.[61] Both funding schemes explicitly excluded project ideas that relied on centralized sewerage systems or are not compatible with development country contexts.[64]

Microbial fuel cell stack that converts urine into electricity (research by University of the West of England, UK)

Since the launch of the "Reinvent the Toilet Challenge", more than a dozen research teams, mainly at universities in the U.S., Europe, India, China and South Africa, have received grants to develop innovative on-site and off-site waste treatment solutions for the urban poor. The grants were in the order of 400,000 USD for their first phase, followed by typically 1-3 million USD for their second phase; many of them investigated resource recovery or processing technologies for excreta or fecal sludge.[65]

The "Reinvent the Toilet Challenge" is focused on "reinventing the flush toilet". The aim was to create a toilet that not only removes pathogens from human excreta, but also recovers resources such as energy, clean water, and nutrients (a concept also known as reuse of excreta). It should operate "off the grid" without connections to water, sewer, or electrical networks. Finally, it should costs less than 5 US-cents per user per day.[64]

High-tech toilets for tackling the growing public health problem of human waste are gaining increasing attention, but this focus on a "technology fix" has also been criticized by many in the sector.[62] However, low-tech solutions may be more practical in poor countries, and research is also funded by the foundation for such toilets.[66]

The Reinvent the Toilet Challenge is a long-term research and development effort to develop a hygienic, stand-alone toilet. This challenge is being complemented by another investment program to develop new technologies for improved pit latrine emptying (called by the foundation the "Omni-Ingestor"[67]) and fecal sludge processing (called "Omni-Processor"). The aim of the "Omni Processor" is to convert excreta (for example fecal sludge) into beneficial products such as energy and soil nutrients with the potential to develop local business and revenue.[68]

Examples of transformative technologies research

Other global special initiatives

Some examples include:

Global health division

Since 2011, the president of the Global Health Program is Trevor Mundel.[78]

The foundation has donated billions of dollars to help sufferers of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, protecting millions of children from death at the hands of preventable diseases.[81] However, a 2007 investigation by The Los Angeles Times[81] claimed there are three major unintended consequences with the foundation's allocation of aid. First, sub-Saharan Africa already suffered from a shortage of primary doctors before the arrival of the Gates Foundation, but "by pouring most contributions into the fight against such high-profile killers as AIDS, Gates grantees have increased the demand for specially trained, higher-paid clinicians, diverting staff from basic care" in sub-Saharan Africa. This "brain drain" adds to the existing doctor shortage and pulls away additional trained staff from children and those suffering from other common killers. Second, "the focus on a few diseases has shortchanged basic needs such as nutrition and transportation".[81] Third, "Gates-funded vaccination programs have instructed caregivers to ignore – even discourage patients from discussing – ailments that the vaccinations cannot prevent".[81]

In response, the Gates Foundation has said that African governments need to spend more of their budgets on public health than on wars, that the foundation has donated at least $70 million to help improve nutrition and agriculture in Africa, in addition to its disease-related initiatives and that it is studying ways to improve the delivery of health care in Africa.[81]

Both insiders and external critics have suggested that there is too much deference to Bill Gates's personal views within the Gates Foundation, insufficient internal debate, and pervasive "group think."[80][82] Critics also complain that Gates Foundation grants are often awarded based on social connections and ideological allegiances rather than based on formal external review processes or technical competence.[82]

Critics have suggested that Gates' approach to Global Health and Agriculture favors the interests of large pharmaceutical and agribusiness companies (in which Gates invests) over the interests of the people of developing countries.[83][84][85][86]

The Global Health Program's other significant grants include:

United States division

Under President Allan Golston, the United States Program has made grants such as the following:

De-funding abortion

Melinda Gates has stated that the foundation "has decided not to fund abortion".[106] In response to questions about this decision, Gates stated in a June 2014 blog post that she "struggle[s] with the issue" and that "the emotional and personal debate about abortion is threatening to get in the way of the lifesaving consensus regarding basic family planning".[106] Up to 2013, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation provided $71 million to Planned Parenthood, the primary U.S. abortion provider, and affiliated organizations.[107]


In 1997, the charity introduced a U.S. Libraries initiative with a goal of "ensuring that if you can get to a public library, you can reach the internet". Only 35% of the world's population has access to the Internet.[108] The foundation has given grants, installed computers and software, and provided training and technical support in partnership with public libraries nationwide in an effort to increase access and knowledge.[108] Helping provide access and training for these resources, this foundation helps move public libraries into the digital age.[108]

Most recently, the foundation gave a US$12.2 million grant to the Southeastern Library Network (SOLINET) to assist libraries in Louisiana and Mississippi on the Gulf Coast, many of which were damaged or destroyed by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.


A key aspect of the Gates Foundation's U.S. efforts involves an overhaul of the country's education policies at both the K-12 and college levels, including support for teacher evaluations and charter schools and opposition to seniority-based layoffs and other aspects of the education system that are typically backed by teachers' unions.[109] It spent $373 million on education in 2009.[109] It has also donated to the two largest national teachers' unions.[109] The foundation was the biggest early backer of the Common Core State Standards Initiative.[109]

One of the foundation's goals is to lower poverty by increasing the number of college graduates in the United States, and the organization has funded "Reimagining Aid Design and Delivery" grants to think tanks and advocacy organizations to produce white papers on ideas for changing the current system of federal financial aid for college students, with a goal of increasing graduation rates.[110][111] One of the ways the foundation has sought to increase the number of college graduates is to get them through college faster, but that idea has received some pushback from organizations of universities and colleges.[112]

As part of its education-related initiatives, the foundation has funded journalists, think tanks, lobbying organizations and governments. Millions of dollars of grants to news organizations have funded reporting on education and higher education, including more than $1.4 million to the Education Writers Association to fund training for journalists who cover education.[113] While some critics have feared the foundation for directing the conversation on education or pushing its point of view through news coverage, the foundation has said it lists all its grants publicly and does not enforce any rules for content among its grantees, who have editorial independence.[109][113][114] Union activists in Chicago have accused Gates Foundation grantee Teach Plus, which was founded by new teachers and advocates against seniority-based layoffs, of "astroturfing".[109]

The K-12 and higher education reform programs of the Gates Foundation have been criticized by some education professionals, parents, and researchers because they have driven the conversation on education reform to such an extent that they may marginalize researchers who do not support Gates' predetermined policy preferences.[110] Several Gates-backed policies such as small schools, charter schools, and increasing class sizes have been expensive and disruptive, but some studies indicate they have not improved educational outcomes and may have caused harm.[115][116] Peer reviewed scientific studies at Stanford find that Charter Schools do not systematically improve student performance[117][118]

Examples of some of the K-12 reforms advocated by the foundation include closing ineffective neighborhood schools in favor of privately run charter schools; extensively using standardized test scores to evaluate the progress of students, teachers, and schools; and merit pay for teachers based on student test scores. Critics also believe that the Gates Foundation exerts too much influence over public education policy without being accountable to voters or taxpayers. [115][119][120]

Critics say the Gates Foundation has overlooked the links between poverty and poor academic achievement, and has unfairly demonized teachers for poor achievement by underprivileged students. They contend that the Gates Foundation should be embracing anti-poverty and living wage policies rather than pursuing untested and empirically unsupported education reforms.[121]

Critics say that Gates-backed reforms such as increasing the use of technology in education may financially benefit Microsoft and the Gates family.[110][122][123][124][125]

Some of the foundation's educational initiatives have included:

Pacific Northwest


In October 2006, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation was split into two entities: the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Trust, which manages the endowment assets and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which "... conducts all operations and grantmaking work, and it is the entity from which all grants are made".[142][143] Also announced was the decision to "... spend all of [the Trust's] resources within 20[144] years after Bill's and Melinda's deaths".[145][146][147][148] This would close the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Trust and effectively end the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. In the same announcement it was reiterated that Warren Buffett "... has stipulated that the proceeds from the Berkshire Hathaway shares he still owns at death are to be used for philanthropic purposes within 10 years after his estate has been settled".[145]

The plan to close the Foundation Trust is in contrast to most large charitable foundations that have no set closure date. This is intended to lower administrative costs over the years of the Foundation Trust's life and ensure that the Foundation Trust not fall into a situation where the vast majority of its expenditures are on administrative costs, including salaries, with only token amounts contributed to charitable causes.[146]


See also

Notes and references

  1. 1 2 "Foundation Timeline and History – Bill & Melinda Gates Foundationlegacy may focus more on philanthropy than on Microsoft - Computerworld".
  2. , accessed 2016-02-10
  3. 1 2 3 "Consolidated Financial Statements December 31, 2014 and 2013". Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 30 April 2015. Retrieved 2015-10-28.
  4. Bates, Suzanne (2012). Discover Your CEO Brand. United States: McGrawHill. p. iv. ISBN 9780071762908. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  5. maravipost. "APM Meets Melinda Gates, Philanthropist and wife to the richest man in the world - The Maravi Post". Archived from the original on April 16, 2016. Retrieved 2016-02-05.
  6. "The birth of philanthrocapitalism". The Economist. 2006-02-23.
  7. "Guiding Principles".
  8. The 50 most generous Americans Archived September 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  9. Alex Cuadros; Crayton Harrison (17 May 2013). "Bill Gates Retakes World's Richest Title From Carlos Slim". Blooomberg. Blooomberg L.P. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
  10. Archived January 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  11. "Microsoft Announces Plans for July 2008 Transition for Bill Gates". Microsoft PressPass. June 15, 2006. Archived from the original on June 19, 2006.
  12. "TIME names Bono, Bill and Melinda Gates Persons of Year -". Retrieved 2016-02-05.
  13. Guo, Jeff; McQueen, Rob, "Gates asks students to tackle world's problems : Disease and education among biggest challenges", The Tech, Volume 130, Issue 21, Friday, April 23, 2010
  14. Guo, Jeff, "In interview, Gates describes philanthropic journey", The Tech, Volume 130, Issue 21, April 23, 2010. (video & transcript). "After he spoke at Kresge Auditorium, Bill Gates sat down with The Tech to talk more about his college tour, his philanthropy, and the philosophy behind it."
  15. "Public Health Global Watch". Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  16. Improving our Work with You: A Progress Report - Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. (2012-09-06). Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  17. Gates Foundation's Spotlight page on SoundCloud - Hear the world's sounds. Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  18. 1 2 "Hillary Clinton launches global data project on women and girls". Washington Post.
  19. 1 2 Foundation Center. "Wyss, Clinton Foundations Partner on Full Participation by Women and Girls". Philanthropy News Digest (PND).
  20. Loomis, Carol J. (2008-03-05). "Warren Buffett gives away his fortune". Fortune. Time Warner via Archived from the original on November 28, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
  21. "Buffett Makes $30.7 Bln Donation to Gates Foundation (Update8)".
  23. Chris Noon (26 June 2006). "Buffett Will Double Gates Foundation's Spending". Forbes.
  24. Loomis, Carol J. (2006-06-25). "How Buffett's giveaway will work". CNN. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
  26. Warren Buffett Makes Huge Charity Stock Donation To Gates Foundation, Other Charities. Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  27. "Private Family Foundations". SaveWealth. SaveWealth. 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
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  30. 1 2 "How We Work - Grantmaking". Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
  31. "Knowledge is Power: Sharing Information Can Accelerate Global Health Impact". Impatient Optimists. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. 20 November 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  32. "Gates Foundation announces world's strongest policy on open access research". News blog 21 November 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  33. "Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Open Access Policy". Website of Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  34. "International Aid Transparency Initiative". Gates Foundation. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
  35. 1 2 "Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation". IATI Registry. 2016-08-16. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
  36. "About - Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation". IATI Registry. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
  37. "DAC 5 Digit Sector". IATI Standard.
  38. "Who We Are - Financials". Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
  39. "BILL & MELINDA GATES FOUNDATION Consolidated Financial Statements" (PDF). BILL & MELINDA GATES FOUNDATION Consolidated Financial Statements. KPMG. 31 December 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
  41. 1 2 3 4 Residents blame Durban oil refineries for health problems The Guardian 26.5.2015
  42. "Notable Holders of Wal-Mart Stores (WMT)". Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  43. Report: Gates Foundation Causing Harm With the Same Money It Uses To Do Good, Democracy Now!, January 09, 2007
  44. Dark cloud over good works of Gates Foundation, Los Angeles Times, January 7, 2007
  45. Gates Foundation to review investments Archived May 16, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., The Seattle Times, January 10, 2007
  46. [Gates Foundation to maintain its investment plan], The Austin Statesman, January 14, 2007
  47. "How the Gates Foundation's Investments Are Undermining Its Own Good Works".
  48. "Who We Are - Leadership CHRISTOPHER ELIAS PRESIDENT". Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 2014. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
  49. "Gates Foundation Awards $5 Million to Fight Sex Trafficking". Philanthropy News Digest. Foundation Center. 21 March 2006. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
  50. "Project Lantern: Game-Changing Results in the Fight Against Trafficking". IJM. IJM. 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
  51. "Gates Foundation Awards $1.5 Million to Grameen Foundation" (Press release). Grameen Foundation. 2006-08-29. Archived from the original on October 5, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-26.
  52. "Growing Better Rice for a Hungry World". Good. GOOD Worldwide Inc. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  53. "Agricultural Development Golden Rice". Retrieved 3 Feb 2016.
  54. 1 2 3 4 BMGF (2015). Building demand for sanitation - a 2015 portfolio update and overview - Water, sanitation, and hygiene strategy, June 2015. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington, USA
  55. 1 2 3 BMGF (2011). Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Strategy Overview, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA
  56. "Data and estimates". JMP - WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation. WHO/UNICEF. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  57. JMP (2014). Progress on drinking water and sanitation, 2014 Update. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP), ISBN 978 92 4 150724 0, page 6
  58. JMP (2014). Progress on drinking water and sanitation, 2014 Update. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP), ISBN 978 92 4 150724 0, page 19.
  59. BMGF (2014). Reinvent the Toilet Challenge, Delhi, India - Program and Technical Guides. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA
  60. "What we do - Reinvent the Toilet Challenge - Strategy Overview". Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  61. 1 2 BMGF (2012). Reinvent the Toilet Challenge (RTTC, Round 1 and 2), Grand Challenges Explorations (Round 6 and 7) - Request for proposals, grant conditions, Seattle exhibition fair program and exhibitor guide. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA
  62. 1 2 Kass, Jason (18 November 2013). "Bill Gates Can't Build a Toilet". New York Times Opinion Pages. New York Times. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
  63. Doughton, Sandy (21 December 2014). "After 10 years, few payoffs from Gates' 'Grand Challenges'". The Seattle Times, Local News. The Seattle Times. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
  64. 1 2 Radke, N., Spuhler, D. (2013) Brief overview of conditions for water, sanitation and hygiene grants by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
  65. Elisabeth von Muench, Dorothee Spuhler, Trevor Surridge, Nelson Ekane, Kim Andersson, Emine Goekce Fidan, Arno Rosemarin (2013) Sustainable Sanitation Alliance members take a closer look at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s sanitation grants, Sustainable Sanitation Practice Journal, Issue 17, p. 4-10
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