Aldona of Lithuania

Aldona of Lithuania
Queen consort of Poland
Tenure 1333–1339
Coronation 25 April 1333
Predecessor Hedwig of Kalisz
Successor Vacant
(title next held by Adelaide of Hesse)
Born c.1309
Died May 26, 1339(1339-05-26) (aged 29–30)
Spouse Casimir III of Poland
Issue Elisabeth, Duchess of Pomerania
Cunigunde, Duchess of Bavaria
House House of Gediminas
Father Gediminas
Mother Jewna

Aldona (baptized Ona or Anna; her pagan name, Aldona, is known only from the writings of Maciej Stryjkowski;[1] c.1309 – 26 May 1339) was Queen consort of Poland (1333–1339), and a princess of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. She was the daughter of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania.


Aldona married Casimir III of Poland, when he was 15 or 16 years old. The bride was probably of about the same age. The marriage took place on 30 April or 16 October 1325 and was a purely political maneuver to strengthen the first Polish–Lithuanian coalition against the Teutonic Knights.[2] Casimir was seeking allies in the dispute over Pomerania with the Order. Gediminas had just undertaken an unsuccessful attempt to Christianize Lithuania. This coalition was a prelude to the Union of Krewo in 1385, and the Union of Lublin in 1569, which resulted in the creation of a new state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.[1] The details of the agreement are not known; however, it is known that Gediminas released all Polish captives, some 25,000 people, who returned to Poland.[2] The importance of the marriage was attested by the fact that Władysław abandoned his earlier plans to marry his son to Jutta of Bohemia.[3] The alliance was put into effect when joint Polish–Lithuanian forces organized an attack against the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1326.[3] However, the coalition was not strong and collapsed c. 1330. Yet, there is no evidence of fighting between Poland and Lithuania while Aldona was alive.[2] Aldona died suddenly at the end of May 1339, and was buried in Kraków.

Aldona was remembered for her piety and devotion to music. She was accompanied by court musicians wherever she went. It was even suggested by Jan Długosz that the cymbals which were played in procession before her represented a pagan Lithuanian tradition.[4] Her husband Casimir is known for his romantic affairs: after Aldona's death he married three more times. Aldona had two daughters:

See also


  1. 1 2 Gudavičius, Edvardas (2004). "Aldona". In Spečiūnas, Vytautas. Lietuvos valdovai (XIII-XVIII a.): enciklopedinis žinynas (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos institutas. p. 40. ISBN 5-420-01535-8.
  2. 1 2 3 Jonynas, Ignas (1933). "Aldona". In Biržiška, Vaclovas. Lietuviškoji enciklopedija (in Lithuanian). I. Kaunas: Spaudos Fondas. pp. 208–211.
  3. 1 2 Rowell, S. C. (Spring 1994). "Pious Princesses or Daughters of Belial: Pagan Lithuanian Dynastic Diplomacy, 1279–1423". Medieval Prosopography. 15 (1): 47. ISSN 0198-9405.
  4. Rowell, S. C. (1994). Lithuania Ascending: A Pagan Empire Within East-Central Europe, 1295–1345. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought: Fourth Series. Cambridge University Press. p. 232. ISBN 978-0-521-45011-9.
  5. Rowell, C. S. Lithuania Ascending, xxxvi
Aldona of Lithuania
Born: 1309 Died: 26 May 1339
Royal titles
Preceded by
Hedwig of Kalisz
Queen consort of Poland
Title next held by
Adelaide of Hesse
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