The adungu, also called the ekidongo or ennenga, is a stringed musical instrument of the Alur people of northwestern Uganda. It is an arched harp of varying dimensions, ranging from seven to ten strings[1] or more.[2]

The adungu may be played alone (often with vocal accompaniment) or in an ensemble, for diverse purposes including personal pleasure, nightclub and concert music, therapy of the mentally ill, and Christian worship.

The physical form of the adungu derives from uniquely African origins.[3] The musical form commonly known as adungu music, however, is tuned to the diatonic scale of classic European music and bears the influence of the British presence in Uganda.[3]

Modern performers adept with the adungu include the native Ugandan musician James Makubuya[4][5] and the American artist Crystal Bright.[6]


  1. Pandey, Ashish (2005). Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Music. New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House. p. 11. ISBN 8182052912. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  2. Klabunde, Martin (2011). Learn to Play the Adungu!: Bow Harp from Northern Uganda. Seattle: CreateSpace. ISBN 1463558589.
  3. 1 2 Solomon, Thomas (2012). Nannyonga-Tamusuza, Sylvia A., ed. Ethnomusicology in East Africa: Perspectives from Uganda and Beyond. Kampala: African Books Collective. p. 200. ISBN 997025135X. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  4. "Pop and Jazz Guide". The New York Times. 27 February 2004. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  5. Kozinn, Allan (8 April 2006). "Wu Man, a Pipa Player in Search of the Common Chord". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  6. Mellor, JG (2012). "Crystal Bright and The Silver Hands announce new album". Shuffle Magazine. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
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